Dzheldogutova Nadira Kairatovna
49 | 0
Virtual logistics centers as an efficient method of using resources
2nd year graduate student, Kazakh-German University, Almaty, Kazakhstan Specialty "Resource-saving production logistics", Scientific adviser - Kegenbekov Zhandos Kadyrkhanovich Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies of the Kazakh-German University Annotation. This article examines virtual logistics centers as the most efficient way to use resources. It also examines the impact of information technology on virtual logistics centers and presents the result to date. Key words: virtual logistic centers, information flow, information technology, cloud computing. Nowadays, the systematization and simplification of many processes through information technology is becoming more and more popular. Corporations and large organizations prefer virtual logistics, which is developing rapidly and provides an opportunity to save many resources such as time, speed of tasks, etc. A virtual logistics center gives you the opportunity to work remotely and complete tasks and teams, and this provides a chance to have employees around the world, which in logistics can play into the hands of an employer. Using the example of Uber, Amazon, Alibaba, they base all their business models by storing them in cloud platforms, all calculations are carried out on cloud computing, IT networks, etc. [1, p. 26] ICT has a fairly wide range of opportunities to increase competitiveness, as it establishes close partnerships between customers, suppliers and business partners through the modernization of management processes. The information flow itself runs parallel to material goods in the production system. Integration of the information flow makes the virtual logistics system augmented, productive and overcomes all barriers in flow processes [3, p. fifteen]. It is possible to highlight some of the difficulties faced by the integration of information flow into a virtual logistics system: - system integration; - stepwise implementation of the system functionality; - access to all databases of the organization; -methods of data visualization to support the perception of data in the analysis. When creating the virtual logistics centers themselves, the following obstacles must has considered: - Competitors in the field of related services may not take such a risk - bundling and providing complex services; - skeptical attitude to the joint effect, which involves the development of logistics activities in partnership; - the impossibility of connecting logistic information systems [7, p. 87]. Figure 1. Hierarchical organization of resources in an integrated system The rationale for creating a virtual logistics center is efficiently manage the vital capacity that is available. Available capacities are those resources that, in terms of their functional and technical characteristics, parameters, readiness for operation, has integrated into a virtual logistics system. Integrated logistics services require the use of resources such as buildings, machinery, equipment, labor. The individual or group use of the available capacities already depends on the client's requirements and the way of satisfaction. Mobile resources include cars, human resources, and financial capital. These resources has made available without any restrictions in accordance with the planned logistics services. Stable resources include roads, warehouses, transfer points, stations, ports, airports, etc. When designing a multi-purpose logistics center concept, a hierarchical architecture has used, as in Figure 1. The following sorting of resources is used: Stable resources; Organizational resources; Mobile resources. The connection between geo-locations and the characteristics of logistics services through stable resources with division into various decentralized locations will lead to an increase in traffic volumes. Moreover, the decentralization of the virtual logistics center will have a positive effect on reducing the capacity of transport routes by optimizing transport chains. In conclusion, we can conclude that many companies, guided by many positive aspects, create virtual logistics centers in partnership with their competitors, get a solution to many problems that arise with simple logistics centers. The correct distribution of resources takes place with the correct operation of decentralized centers. However, taking into account all the factors, do not forget that remoteness and virtuality introduce their own adjustments. For example, the main resource of every company is its human resource. Bibliographic list 1. Minakova I. et al. Innovations in inventory management of industrial enterprises // Innovative economy: prospects for development and improvement. - 2017. - No. 8 (26). 2. Kizim AA, Isaulova SS Virtual transport and logistics system. Logistic centers as points of virtual economic analysis // Finance and Credit. - 2004. - No. 1 (139). 3. Kizim AA, Kozenko VV Virtual logistics: problems and prospects // Economics of sustainable development. - 2013. - No. fourteen. 4. Khalyn VG Virtualization of information and logistics infrastructure of regional logistics distribution centers (for example, SKLP LLC) // Bulletin of the Rostov State University of Economics (RINH). - 2014. - No. 3 (47). 5. Krivdenko AN, Cherpakova EV APPLICATION OF VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGIES IN TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS SYSTEMS // Innovations in science and practice. - 2019 .-- S. 214-218. 6. Matveeva DA VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION IN LOGISTICS // Actual problems of aviation and cosmonautics. - 2018. - T. 3. - No. 4 (14). 7. Putkina LV Development of an innovative strategy for the activity of a commercial enterprise in the virtual market // Modern problems of science and education. - 2013. - No. 2. - S. 365-365. 8. Davydov SV Virtual logistics centers in regional transport and logistics systems // Transport Bulletin. - 2003. - No. 6. - S. 34-38.
Goloshchapova Anastasia Pavlovna, Zhailoobaev Sardar Umutbekovich
102 | 0
Public procurement monitoring system for civil society
Scientific Supervisor- Dolotbakova A. K. Associate Professor of KSTU named after I. Razzakov Summaryt: This article examines the problem of the lack of a system for monitoring public procurement for civil society in Kyrgyzstan. The characteristic features of the country's civil society are highlighted and described. The paper proposes a solution to the "green flags" monitoring system based on the international method of the Civil Society Procurement Monitoring Tool. Keywords: Civil society, public procurement Sabyrova G.Zh. notes that in the field of public procurement of Kyrgyzstan, about 30 billion soms rotate and annually more than 15% of the gross domestic product is spent on public procurement. Considering the constant deficit of budgetary funds, their efficient and economical use at all times has been and remains a topical issue. Therefore, one of the most important tasks facing the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is to ensure openness and transparency of public procurement procedures [1]. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, more and more people began to think about the role of public procurement in their lives. They see governments buying personal protective equipment and ventilators and urgently building new hospitals to treat COVID-19 patients, etc. Every week we read about new scandals - huge prices, new firms getting contracts worth millions of dollars, money are lost and the list continues. The underdevelopment of the institution of civil society and the closed nature of state structures are confirmed by the world rating of democracy, which was compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit of the British company Economist Group, in 2020 Kyrgyzstan took 107th place among 167 countries. A year earlier, the country was number 101. According to the World Justice Project's 2015 index of government openness in the countries of the world, Kyrgyzstan ranks 64th out of 102 in it. Based on this, control and monitoring of public procurement by civil society is necessary to overcome the crisis of public confidence in the authorities. The population, observing and regulating the activities of public procurement, will have increased responsibility, and it will itself decide in what conditions it will live. With this tool, civil society will contribute to the country's economic policy. It is certainly impossible to eradicate corruption completely, however, reducing corruption risks is a goal that should be pursued by those who monitor procurement. Although monitors are not auditors and lack procurement skills and knowledge, they play an important role in improving the efficiency of public procurement. Most of these ideas come from civil society or journalists, not government investigations. But, fortunately, in recent years, citizens have been paying more and more attention to monitoring procurement. They want to make sure their money is spent openly, fairly and efficiently. And when information is available, great things happen, as evidenced by the growing number of citizen-led and civil society-led procurement monitoring organizations around the world. But what is procurement monitoring? How can this be done more efficiently through better technology and data access? What motivates citizens to look at contracts? There are so many approaches to “monitoring procurement” and they are all correct because they work for different contexts, goals and methods. Of all the known methodologies in the world, the Civil Society Procurement Monitoring Tool is used mostly. It is a tool widely used internationally and relies on the identification of red flags at every stage of the procurement process. Red flags are signs or indications of possible deficiencies, irregularities or corruption. It should be added that the identification of a red flag does not necessarily indicate the existence of a violation or act of corruption, but rather the potential for such to occur. Sometimes a red flag can be the result of a human or technical error without malicious intent, rather than a signal of corruption. Therefore, it is important for monitors to know not only how to identify red flags, but also the measures they can take to analyze them in-depth, including notifying the authorities responsible for supervision and control in the field of public procurement, investigating anti-competitive practices, conflict of interest, corruption, etc. [2]. To carry out monitoring activities, the public procurement process is divided into 4 main stages: Stage of planning and development of documentation for the award; The stage of initiating the procurement procedure; The stage of evaluating offers and awarding a contract; Stage of execution and monitoring of the contract. At each stage, a member of the civil society working group to guide the red flag instrument can promptly signal tenders that violate public procurement procedures. Risk indicators that can help identify potential irregularities or inefficiencies in contracting processes, such as: short tender periods; low number of bidders; low percentage of contracts concluded on a competitive basis; high percentage of contracts with amendments; large discrepancies between the amount awarded and the final amount of the contract. We can use this tool as an analogue. And given the level of a democratic institution, the level of corruption, culture of thinking, etc. We are able to adapt this public monitoring system in public procurement. The system itself is built on the basis of several fundamental components: A Procurement Monitoring Guide - provides the user with a detailed scheme for monitoring procurement procedures using forensic expertise and “red flags” signaling the possibility of a corruption risk. The Country-specific Monitoring Guides - allows you to relate the Monitoring Guide to the national specifics of public procurement systems. The Monitoring Assistant - An interactive checklist that makes it easy to spot red flags (signals) of corruption risk. Supporting Materials (The Links Pages) - a collection of additional resources to support monitoring procurement. The Learning Community - an additional interactive learning space where active users (CSPM) can leave their comments on improving the tool and share their experience in finding corrupt procurement. The Online Training - training in the practical use of the tool (CSPM) in procurement monitoring. The advantages of using the American model are flexibility and modularity. It reflects not only the systematized logic of building the monitoring and control process itself, but also provides the user with a structured tool for searching for corrupt purchases. Given the risk of reprisals and persecution arising in this process, it would be safer in Kyrgyzstan to apply the “green flag” system, when a civil society representative signals by putting up a green flag where he did not find any violations. Since the degree of corruption of state bodies in our republic is quite high, the direct system of using red flags will constantly lead to the emergence of conflicts and tensions. It is highly likely that outspoken and critical civil society representatives with red flags will be prosecuted and threatened to dissuade them from further participation in the monitoring process. Such acts of intimidation will need to be reported immediately to the relevant national authorities, which is not very pleasant for citizens. Although national authorities may have more opportunities to influence decisions and prevent corrupt practices and ensure that citizens' rights to freedom of expression and public information are respected, there is no guarantee in our country that they will not be drawn into corruption schemes. It is necessary to keep the names of persons or organizations involved in the monitoring process in complete confidentiality. The information they provide will be mentioned in the report in general terms, that is, "According to the views of civil society representatives of the country ...". Government involvement and lists of participants are not shared with the authorities, and the media should be actively involved in the process. Summing up, we can say that the benefits of involving civil society institutions and taking into account the interests of citizens in the management of state and municipal services and work to improve their quality include: For state and municipal bodies providing services: percentage reduction in complaints from the civil sector, disputes (related to non-compliance with legislation in terms of public hearings, consultations, etc.), in this regard, the saved time that was previously spent on their consideration can be spent on solving more important problems and tasks not related to complaints and disputes; percentage reduction of negative reviews about their activities, in general, and, in particular, in the field of service provision; assessment of the quality of services by civil society will affect the responsibility of the authorized state body in the provision of them. For the civil sector: significant improvement in public awareness of public procurement; percentage increase in the degree of satisfaction of civil society representatives with decisions made in the public sector, as well as with the results of services provided; reduction of moral costs. Thus, creating the institution of civil society, we solve the problem of fragmentation and ineffectiveness of monitoring and control of public procurement. There is still no public oversight in Kyrgyzstan. For people who want to understand this process, it is not clear where to turn for help, despite the fact that the procedure is quite difficult for an ordinary person to understand. And public associations and activists are simply unable to keep track of all the processes. Citizens do not trust the very procedure of public procurement and the effectiveness of control over it. In addition, the very ministries and departments responsible for procurement do not learn from their own and others' mistakes, freeing the hands of corruption and unfair competition in this area. List of used literature: 1. Dolotbakova A.K. On strengthening and intensifying scientific research of the public procurement process in the Kyrgyz Republic URL: [ ]. 2. Guidelines for Monitoring Public Procurement: A Tool for Civil Society URL: [].
