The article deals with the main issues of assessing the effectiveness of investments in transport and logistics systems, which, within the framework of a program-oriented approach to financing transport systems, may become important from the point of view of rational use of budget funds at various levels.
Key words: transport and logistics system, supply chain, investment, financial flows, cash flow, gross profit, total costs, the function of costs, fixed costs, variable costs.
The evaluation of investment efficiency in transport and logistics systems within the framework of the application of a software-oriented approach to transportation system financing is of great importance in terms of rational use of budgetary funds at various levels. A regional transport and logistics system is a system that allows for the delivery of the necessary amount of cargo (passengers) to a specified point via an optimal route at the right time with the lowest costs. The cost of product creation consists of production costs and costs associated with the execution of all activities from material acquisition to the acquisition of goods by the end consumer. A significant portion of the costs is the added value associated with transportation and logistics expenses at each link of the "producer-consumer" chain. The movement of the material flow from the primary source of raw materials to the end consumer also incurs costs, which can account for up to 50% of the total logistics costs.
Optimizing the movement of material flows in transport and logistics systems is largely achieved through improving their servicing with financial flows. Financial resources can be transformed into various other forms: goods, services, information, labor, etc. Therefore, the rational allocation of financial resources is an important condition for the efficient functioning of the regional transport and logistics system.
Financial flow in logistics is the movement of finances not only within the logistics system but also between the logistics system and the external environment, which is necessary to ensure the efficient movement of material flow.
Financial flows vary in composition, direction, purpose, and other characteristics. To optimize the flow of financial resources in logistics systems, it is necessary to classify them.
Depending on the direction of movement, financial flows can be divided into positive and negative. These flows are interrelated: an insufficient volume of one type over a certain period of time leads to a decrease in the volume of another type. Therefore, in the financial flow management system, they should be considered as a complex object of management.
The main goal of optimizing the movement of financial flows in the organization of a regional transport and logistics system is to ensure the movement of material flows with financial resources in the required volumes and at the right time, using the most efficient sources of financing (investments).
This movement is influenced not only by the amount of financing but also by the location (site of action) of investments. Such points are considered as nodes of logistics chains. The location of these nodes should be associated with the transport hubs of the regional logistics system. This is necessary for coordinating the management of material flows at the nodes and distributing the functions of the elements (participants) of the transport and logistics system.
The main resource flows that form a node are financial, informational, and material flows. These flows are constantly or periodically influenced by factors from the external and internal environment, as well as intentional control measures.
A comprehensive approach to managing all types of flows should take into account the following characteristic: the use of management methods and models should be aimed at changing the maximum possible number of resource flow characteristics, which allows controlling the movement of materials by influencing financial flows. The use of pricing methods and cost allocation methods used in calculating the cost of resource extraction and determining the price of the final product allows us to correlate parameters such as "production costs of the product," "marginal utility of the final product for consumers," and "predicted financial performance of the system's operation."
In the proposed model, by selecting management tools and methods, it is possible to control flows at the nodes by combining these flows.
Management actions at the nodes are purposeful in nature - through modeling, incoming and outgoing parameters of the nodes or values and direction of financial and material flows that form them are changed. Most often, the goal of modeling and, consequently, the management process is to change the volume, time, or cost of the flow (investments) intended for financing the distribution channel. In this regard, nodes that encompass all the flows involved in the distribution process are subject to influence. The location of the nodes in the organizational management structure and the regional transport and logistics system is also taken into account during the modeling process, although it is not the only possible option. In some cases, it may be appropriate to modify the organizational structure or the location of the nodes within it to allow access to them.
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