Orumbayev Temirlan Azamatuly
61 | 0
Simulation modeling as a way to predict passenger traffic
2nd grade master-student, Resource-efficient production logistics, Kazakh-German University, Scientific supervisor – KegenbekovZh.K., candidate of technical sciences, associate professor, Kazakh-German University, Abstract The simulation method allows you to build models that describe the processes in the way they would be in reality. In such a model, you can experiment with event streams and execution times, either for a single case or for a given number of trials. In this case, the results can be recorded and appropriate conclusions can be drawn. A large class of systems is reduced to queuing systems (QS), which is difficult to investigate using analytical methods. The purpose of this work is the possibility of obtaining indicators for predicting passenger traffic using simulation modeling. To achieve the goal, the following tasks are present: study of the simulation system; the choice of a software product in which the model can be built; analysis of the current situation in the field of public transport. Certain events affect the transition of the QS from one state to another - the arrival of applications and their processing. The stream of events is formed from a sequence of random occurrences of events that follow, one after another at random times. Often, the actions of the whole system are determined not by one, but by several streams of events at once. Key words: logistics, modeling, passenger traffic, public transport, transport system. The transport system evolves annually under the influence of a very large number of unstable factors, which inevitably affects the area of functioning of public transport. The main task of both the city and private enterprises in the field of public transport and transport networks is to create and provide an affordable, reliable, constant and convenient passenger transportation service. At the moment, the indicator of the organization of passenger traffic is not very good, one can even say that it is bad. Problematic situations in planning transportation are associated with the following factors [1, p. 25]: setting a schedule for the operation of vehicles; analysis and correction of routes; work on servicing passengers during the trip and during their transfer; setting tariffs; a limited number of vehicles and so on. All of the above problems are by no means indirectly related to the study of change trends and the creation of passenger traffic, as well as the construction of a forecast of passenger traffic. Simulation and forecasting of passenger flows often include [2, p. 102]: collection of statistics and marketing research; studying the parameters that can affect the appearance and change of passenger traffic; forecasting the demand for transportation and the behavior of passengers in the short and long term for all transport services; substantiation and calculation of prospective passenger traffic; analysis of the results obtained and ideas for solving problems. The administration of any city has and will try to eliminate some routes, not to analyze the situation, not taking into account the indicators of passenger traffic on these routes. This hasty decision of the city administration was canceled, there were no analogues, which caused the need for transfers, increased the cost of passenger travel. After that they will have to start these routes again, it is hard to imagine how many resources our administration lost in this unsuccessful attempt [3, p. 113]. But if we assume that all changes, before taking effect, would be tested in a simulation environment that can simulate the model of the city's transport hub, then if any route was canceled, we could know the consequences in advance. If we initially knew the number of people who need public transport on a daily basis, then it would be possible to pre-allocate routes by discarding unnecessary ones or adding necessary ones. AnyLogic software is based on an object-oriented system. This approach to understanding complex systems is one of the best methods for managing the complexity of information today, this theory allows you to show and master the structure of a complex system in a simple and natural way [5]. The result of the work done is a “flexible” model that can easily adapt to the required options. The model is a forecast for the indicators of passenger traffic, which has the ability to regulate the movement of vehicles and pedestrians. This model has the ability to adjust many parameters, which will allow you to select the value for the required situation. Parameters such as: the number of buses that will pass along the route within an hour; the capacity of buses; dimensions and speed; the number of pedestrians; pedestrian movement, speed and other parameters. The transport situation is very often a problem area in the city, a large number of public and personal transport. As a result, there are frequent traffic jams. Also in this area there is a railway station, several shopping centers, for example. And this fact implies a huge passenger traffic Based on the work, a model can be built that operates in three modes. In this work, we consider the general case of pedestrian traffic with arbitrary data, we build a graph of the bus stop. We make a forecast of passenger traffic indicators. We can regulate the number of incoming pedestrians and approaching vehicles. Such a simulation model makes it possible to understand not only the operation of public transport, but also to forecast the appearance of passengers, which we can obtain based on the given parameters. What can help organize the work of urban transport. In the future, on the basis of the constructed model, a complete study of the city can be carried out. The following parameters can be changed in the city: elimination and addition of traffic lights, increase or decrease in their work in different modes; widening of road lanes, with a large congestion of cars, by completing roads or banning parking; transfer of stops, pedestrian crossings in order to establish the work of public transport and increase passenger flow; redistribution of buses on each route at certain hours; complete elimination of the route if necessary; construction of additional stops, streets, crossings and much more, as well as all possible consequences can be studied and checked without fear of irreversible negative consequences in life. Thus, in the future, with the availability of relevant statistical data, they can be used to build a model of the real situation and correct some negative aspects in the city's transport system. If we know the value of passenger traffic for each individual transport hub, then there will be it is possible to redistribute buses on routes, add or remove if necessary, thereby increasing profits for the city and reducing losses. Bibliographic list 1. Arrak, AO Socio-economic efficiency of passenger transportation / AO Arrak. - Tallinn: 1982 - 200c. 2. Artynov, A. P. Automation of planning and management of transport systems / A. P. Artynov, V. V. Skaletskiy. - M .: Nauka, 1981 .-- 272 p. 3. Aliev, A.S. Modeling of traffic flows in a large city with application to the Moscow agglomeration / A. S. Aliev, A. I. Strelnikov, V. A. Shvetsov, Yu. Z. Shershevsky // Automation and Telemechanics. - 2005. —No.11. — p. 113-125. 4. Kobelev, NB Fundamentals of simulation of complex economic systems: a tutorial / NB Kobelev. - M .: Delo, 2003 .-- 336 p. 5. Website of the AnyLogic software developer // (was available on January 8, 2021)
Nurbaeva Damilya Kambarovna
107 | 0
Application of SAP ERP software in the framework of transport and logistics clusters
2nd grade master - student,Kazakh-German UniversityDepartment of Logistics,Scientific supervisor – Kegenbekov Zhandos KadirkhanovichPh.D., associate professorHead of the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology One of the most effective ways to modernize and develop transport potential is the creation and development of transport and logistics clusters. A transport and logistics cluster is defined as a complex of geographically localized interconnected companies and organizations specializing in the storage, escort and delivery of goods and passengers. The most important part of the functioning of the cluster is information flows, which include collection and registration of data, processing and transmission of data, storage, protection and analysis of information. The development and implementation of modern information technologies is currently one of the urgent tasks of transport logistics. Key words: cluster, SAP-ER, logistic center For the first time the concept of a cluster appeared in the 80s in the works of the famous economist Michael Porter. Transport and logistics clusters (TLC) are one of the mixed types of clusters, which include a complex of infrastructure and companies specializing in the storage, escort and delivery of goods and passengers. Transport and logistics clusters are developing in regions with significant transit potential. The elements that belong to the core of the cluster carry out the main activity, and may include 3PL providers, 4 PL providers, multimodal and intermodal transport operators, large trucking and railway companies, airlines. Cluster servicing objects are objects that are required, but activities that are not directly related to the functioning of the "core" objects. The service objects can include enterprises that implement the service functions of the cluster, i.e. informational, sales, repair, etc. In addition, the service facilities include the financial center of the cluster, i.e. a banking structure that provides financial support for the activities of cluster enterprises [1]. Also, they will include commodity and customs warehouses, freight forwarders, customs brokers. Complementary elements of the cluster will include research institutes and educational institutions. Ancillary sites will include consulting businesses, resellers, distributors, companies, licensing and certification bodies. A feature of auxiliary elements is that their presence is not necessary for the full functioning of the TLC. For the sake of optimizing the activities of the cluster, the functions of advertising, marketing and information services will be more profitable to outsource. The most important part of the functioning of the cluster is information flows, which include data processing and transmission, storage, protection and analysis of information. It is possible to solve the problem of accelerating document circulation, improving the quality of registration, ensuring the smooth movement of goods by automating information processes. Various electronic data interchange systems are widely used today. The development and implementation of modern information technologies is currently one of the urgent tasks of transport logistics. One of the possibilities for the development of the cluster will be the use of SAP ERP software. ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system is needed in order to store and process critical data, without which the functioning of the company is impossible. SAP ERP software used within the TLC will allow you to manage external and internal resources. Concern SAP was founded in Germany in 1972. It is currently one of the largest software development companies in the world. From the very beginning of its activity, the company has been engaged in the automation of management processes within enterprises, covering accounting, financial transactions and orders for the production of products. Over time, personnel management and warehouse management appeared among the modules of the system. More detailed information about the modules is presented in Table 2. Currently, SAP consists of groups of logically related operations (transactions) within separate business functions. Table 2. Functional areas of the SAP program Module Description of the module function MM Purchase Material management. Acceptance of procurement bids PP Production Discrete or continuous production planning FI and CO Tracking financial control and management accounting. Analysis of profit, expenses and income НСМ People staff recruitment, salary payments EWM Storage Warehouse management CS Service Service cycle management, analytical reporting SD Sales Systematic sales processes, picking, shipping Source [2] SAP ERP is an enterprise resource planning system that allows a company to maintain and optimize its processes. The main applications of SAP ERP are logistics, human resources and finance. Figure 1 shows the organizational levels of the sales system in the SAP program and the structure of materials management. Picture 1 Materials Management Structure in SAP ERP Source [3] The Global bike in this scheme is a client - it is an independent unit in the system. The rest of the divisions in the system will be company code. The company code represents a legally independent unit of account and is the minimum unit for which a complete set of regulatory reporting can be created. The installation of SAP ERP software has certain advantages and disadvantages, which are indicated in Table 3. As in the ERP system, this software has the ability to include a large number of processes, given the possibility of expansion and growth of the company. Table 3. SWOT analysis for the implementation of SAP ERP software in the framework of transport and logistics clusters Strengths: Weaknesses: system flexibilitymultilingual interfacereduced human errorimplementation experience among large companiessupplier reliability long-term nature of achieving positive resultssoftware costconstant technical support requirementthe complexity of the system due to the large number of connections between objects Capabilities: Possible risks: process optimizationclose cooperation between cluster elements at all stages of work lack of experience in implementing the system at the cluster leveldata security,long process of setup and testinghigh level of implementation costsineffective project management Source: compiled by the author based on [3] Kareva I.N. in the article "Comparative characteristics of SAP and Oracle ERP systems" notes that the flexibility of the SAP system will be both an advantage and a disadvantage After conducting the SWOT analysis, it is worth highlighting the proposals for the implementation of the SAP ERP system in the transport and logistics cluster. The main purpose of using the SAP system within the transport and logistics cluster will be to improve business processes. Figure 2 shows the proposed hierarchy of the transport and logistics cluster after the implementation of SAP software. The cluster itself will be considered a client, and its structural elements will be company codes. Picture 2. Organizational structure of TLC after SAP ERP implementation. Compiled by the author based on [4] The process of implementing the system itself will be a rather complicated and lengthy process. It is recommended to split the software implementation process into several stages, which are indicated in Table 4. The exact timeline will depend on the participants of the transport and logistics cluster, and the full transition may take several years. Table 4 Stages of SAP ERP software implementation in the transport and logistics cluster. Name of the stage Description of the stage preparatory stage study of the client's previous activities negotiations with the supplier development and approval of proposals for improving the cluster's performance conclusion of a contract the supplier and the client come to a decision regarding the solutions provided, taking into account the specifics of the cluster operation software installation supplier provides SAP software staff training training employees to work with the program in practice service maintenance Includes maintenance after performing the services specified in the contract compiled by the author based on [4] It is worth paying special attention to the stage of employee training. The stage should include theoretical lessons and the necessary teaching materials for training, as well as practice of working with the program. Difficulties may arise in the fact that it is necessary to organize training of employees of the cluster elements in accordance with their job responsibilities. In addition, the use of the SAP ERP system in the daily activities of the cluster will require some adaptation even after successfully mastering the theoretical and practical course. Klaus Schira, one of the founders of SAP, commented on his customer training experience: “I have never learned so much in such a short time, thanks to the mistakes that twenty of my students made. You will never make so many mistakes working alone”. [4] In recent years, the influence of information and communication technologies on the possibilities for the development of TLC has been growing. The development and implementation of modern information technologies is currently one of the urgent tasks of logistics. The greatest effect from the use of an ERP system can be achieved provided that all cluster members are in the same information space. The SAP system used in the transport and logistics cluster will inform all participants at the same time. Bibliographic list: Prokofieva T., Klimenko V. Methodological aspects of building a cluster model in the transport and logistics infrastructure of the region // Logistics and supply chain management. – 2011. – № 6 // (was available on April 20, 2020) Yudina S. Kuznetsova M. Practice of information systems implementation management in foreign companies // Young scientist. – 2017. – № 13. – С.418-421. Kareva I. Comparative characteristics of ERP systems SAP and Oracle // Young scientist. – 2014. – № 20. – С. 279-281. The official website of the SAP companyм (was available on 19.04.2020)
A. K. Dolotbakova, Myrzaliyeva M.A., Mukhtarbekova R.M.
168 | 0
The problems of formation of logistics centers on export of kyzgyz meat products
Annotation: In 2015, the Government's Plan for the Development of Export of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2015-2017 was approved in Kyrgyzstan. This Plan has prioritized all traditional agri-food exports (dairy products, fresh and processed vegetables, fruits and nuts, wool and animal skins, cotton), as well as meat products and bottled water. The EAEU countries, the EU and China are considered as priority directions of supplies. Keywords: meat products, export, markets, foreign markets, logistics The construction of livestock facilities for the production, processing of meat and the production of high-quality beef and lamb is underway in the republic, but not enough to fully provide the population with high-quality meat and meat products, as well as export abroad. According to the Association "KygyzEt", the meat industry of Kyrgyzstan is located in deplorable condition. The most pressing problems in the meat industry at today there is a lack of modern slaughterhouses and meat processing plants that meet the EAEU standards. This leads to a low export potential of the industry, significant loss of profits for farmers and in general country due to loss of added value. Also, the insufficient number of veterinary and test laboratories and their insufficient staffing, the complete absence of modern logistics centers lead to large losses of profits. According to the estimates of the "KygyzEt" Association, to address these issues in the republic, it is necessary to build 40 modern slaughterhouses. Each district has one workshop with a capacity of 10 heads of cattle and 50 heads of small cattle per shift. We also need 10 mini-meat processing plants with a processing capacity of 3000 kg of meat per shift. The meat processing plants are planned to be located in large cities of the country. We also need 7 modern trade and logistics centers for meat, which will be located in the cities: Bishkek, Balykchy, Batken, Kyzyl-Kiya. It also requires 32 veterinary laboratories. Kyrgyzstan has developed successful international cooperation with Iran, since in July 2016 two representatives of the Iranian Veterinary Service arrived in Bishkek to take a number of restrictive medical and administrative measures aimed at preventing the spread of infectious diseases. As a result, Kyrgyzstan managed to export sheep meat to Iran. The country plans to continue and even increase its exports to Iran. Large unused reserves for increasing the production of meat of all types are available in small-scale production, where modernization is proceeding very slowly. Given the growth in the number of livestock and new requirements in the EAEU, the issue of organizing the slaughter of livestock in accordance with the requirements of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union TR CU 034/2013 "On the Safety of Meat and Meat Products" arises. The lack of sufficient own financial resources and government support hinders the rapid development of meat production and processing in the republic, including the construction of meat reproductive farms, feedlots, slaughtering and processing workshops. According to the Program of statistical works for 2018 "On carrying out in the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic the recount of livestock and poultry at the end of 2018" local authorities carried out a complete recount of livestock and poultry. The number of livestock and poultry kept in state and collective farms, subsidiary farms of enterprises and organizations, peasant (farm) farms, farms of individual entrepreneurs engaged in agricultural production and personal subsidiary farms of citizens was subject to registration. The recalculation of livestock and poultry shows that the tendency for the growth of the number of main types of farm animals remains in the republic (Table 1). Livestock and poultry population in Kyrgyzstan (in farms of all categories, at the end of the year, heads) 109 The largest share of the cattle livestock is kept in the farms of Osh (22.5% of the total livestock), Jalal-Abad (20.3%), Chui (17.8%) and Issyk-Kul (14.6%) regions, sheep and goats - in the farms of Jalal-Abad (21.2%), Osh (18.5%), Naryn (17.3%) and Issyk-Kul (14.9%) regions, horses - in the farms of Naryn (23 , 9%), Issyk-Kul (21.2%), Osh (19.3%), Jalal-Abad (14.3%) and Chui (14.1%) regions At the end of 2018, in all categories of farms in the republic, compared to the corresponding period of 2017, there was an increase in the number of main types of livestock. However, the number of cattle in state and collective farms, in comparison with the corresponding period of 2017, on the contrary, decreased by 350 heads or 3.0 percent. At the same time, the main problems in organizing slaughterhouses are: a low level of integrated integration into a single technological complex of meat producers, feed mills industry, slaughterhouses, meat processing and retail chains; remoteness of places where livestock are kept from slaughterhouses and refrigerators; insufficient level of infrastructure (logistics) development of the meat market. Diversification of livestock processing production allows enterprises to adapt to the rapidly changing conditions in the meat market, to increase the competitiveness of manufactured products to fill the food market with meat products of their own production to a level that ensures food security. Logistics centers only deal with products supplied under a contract. Logistics centers can only serve those farmers who can meet the specific requirements set by them. This means that farmers intending to use the services provided by the logistics center must adapt to the services provided by the logistics center. Requirements cover minimum lot size, minimum product quality, submission of required documentation. Therefore, farmers should be trained and farming groups should be encouraged. In some cases, facilities, in particular a warehouse built during the Soviet era, could be used as the basis for a modern local logistics center. This has a fundamental value, to determine the destination of products collected by the local logistics center, the main function of which will be the collection and storage of meat products. In all of the above cases, the private sector must play a central role, including in investment, planning, construction and operation. Government and the academic community will play a role where private sectors are limited, for example: - in the provision of land plots, - in promoting investments, - in a group of farmers, - in providing technical support. The creation of a model of a logistics center for the export of meat (local logistics center) should be through the coordination of existing projects of private companies to accumulate experience in the logistics center and exchange of experience with others. This logistics center model should have collection, storage and transport functions, and will also be used as a model for developing a strategy for integrating other functions such as sorting, handling, packaging and testing (certificate). In addition, it is recommended that this model should be used to train farmers who are users of the logistics center in order to form farming groups to facilitate the operation of the logistics center. International donor organizations could cooperate in training, while a private company could be responsible for running a model logistics center. It is assumed that the experience gained during the operation of the model logistics center will also be useful for the operation of the international logistics center, since the model logistics center could expand into an international logistics center in the future. List of references 1. A summary review of measures and mechanisms to support the export of agricultural products and food used in the member states of the Eurasian Economic union and leading exporting countries of agricultural products and food. Department of agro-industrial policy of the EEC. - Moscow, 2016. 2. Brink L. Countries of the CIS and the WTO: issues of agricultural policy and government support. - Rome, FAO, 2014. 3. Analysis of the possibilities of promoting jointly produced industrial products of the Member States for export in priority industries. EEC Industrial Policy Department. Moscow, 2017. 4. Serova E.V. Features of the situation with food security in Central Asian countries, main problems and consequences. Overview of trade policies in Europe and Central Asia. FAO Bulletin. - No. 20. - December, 2016. 4. FAO. Review of Agri-Food Trade Policy in Post-Soviet Countries 2016-2017 - Rome, 2018.
Burulsun Daniyarova, Aida Dolotbakova
211 | 0
Potential of applying Logistics in improvement of agricultural exports of Kyrgyzstan
The development of agriculture in the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the priority areas of the Kyrgyz economy. This industry provides 1/5 of GDP and 50% of employment. More than 60% of the country's population lives in rural areas, and they all need to work. Therefore, the growth of the economy and the well-being of the country's citizens depend on the development of agriculture. The current state of agriculture does not meet the requirements of the existing market. The agrarian industry today remains ineffective and low-profit, has many unsolved problems. Livestock productivity and crop yields remain very low. Insufficiency and deterioration of equipment, lack of seed production, neglect of the irrigation system and other problems of the agricultural sector in Kyrgyzstan remain unresolved. Let's highlight the main problems of the agro-industrial sector that require urgent solutions: - Small-scale production. There are over 400 thousand small farms (peasant farms) that own small land plots. This fragmentation does not allow the accumulation of powerful production potential. - There is an acute lack of support from the state, state subsidies for irrigation of lands, plant protection, veterinary medicine, preservation and improvement of soil fertility, etc. - There is not enough agricultural machinery. - The need for plant protection products, mineral and organic fertilizers. - Difficulties in selling products. Numerous intermediary organizations between agricultural producers and sales markets, which generate significant income, mainly by infringing on the interests of farmers. - Certification. The underdevelopment of a product certification system that meets international standards is becoming a serious barrier to the export and development of agricultural products processing. - Decrease in soil fertility, ineffective use of land and water resources; - Lack of water resources. Losses of water from irrigation of land are almost 30% annually. - Integration of Kyrgyzstan into the EAEU and the impact of market globalization. It is impossible to solve all the problems at the same time, but in this article we want to draw attention to how, using logistic principles, it is possible to solve the problems associated with the export of agricultural products to the EAEU countries [2]. The lack of logistics has an extremely negative impact on the development of the country's economy and trade. This statement was made by Denny Cho, professor at the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania (USA), at an international conference on logistics and supply chain management with the participation of international experts in transport and infrastructure of the Kyrgyz Republic. "There are many problems in the logistics of Kyrgyzstan, one of the most important is the development of infrastructure." The professor, in particular, noted the existing unresolved problems in customs clearance and in the export of goods. “Naturally, you must first understand the essence of the problems. The population still lacks the concept of logistics itself. It is necessary that as many people in business and in government as possible understand how to develop logistics [1], - he explained his idea. The efficiency of Logistics worldwide is assessed by the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) on a five-point scale, with the lowest score being 1, the highest - 5. The index assesses six main factors: efficiency of the customs authorities; infrastructure; ease of organizing international supplies of goods; competence in logistics; the ability to track goods throughout the supply chain; adherence to delivery times [8]. Kyrgyzstan ranks 108th out of 160 possible in the world ranking of trade logistics (the index corresponds to 2.55 points). Figure 1. The distribution of the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) for 2018 all over the world As shown 0n the fig. 1, the following 5 countries occupy the highest position in the Logistics Performance Index according to the World Bank for 2018: Germany - 1st place; Sweden - 2; Belgium - 3; Austria - 4; Japan - 5th place. Such major powers as the United States are in 14th place; China is in 26th place. It should also be noted how the places in the rating of our closest partner countries are located: Kazakhstan -71; Russia -75; Uzbekistan - 99; Belarus - 103; Kyrgyzstan - 108th place; Turkmenistan - 126th place; Tajikistan -134 place [6]. As a rule, the bottom lines in the ranking are occupied by countries with a low income level, landlocked or countries where conflicts occur [5]. Figure 2. Dynamics of exports of plant products for the period 2008-2018 [4] Considering the dynamics of the export of plant products of the Kyrgyz Republic over the past 10 years, reflected on the fig. 2, one can observe a steady growth in the export of plant products from 2010 to 2014. Export indicators in 2014 are 2 times higher than in 2009. However, in 2015, with the accession of Kyrgyzstan to the EAEU, there is a significant decline in exports by 40.2%. Over the next three years, there has been a slight increase in exports. The figures for 2018 are below the highest export growth rate in 2014 by 28%. To achieve the set goals, namely the well-being of the agricultural sector, it is necessary to improve the state regulatory policy. In particular, legal and financial-credit relations, regulation of agricultural production, its purchase and processing, the introduction of new technologies, as well as the creation and expansion of logistics centers in all regions of the country [7]. To implement these measures, a state resolution for 2015-2017 was introduced. for the construction and expansion of logistics and agricultural trade centers. This policy should develop this sector and strengthen its export potential. Logistic centers began to be created where the harvested crop can be stored in special storage facilities. They meet the most modern requirements and standards. Similar storage facilities will be opened in all regions of Kyrgyzstan, where the grown crops will be stored with the least loss. The Ministry of Agriculture, Food Industry and Land Reclamation of the Kyrgyz Republic has submitted for public discussion a draft government decree “On approval of the Program for the Development and Increase of the Export Potential of Organic Agricultural Products of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023” [3]. The project was designed to develop and increase the country's export potential. Conditions are being created to ensure the availability of fresh farms for processing and export (seeds and seedlings) to modern technologies, methods, varieties, organization of the construction of storage warehouses, modern processing lines, creation of ubiquitous access to organic fertilizers, agricultural materials and agricultural machinery. It also provides for guaranteed sales of organic products in foreign markets at a high price. The EAEU provides common standards and rules for trade in one territory, but in a competitive environment. To receive benefits, it is necessary to have state institutions for the development and maintenance of the rules of the game. Summing up, we can say that in order to bring the efficiency of logistics to the proper level, our country needs to improve its infrastructure, customs system, simplify transportation and trade procedures, expand professional skills for the introduction of modern services, improve the regulatory framework for expanding logistics centers in all regions of the country. List of used literature 1. Denny Cho, professor at the University of Wharton School of Business Pennsylvania (USA). Materials of the international conference on Logistics and Supply Chain Management with the participation of international experts in transport and infrastructure of the Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek. Feb 2016 2. Kizdarbekova M.Zh. Problems and prospects for the development of logistics in Kazakhstan [Text]: Young scientist. - 2017. - No. 14. - S. 363-365. 3. Program for the development and increase of the export potential of organic agricultural products of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023. 4. Export of goods by sections. Statistical Book. Bishkek: National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic, 2019. 5. Aggregated LPI 2012-2018 [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: 6. Logistics efficiency index: the gap remains [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: : 7. Indina M. The Ministry of Agriculture of Kyrgyzstan promises to solve problems in agriculture for 9 billion soms [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: 8. Umetaliev A.S., Dolotbakova A.K., Kydykov A.A. Efficiency of logistics in Kyrgyzstan [Electronic resource]. - Access mode:
Aidai Baijigitova
274 | 0
Procurement in an Emergency Situations
Department of logistics Class of log-1-19 As known, the organization of procurement activities in a state of emergency is carried out within the framework of a different algorithm which is aimed to simplify the procurement process in order to promptly conduct tender procedures and, accordingly, ensure faster deliveries of goods, works and services (consulting / non-consulting). When an emergency situation is declared in the country, or when it occurs in any specific location, public bodies immediately respond and take appropriate measures, including the purchase and provision of goods, works and services (consulting / non-consulting) necessary for fight against emergencies. Before moving on to procurement procedures in an emergency, it is advisable to briefly describe the concept of emergency. The Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On Civil Protection" dated May 24, 2018 No. 54 gives the following definition of the term "emergency situation - a situation that has developed in a certain territory of the Kyrgyz Republic as a result of a dangerous natural or man-made phenomenon, accident, disaster, natural or other disaster, the impact of modern means of destruction that may or have resulted in human casualties, damage to human health or the environment, significant material losses and disruption of the living conditions of people. " In the event of an emergency, the authorized body in the field of civil protection is obliged to ensure "the priority life support of the population in the emergency zone - the timely satisfaction of the primary needs of the population: in water, food, basic necessities, medical services and facilities, utilities, housing, transport and information support”. Also, this Law determines that organizations in the field of civil protection, among other things, are obliged to create "stocks of material, technical, food, medical, individual and collective means of protection", which in turn implies a significant role in forecasting emergencies and, consequently, appropriate procurement planning. The main problems of inventory management in an emergency situation is the lack of time for its formation and / or the lack of the necessary financial resources, which often does not allow to fully and timely meet the needs in emergency situations and eliminate their consequences. To solve these problems, it is necessary to be able to simplify procurement procedures and ensure their efficiency. Below are the procurement methods (excerpts from national legislation) aimed at achieving these objectives. The Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On Public Procurement" dated April 3, 2015 No. 72 states that: The procuring entity has the right to independently carry out purchases by the method of direct conclusion of an agreement in cases where the purchase of goods, works and services in the event of an emergency situation only in the mode of high readiness and (or) liquidation of the consequences of an emergency to localize the consequences of force majeure, accidents requiring immediate recovery, as well as in the event of an urgent medical intervention; and The procuring entity may select individual consultants without a tender (using the direct contracting method) only in cases where the situation is extraordinary due to force majeure. When using this method, the procuring entity signs a procurement contract after monitoring prices among the received bids (proposals); According to the amendments made (of December 18, 2020) to the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on Public Procurement, the procuring entity can NOT initiate the inclusion of unreliable (unscrupulous) suppliers (contractors) and consultants, members of collegial executive bodies, persons acting as the sole executive body in the data base, as well as persons included in such a register: if the suppliers (contractors) and consultants recognized as the winner of the tender evaded the conclusion of agreements (contracts) on procurement in connection with the introduction of an emergency or state of emergency, subject to the publication of a procurement notice prior to the introduction of such regimes, or suppliers (contractors) and consultants violated the terms of the declaration guaranteeing a tender if such a violation is related to the introduction of an emergency or state of emergency, subject to the publication of a procurement notice prior to the introduction of such regimes; Also, the guarantee security of the tender by the procuring entity is NOT withheld in cases of refusal to sign the contract on the conditions provided for in the winning bid, due to the introduction of an emergency or state of emergency, subject to the publication of a procurement notice prior to the introduction of such regimes. Due to the current situation with the COVID-19 infection pandemic, as an example of simplifying tender procedures, we can cite recent temporary changes in the legislation of the Russian Federation regarding procurement from a single supplier (non-competitive method): The new edition directly provides for purchases in order not only to eliminate emergencies, but also to prevent them (with the introduction of a high alert regime); The provision that the objects purchased on this basis should not be included in the relevant List of goods, works and services, which significantly expands the scope of application, has been excluded; The rules on preliminary selection and request for quotations were canceled; Customers are given the opportunity, by agreement with the supplier (contractor, performer), to change the term of the contract and (or) its price (unit price), in the event of circumstances that entail the impossibility of performing the contract without changing it; Contracts can be entered without securing their performance, unless the contract provides for an advance. Procurement simplification procedures in emergency situations are also spelled out in the guidelines of donor organizations. For example, according to the World Bank's Procurement Rules for FIP Borrowers, emergencies “include those situations where the Bank believes that the Borrower / Recipient or, as the case may be, a member country has an urgent need for assistance due to a natural disaster, man-made disaster or conflict. In the event of an emergency in the Borrower's country, the specified World Bank Rules assume: Implementation of purchases at the stage of emergency response without prior consideration by the Bank; Streamlined competitive procedures with shorter application times (5 days); Elimination of the waiting period applied to give Bidders / Applicants / Consultants time to examine the Notice of Intent to Award a Contract and assess whether it is appropriate to file a complaint; Use of framework agreements including existing ones, Using simple and fast procurement and selection methods The Request for Proposals is a competitive method and is applied if, due to the nature and complexity of the purchased goods, works or non-consulting services, the Borrower will best meet its production needs if it allows Applicants to propose customized solutions or submit Proposals that may differ in how they fulfill or exceed the requirement of the RFP document. Request for quotations is a competitive selection method based on the comparison of price quotations of firms. This method may be more effective than more sophisticated methods for purchasing limited quantities of off-the-shelf finished goods or non-consulting services, standard specification commodities, or simple, low-cost construction work. Direct selection is used when proportionality, eligibility for funding, and value for money may require an approach such as direct selection, that is, inviting and negotiating with only one firm. This selection method may be appropriate if there is only one suitable firm, or there is a reason to use a preferred firm in an emergency. Also, in emergency situations, selection is applied based on the qualifications of consultants, within which it is impractical to draw up and evaluate bids, as this requires additional time. In addition, the World Bank Disaster Rules propose the cancellation of collateral and performance guarantees. For small contracts for the supply of goods or the execution of works, you can speed up the preparation of bids for small and medium-sized suppliers and contractors by removing the requirement for collateral. Nevertheless, when performing work, the customer can carry out a guarantee withholding of funds for the duration of the contractor's liability; when it comes to the delivery of goods, a manufacturer's warranty is required. In an emergency situation, where suppliers and contractors have difficulty obtaining a credit line from banking institutions, it is possible to increase the amount of prepayment for contracts for the supply of goods and performance of work to 40% of the total contract value, provided the supplier provides a bank guarantee for an equivalent amount. An additional measure is that in an emergency, UN Agencies can act as contractors on an out-of-competition basis to perform work that requires unique experience in emergency response, and take part in activities funded by the World Bank or a trust fund managed by the World Bank, one of the in the following ways: The UN implements a number of activities or the entire project entirely on behalf of the host country; The UN acts as a supplier of critical commodities (for example, vaccines) in the framework of the WB-financed project; and The UN acts as a provider of technical services for the WB-financed project. The following projects financed by the World Bank and currently being implemented in Kyrgyzstan can serve as an illustrative example of the application of the above procedures. “Building resilience to disaster risks in Kyrgyzstan”, namely the “Emergency Response Component for Immediate Response in the Event of a Declared Crisis or Emergency,” within which funds are allocated for the procurement of the following items of goods for rapid response teams, hospitals assigned for observation , primary health care centers, intensive care units: personal protective equipment; disinfectants; laboratory reagents required for diagnostics; medicines; medical devices; medical equipment; breathing support equipment; other goods (paper towels, liquid soap, shipping containers, etc.) as well as the purchase of fully equipped ambulances. The implementation of the Agreement on financing the "Emergency COVID-19 Project" between the Kyrgyz Republic and the International Development Association, signed on April 7, 2020 and ratified by the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 46 dated April 20, 2020, has begun. This project, funded by the World Bank, aims to prevent additional infiltration of infected persons and to limit the spread of infection within the country, which also applies procurement procedures in an emergency. The UN implements a number of activities or the entire project entirely on behalf of the host country; The UN acts as a supplier of critical commodities (for example, vaccines) in the framework of the WB-financed project; and The UN acts as a provider of technical services for the WB-financed project. The following projects financed by the World Bank and currently being implemented in Kyrgyzstan can serve as an illustrative example of the application of the above procedures. “Building resilience to disaster risks in Kyrgyzstan”, namely the “Emergency Response Component for Immediate Response in the Event of a Declared Crisis or Emergency,” within which funds are allocated for the procurement of the following items of goods for rapid response teams, hospitals assigned for observation , primary health care centers, intensive care units: personal protective equipment; disinfectants; laboratory reagents required for diagnostics; medicines; medical devices; medical equipment; breathing support equipment; other goods (paper towels, liquid soap, shipping containers, etc.) as well as the purchase of fully equipped ambulances. The implementation of the Agreement on financing the "Emergency COVID-19 Project" between the Kyrgyz Republic and the International Development Association, signed on April 7, 2020 and ratified by the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 46 dated April 20, 2020, has begun. This project, funded by the World Bank, aims to prevent additional infiltration of infected persons and to limit the spread of infection within the country, which also applies procurement procedures in an emergency. The UN implements a number of activities or the entire project entirely on behalf of the host country; The UN acts as a supplier of critical commodities (for example, vaccines) in the framework of the WB-financed project; and The UN acts as a provider of technical services for the WB-financed project. The following projects financed by the World Bank and currently being implemented in Kyrgyzstan can serve as an illustrative example of the application of the above procedures. “Building resilience to disaster risks in Kyrgyzstan”, namely the “Emergency Response Component for Immediate Response in the Event of a Declared Crisis or Emergency,” within which funds are allocated for the procurement of the following items of goods for rapid response teams, hospitals assigned for observation , primary health care centers, intensive care units: personal protective equipment; disinfectants; laboratory reagents required for diagnostics; medicines; medical devices; medical equipment; breathing support equipment; other goods (paper towels, liquid soap, shipping containers, etc.) as well as the purchase of fully equipped ambulances. The implementation of the Agreement on financing the "Emergency COVID-19 Project" between the Kyrgyz Republic and the International Development Association, signed on April 7, 2020 and ratified by the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 46 dated April 20, 2020, has begun. This project, funded by the World Bank, aims to prevent additional infiltration of infected individuals and to limit the spread of infection within the country, which also applies procurement procedures in an emergency. 1 2 3 01.04.2020 N 98-ФЗ Федералдык мыйзам, 4 5
Azizbek Kydykov
309 | 0
Development of the system of international transport corridors in Central Asia
Kyrgyz State Technical University The proposed article is devoted to the urgent problem of the development of land transportation between Europe and the Asia-Pacific region through the construction of new routes, primarily through Central Asia. The expert community predicts a reorientation of part of the cargo traffic from the sea route to the railway transport by 15-20% by 2025. At the same time, most of it is very interesting to send through the states of Central Eurasia, thereby reviving the potential of the ancient Silk Road routes. In accordance with the goal of the study, the following tasks were solved: investigated the development and operation of international transport corridors; Land transport corridors between Europe and Asia have been studied; analysis of the construction of railway routes through the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic; an analysis of the prospects for the development of Eurasian transit traffic; proposed a forecast for the development of the Europe-APR land transportation market in the future. The paper analyzes the existing and projected international transport corridors. An increase in interest in this problem was noted by the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Studies show that on the Eurasian continent, the number of rail routes is growing, providing transit traffic between Europe and the PRC, and the Asia-Pacific region as a whole. Most modern operating routes pass through Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (2 directions), Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation (1), Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan (1). A favorable forecast was made for the development of the market for transit rail routes through the territory of Central Asia, since the volume of transit through the territory of Russia has practically reached the limit of the technical capabilities of Transsib. The proposed article contains a feasibility study of transit rail routes through the territory of Central Asia, including two new routes being designed through Kyrgyzstan. One connects China through Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Iran, then through Iraq and Turkey to Europe. The second route passes through Kyrgyzstan to Tajikistan and further through Afghanistan to Iran. Further similar to the first route through Kyrgyzstan. A feature of the second route is the idea to use the European gauge along the entire length of the track.
Orozonova Azyk
414 | 0
Corruption in the sphere of public procurement
The topic of corruption in our time is quite relevant. She has been featured in many news years, and stories about the arrest of government officials for taking bribes are gaining popularity. The problem of corruption and counteraction to it has become especially acute in recent years - both in the world and in Kyrgyzstan. It is determined by the extremely high level of national and social danger of the social phenomenon under consideration. As a result of corruption offenses, the rights and legitimate interests of citizens and organizations are infringed upon, colossal material damage is caused. Corruption in Kyrgyzstan is a serious problem. According to the Corruption Perceptions Rating, the corruption index for Kyrgyzstan is gradually changing, while the position of Kyrgyzstan in the rating of countries is slowly improving: from 130th to 126th place. But, more than half of citizens do not believe that they can contribute to the fight against corruption in Kyrgyzstan. Kyrgyzstan was ranked 126th out of 180 places in the Corruption Perceptions Index 2019, which is compiled every year by the international organization Transparency International. Kyrgyzstan received 30 points out of 100, being on a par with Djibouti, Ukraine and Azerbaijan. Table 1 - Ranking of countries according to the Corruption Perceptions Index from 2006-2019 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Armenia 88 93 99 109 120 123 129 94 94 94 95 113 107 105 77 Russia 126 121 143 147 146 154 143 133 127 136 119 131 135 136 137 Kazakhstan 107 111 150 145 120 105 120 133 140 126 126 131 133 124 113 Kyrgyzstan 130 142 150 166 162 164 164 136 150 136 136 136 135 132 126 Source: Compiled by the author. Corruption in public procurement is a worldwide problem of humanity. This topic of corruption in the field of procurement for state and municipal needs is most relevant, since this direction of economic activity in our state appeared not so long ago, but was formed and received legislative confirmation only in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century. This is connected, first of all, with the historical reasons for the development of events in our state and, as a consequence, with the emergence of private property. The most common corruption schemes include: The direction of the potential supplier participating in the collusion for the amount obviously lower than that of other participants in public procurement; The establishment by the customer of extremely short terms for the implementation of the order or the performance of work, in which the execution of the order is possible only by a previously prepared supplier - a participant in the fraudulent scheme; The establishment of a deliberately uncompetitive price for the execution of a government order in the indicated volume, which will be of no interest to other potential suppliers; The establishment of an unattractive payment scheme for the execution of a state order (for example, with a long delay, etc.); Incorrect data entry (for example, mixing Cyrillic and Latin when writing the name of the application, etc.); the interpretation of the criteria for evaluating suppliers in favor of stakeholders, etc. So, corruption is an international problem, and almost every country in the world is faced with it on one scale or another. The level of corruption in the countries of the world in 2020 is closely related to the level of political and economic indicators of the state. This is due to the legal culture of the population, the effectiveness of the law enforcement system, education and provision of the population. The main task of combating corruption in the field of government orders is to control the integrity of suppliers and ensure the greatest independence of employees who exercise quality control and on whose decision the fate of a contract depends. The main areas of fraud prevention in public procurement include the following: Clear formulation of procurement requirements; Clear planning of the bidding process so that the exchange of information between procurement participants is as difficult as possible; Communicating information to employees about possible fraudulent activities; Analysis and monitoring of the market; High qualification of employees and its constant improvement; Improvement of legislative norms, including the separation of fraud and crimes in the field of public procurement as a separate corpus delicti.
Dolotbakova Aida
434 | 0
Strengthening and intensifying scientific research the public procurement process in the Kyrgyz Republic
Candidate of Economic Sciences, Assoc. Department "Logistics"KSTU named after I. Razzakov The transition of the Kyrgyz Republic to a system of market relations has radically changed the conditions for the country's development. Ensuring sustainable and balanced development of the state on the basis of an integrated and rational use of all processes in a given territory is becoming a top priority. Public procurement is a necessary day-to-day process. This process needs constant improvement, as real life puts forward new requirements, new conditions. Therefore, the efficient and rational use of budget funds is a state task. The public procurement system can be understood as a set of rules that determine the essence and forms of relations aimed at meeting state needs, as well as persons participating in these relations [7, 2016; 8, 2016]. Myrzakerim U.B., studying the experience of development of other countries, reveals that the development of the public procurement system always occurs in stages and sometimes takes a long time. For example, the United States was the first to begin to regulate procurement and the first federal law on public procurement was adopted there back in 1792, but the procurement process became effective and rational only at the beginning of the twentieth century [17, 2019] In the conditions of the Kyrgyz Republic, the need for institutional development and increasing the efficiency of the public procurement system is widely discussed in the works of A.S. Umetaliev. He notes that procuring entities can function effectively only if there is an adequate legal and regulatory framework and institutional infrastructure, and professionalism and honesty of personnel involved in procurement are also required. An important aspect in terms of ensuring professionalism is the inclusion of a separate professional direction related to procurement into the civil service system [20, 2010]. Considering the regulatory framework of the public procurement system in the Kyrgyz Republic, Umetaliev A.S. writes that regulations should be improved to ensure the effective use of budget funds, as well as to reduce corruption schemes [21, 2013]. Sabyrova G.Zh. notes that in the field of public procurement of Kyrgyzstan, about 30 billion soms rotate and annually more than 15% of the gross domestic product is spent on public procurement. Considering the constant deficit of budgetary funds, their efficient and economical use at all times has been and remains a topical issue. Therefore, one of the most important tasks facing the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is to ensure openness and transparency of public procurement procedures. The government of the Kyrgyz Republic began to carry out a reform in the field of public procurement in 1994, and already in April 1997, the first Law of the Kyrgyz Republic “On public procurement” was adopted. Since then, the legal framework governing procurement has been regularly revised. According to Sabyrova G.Zh. internal audit is one of the few currently available and at the same time underestimated resources, the correct use of which can improve the efficiency of public procurement. An audit of public procurement is a check, analysis and assessment of information on the legality, feasibility, validity, timeliness, efficiency and effectiveness of procurement expenditures for planned to be concluded, concluded and executed contracts [19, 2014]. Several works by T.Sh. Abdyrov are devoted to detailed scientific research. and Adylbekova A.A. They noted that serious transformations in public procurement started in 2011, when the government began a reform in this area by introducing an electronic system. The reform resulted in the introduction of a unified system of electronic public procurement. The work on its creation was carried out by the state institution "Info-System"; in 2012, an information portal for public procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic was also created. By the end of May 2013, the number of portal users reached 1,843 purchasing organizations and suppliers. At the same time, the total number of participants in public procurement amounted to more than 2,000 budget organizations and 3,000 suppliers. According to the initial forecast, the number of potential participants should be from 5 to 7 thousand organizations. However, despite the reforms in the field of public procurement, there are also shortcomings. The regulatory and legal framework needs to be improved, it has not yet been possible to completely switch to electronic communication between suppliers and procuring organizations, it is necessary to improve the public procurement portal, and eliminate the shortage of certified specialists [7, 2016]. Abdyrov T.Sh. and Adylbekov A.A. write that with the adoption of the new Law of the Kyrgyz Republic dated April 3, 2015 No. 72, the methods of public procurement have changed. Today, there are five methods of public procurement: one-stage; two-stage; simplified; to lower prices; direct conclusion of the contract. The main method of public procurement is a competition through a one-stage method (the number of suppliers (contractors) wishing to participate in procurement procedures is not limited). Very rarely, a two-stage tender is held if the procuring entity cannot determine in advance the specific, technical characteristics and quality indicators of the purchased goods, works or services, and this requires discussion with suppliers (contractors) to make a decision that best meets the purchasing needs of the procuring entity; if the subject of procurement is research, experiment, preparation of a scientific opinion or provision of other specialized services. Competition by a simplified method is used in the case of purchases of ready-made goods that do not require special manufacturing, works and services with a specific description for an amount less than the maximum threshold amount. When conducting a tender by a simplified method to ensure competition and effective selection, the procuring entity shall consider the tender bids for goods, works and services of at least two suppliers (contractors). The price reduction tender is conducted through the public procurement web portal online. The initial price is set and the suppliers offer their price offers, that is, an auction takes place and the winner of the tender is the supplier who offered the lowest price offer. Procurement by direct contracting method - a procedure in which the procuring entity, without holding a tender, signs a procurement contract after price monitoring. The supplier (contractor) must meet the qualification requirements provided for in Article 27 of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic “On Public Procurement. There is a fairly high percentage of purchases using the method of direct conclusion of the contract, since it is 44.6% of the total number of trades held [2, 2016]. In the new Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On Public Procurements" dated April 3, 2015 No. 72, there is such a concept as a framework agreement. Framework agreement - an agreement between a procuring entity with two or more suppliers (contractors), signed as a result of competitive bidding, which stipulates the terms of a future contract. Exploring the "framework agreements", Abdyrov T.Sh. and Adylbekov A.A. note that they save time and cost in the sourcing process by eliminating the need to renegotiate standard terms and conditions. For long-term purchases, such agreements help to improve the relationship between buyers and sellers, since in this case, buyers and sellers work on individual solutions developed taking into account the needs of both parties [5, 2016]. Omuraliev U.K., Duishaeva M. indicate the weak institutionalization of the framework agreements procedures in the country's public procurement system. This is due to the incomplete implementation of the functionality of the framework agreements procedures, the first version of which was launched on the Public Procurement Portal only in 2018. In their opinion, framework agreements are a rather convenient and effective way of purchasing, allowing to reduce costs, to receive the necessary products on time and with an optimal price-quality ratio. However, despite the apparent simplicity, the procedures of framework agreements are rather complicated. Therefore, firstly, it is necessary to improve the regulatory framework of the framework agreement procedures, secondly, to implement the functionality of the framework agreement procedures of both stages on the Public Procurement Portal, and thirdly, it is necessary to have trained personnel who own the appropriate technologies for implementing the framework agreement procedures [18 , 2019]. The economic activity of the state is directly related to the procurement of certain goods and services at the expense of the state budget, namely, taxpayers' funds. How effective and transparent is the management of public procurement? Every year, governments spend huge amounts of budgetary funds on the purchase of certain goods and services. Corruption as "a social pandemic literally hit the public procurement sector ... damaging public finances." Due to the significant volume of funds circulating in the public procurement system and the specific structure of expenditures, it is this sector of public administration that is most susceptible to corruption. Every day the state must look for new ways to save taxpayers' funds, writes M.T. Koichueva. In her opinion, it is obvious that the old methods of public procurement should be replaced by new technologies, such as digitalization, which are designed to more efficiently manage public procurement, reduce state budget expenditures, and eliminate the use of corruption schemes [13, 2018]. Maksutov T.M. and Savina S.E. also see the solution to public procurement problems in the application of innovative digital technologies. Analyzing the characteristic features in the process of public procurement, they note the openness and transparency of the process as the main advantages of the electronic public procurement system [14, 2019]. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. see the main goal of introducing electronic tenders in procurement - not only in automating routine processes of interaction of procurement bodies with potential contractors, but also in reducing the cost of performing procurement procedures and drastically reducing the timing of these operations [6, 2016]. Zhunuspaev K.T. examines the features of monitoring public procurement in the context of combating corruption while optimizing public procurement. He pays special attention to monitoring the effectiveness of public procurement and draws attention to the fact that recent changes in the current legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic are quite significant. He also concludes that the supervision of public procurement is an effective means of fighting corruption within the existing system of public procurement contracts. In the future, public monitoring of public procurement may show concrete results [10, 2019; 12, 2019; 11, 2020]. Abdyrov T.Sh. and Adylbekov A.A. In their opinion, the formation of public control in the field of public procurement is just beginning to take place in Kyrgyzstan. In this regard, the activity of public inspectors is still a chaotic phenomenon and not regulated by any norms. The only advantage for this activity is the principle of transparency and openness, provision of free and free access to information on public procurement [3, 2016]. Continuing the topic of corruption, Ermekbaev A.Z., Sayakbaev T.D., Ermekbaeva S.A. write that the formation of government orders and government procurement in all countries is a zone of increased corruption, leading to significant budget losses. Traditionally, taking into account the damage from corruption in the public procurement system, it is conditionally divided into the following types of losses: Financial losses - the conclusion of transactions on unfavorable financial conditions for the state. First of all, this is the overestimation of the prices of purchased products in comparison with the current market level, the inclusion in the terms of government contracts of prepayment instead of deferred payment, etc. Quantitative losses - overestimation or underestimation of the volume of supplied materials or rendered services in comparison with the required quantity; purchase of goods and services for personal purposes of responsible officials, and not to meet government needs, etc. Quality losses - the conclusion of transactions in violation of the required technical conditions, such as the supply of goods, performance of work or provision of services of inadequate quality; the worst conditions for warranty and post-warranty service; insufficient requirements for quality control of work and services, etc. Political losses - deterioration of the investment climate in the country, loss of confidence on the part of citizens in government structures and the state as a whole, undermining of the country's economic and financial system, violation of the principles of free competition, etc. [9, 2019]. Public procurement, as one of the constituent segments of the economy of Kyrgyzstan, is important in ensuring the economic stability and security of the state. The annually allocated amount for state purchases from the state budget ranges from 20 to 23% in different years, and in its share in GDP is approximately 13-15% of the country's gross domestic product. Kyrgyz GDP and state budget expenditures from 2014 to 2018 were significantly increased in terms of the national currency. Let's compile a summary table since the introduction of statistics by the Department of Public Procurement under the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic (Table 1, Fig. 1). Starting from May 2015, all public procurement in the republic is carried out electronically, with the exception of cases provided for in the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On public procurement", as well as with the exception of purchases of goods from societies of disabled people in accordance with the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On state Kyrgyzstan provided the following procurement statistics for the period from 2015 to 2017. Despite the openness and accessibility of the electronic trading system, the level of participation in tenders is not high. So, for 187 389 tenders not a single application was received, for 100 474 - only one application and only for 263 952 tenders (about 48 percent of all tenders) more than two applications were received [9, 2019]. In the period from 2015 to 2017, 18, 26 and 68 suppliers and contractors were included in the database of unreliable (unscrupulous) suppliers (contractors), respectively. The register of unreliable suppliers is posted on the official portal of public procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic. In order to further strengthen impartial oversight of public expenditure and procurement, the state should expand the participation of civil society in this process, increase the volume of disclosure at all stages 5 of the procurement cycle through the further development of e-procurement and the wider use of e-government initiatives. It is necessary to work on further increasing the share of competitive procedures when concluding contracts in the total volume of public procurement. Kyrgyzstan should complete the procedure for signing the World Trade Organization (WTO) GPA. It is necessary to finalize the provisions of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on public procurement (a) on planning, supplementing them with the requirement to specify the procurement method, (b) on appealing procurement planning in relation to the proposed procedures, allowing potential bidders and the public to do so, and (c) on the conclusion of direct contracts in order to extend the notice period of the purchasers' intention to carry out the procurement in such a way that will allow market participants and the public to identify unjustified attempts to conclude such contracts and translate them into competitive bidding. For the sustainable development of infrastructure and the further development of the procurement system as a whole, it is necessary to introduce a three-year planning in the field of procurement (or for a similar medium-term period). A one-year scheduling constraint creates conditions for favoritism, unfair commercial gains, or outright contracting for relatively large volumes. In order to further improve anti-corruption standards, it is recommended to consider the application of certification of state and municipal companies according to the anti-corruption standard ISO 37001. The task of the state remains to create the most favorable economic, legal, ideological conditions for successful business activities [9, 2019]. Moldogaziev N.Sh. After analyzing the work of the automated public procurement program of the Kyrgyz Republic, I came to the conclusion that the electronic portal system currently does not minimize the risks of corruption when concluding contracts with contractors. As noted earlier, not everything is automated to prevent corruption in tendering. The program itself does not award the victory to the bidders, it only registers them. The rest of the registration procedure, the analysis of the participating organizations, the verification of the technical documentation of the participating companies is done by people, who also award the victory to one or another company. The portal was created to save time and prevent unnecessary paperwork for both the procuring entity employees and the firms participating in the tender. But it does not affect the objective decision on the tender. The final decision is made by the employees of the organization, they also conclude an agreement with the winning company, this causes distrust of the system of people who sometimes participate in tenders several times, they are disappointed in their success and stop their activities in the direction of public procurement. Among the advantages of the electronic portal, he notes that the portal with its automated document registration program and automated tender opening replaces the participation of a human resource by about forty percent. This saves time, minimizes direct contact between the supplier and the customer, at least at this stage of registration. That is, in modern conditions, the portal is not efficient enough and does not really save public funds. Improving and eliminating unwanted loopholes will be facilitated by the introduction of new settings and additional functions into the portal itself. After a step-by-step consideration of how it works, he comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to automate the part of tenders where, after opening, the analysis and announcement of the tender winner takes place [15, 2018]. In the work of Shirdakova G.T. and Abdukarimova A.A. through the analysis of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On trust management of state property", "On public procurement", "On public-private partnership", the Resolution of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic "On approval of the Regulation on the procedure for the provision of state property for rent", new approaches and procedures for improving the system cooperation between the state and business. They show examples of successful implementation of PPP projects and public procurement management, lease of state property, but at the same time they considered problems that hinder further development [22, 2020]. Also Abdukarimova A.A. and Shirdakova G.T. write about the Implementation of the "Tunduk" system project on database integration between the Department of Public Procurement under the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic, the State Tax Service under the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Social Fund of the Kyrgyz Republic to eliminate the need to provide paper certificates of the absence of debts of legal entities and individuals, which allows receive this information automatically from the State Tax Service and the Social Fund. Due to the improvement of public procurement procedures, trends in budget savings were noticeable. Currently, work is underway to improve the legislative norms of the public procurement system. It is also necessary to integrate the information system of banks operating on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic into the Tunduk system. First, such integration will help procuring entities to see the financial viability of bidders, and second, bidders will be able to easily and quickly obtain bank guarantees for the bid and contract performance. In addition, it is necessary to improve the functions of the quick search for signed contracts on the web portal, since in order to find out the result of the past competition, you need to turn over all the pages of the site. Also, make the test mode of the web portal available to all users, this will help improve the skills of novice public procurement specialists and suppliers / contractors [1, 2020]. The most acute problems in public procurement are the problems of choosing high-quality goods, works and services, which are described by T.Sh. Abdyrov, A.A. Adylbekov. In a competitive environment, the buyer must find a supplier or contractor who can offer him a minimum price for the offered goods, works and services, as well as fulfill other conditions essential for him (additional requirements for product quality, delivery times, forms and terms of payments, etc.). etc.). The greatest difficulties are experienced by public hospitals, kindergartens, boarding schools, prisons, and so on, as they have to hold contests for food. The difficulty of competitive bidding for food products lies in the correct description of the technical specifications. For example, a kindergarten buys butter, because you cannot specify the brand, you write butter, calorie content, grams, but you cannot specify what the taste of butter should be, and you have to buy butter with the lowest price, but not high quality. Or you need to buy potatoes, which also indicate the calorie content, the diameter of the potato, but potatoes also have a bitter taste. And the list of such names in food products is very large [4, 2017]. Murzabekova Zh.T., Amirova M.A. Having analyzed the legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic on public procurement, we came to the conclusion that it does not provide equal access to goods and services of the EAEU member states to public procurement. They believe that the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic dated April 3, 2015. No. 72 "On Public Procurement" in relation to all, without exception, foreign potential participants in public procurement, a discriminatory regime has been established. In particular, Article 4 of this Law provides for a preferential regime for participation in public procurement for domestic suppliers in the amount of 20% of the price offer, which undoubtedly puts potential participants in public procurement from other EAEU member states with them in an unequal position. The EAEU Treaty stipulates that countries must ensure unhindered and free access to potential suppliers and suppliers of the Member States to participate in procurement carried out in electronic format by mutual recognition of an electronic digital signature made in accordance with the legislation of one Member State by another state. - a member. However, this factor is still defective [16, 2019]. Conducting scientific research on the problems of the development of the public procurement system is one of the important areas that make it possible to increase the efficiency of state budget regulation, to develop adequate measures to support public policy. Review of studies on this topic for 2010-2020. allows us to conclude that in the development system of state List of used literature: Abdukarimova A.A., Shirdakova G.T. Problems of the formation of the public procurement system in the Kyrgyz Republic. Alatoo Academic Studies. 2020. No. 1. S. 189-197. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Public procurement methods of the Kyrgyz Republic. Science, new technologies and innovations of Kyrgyzstan. 2016. No. 12. S. 93-94. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Public control as an effective tool for improving the public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic. Bulletin of the Tajik National University. A series of socio-economic and social sciences. 2016. No. 2/7 (213). S. 161-164. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Problems of choosing quality goods, works and services in public procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic. Economy. Control. Education. 2017. No. 1 (4). S. 13-14. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Framework Agreement in Public Procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic. Science, new technologies and innovations of Kyrgyzstan. 2016. No. 12. S. 91-92. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Development of electronic public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic. Bulletin of the Tajik National University. A series of socio-economic and social sciences. 2016. No. 2/8 (215). S. 139-141. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Reforms in the public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic. Reform. 2016. No. 4 (72). S. 21-22. Adylbekov A.A., Abdyrov T.Sh. Stages of public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic. Scientific research in the Kyrgyz Republic. 2016. No. 4. P. 4-7. Ermekbaev A.Z., Sayakbaev T.D., Ermekbaev S.A. Reducing corruption losses in the public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic. Eurasian Scientific Association. 2019. No. 12-3 (58). S. 216-220. Zhunuspaev K.T. Anti-corruption policy in the Kyrgyz Republic: history, legal framework, main methods of struggle. Colloquium-journal. 2019. No. 28-8 (52). S. 49-51. Zhunuspaev K.T. Public control over public procurement in Kyrgyzstan. Scientific aspect. 2020.Vol. 1.No. 1.P. 27-31. Zhunuspaev K.T. The main problems of optimization of state anti-corruption in the public procurement system in Kyrgyzstan. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Technology Integral. 2019. No. 4-1. P. 34. Koichueva M.T. Digitalization of the public procurement system in the Kyrgyz Republic. In the collection: Development of the regional economy in the context of digitalization. Collection of materials of the International scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Chechen State University". Editors in charge: Tsakaev A.Kh., Saidov Z.A., Arsakhanova Z.A., 2018.S. 62-68. Maksutov T.M., Savina S.E. Implementation of an electronic public procurement system in Kyrgyzstan. In the collection: Science. Technology. Innovation. Collection of scientific papers. In 9 parts. Edited by A.V. Gadyukina. 2019.S. 175-179. Moldogaziev N.Sh. Analysis of the work of the automated public procurement program of the Kyrgyz Republic. Improvement methods and their effectiveness in modern working conditions. Bulletin of the Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University. 2018.Vol. 18.No. 11.P. 147-150. Murzabekova Zh.T., Amirova M.A. Topical issues of legal regulation of public procurement in the countries of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic. Bulletin of the Kazakh Humanitarian and Legal Innovative University. 2019. No. 2 (42). S. 30-33. Myrzakerim U.B. Development of the public procurement system in local governments. Bulletin of Osh State University. 2019.No. 2.P. 166-169. Omuraliev U.K., Duishaeva M. Realities and perspectives of framework agreements procedures in the public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic. Bulletin of the Kyrgyz State Technical University. I. Razzakov. 2019. No. 1 (49). S. 59-63. Sabyrova G. Zh. Internal audit of public procurement in educational institutions of the Kyrgyz Republic. Science and new technologies. 2014. No. 5. S. 106-109. Umetaliev A.S. Institutional development and enhancement of the public procurement system. Bulletin of Osh State University. 2010. No. 3. S. 202-209. Umetaliev A.S. Legal and regulatory framework for the public procurement system in the Kyrgyz Republic. Science and new technologies. 2013. No. 6. S. 131-133. Shirdakova G.T., Abdukarimova A.A. Prospects for cooperation between the state and business in the Kyrgyz Republic. Science, new technologies and innovations of Kyrgyzstan. 2020. No. 2. S. 145-150.
Nurida Baizakova
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Public procurement system in the Kyrgyz Republic
Nurida Baizakova, Director of the Public Procurement Department under the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic Public procurement is the purchase of goods, performance of work and the provision of various kinds of services for the needs of the state, carried out at public funds. As a rule, public procurement affects all spheres of public life (from the purchase of office supplies, furniture, construction of buildings, structures, to the purchase of medical equipment, vehicles, medicines and food). The annual volume of successfully conducted public procurement is more than 63.0 billion soms. For example, in 2019, 77,477 tenders were successfully held for the amount of 63.2 billion soms, of which goods for 33.8 billion soms, works for 18.1 billion soms, services for 11.3 billion soms. For comparison, in 2018, 87,159 tenders were successfully held for a total of 69.9 billion soms, of which goods for 43.5 billion soms, jobs for 16.9 billion soms, services for 9.5 billion soms. Currently, public procurement is carried out in accordance with the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On Public Procurement" dated April 3, 2015 No. 72 (hereinafter referred to as the Law) and a number of by-laws. The public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic is based on the principles of publicity, openness, legality and impartiality in relation to suppliers (contractors). The legislation in the field of public procurement regulates the procedure for conducting procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic, clearly delineates the powers and functions of stakeholders, and provides for an appeal mechanism during procurement procedures. The law provides for public procurement methods such as one-stage, two-stage, simplified, lowering prices and the method of direct contracting. Also, the Law provides for a two-package method of a one-stage method. In addition, the Law provides for a tender to conclude a framework agreement; conducting prequalification procedures, as well as conducting centralized procurement. For the procurement of consulting services, the law provides for five selection methods: selection based on qualifications and cost; selection by qualification; selection under a fixed budget; selection at the lowest price; selection by direct conclusion of a contract. According to the current legislation in the field of public procurement, purchasing organizations (hereinafter referred to as customers) are all budgetary organizations, state and municipal enterprises and joint stock companies with a state share of 50 percent or more. At the same time, suppliers (contractors) can be individual entrepreneurs, representatives of small and medium-sized businesses, representatives of large enterprises and companies, LLCs, JSCs, enterprises of any form of ownership, both domestic and foreign, with the necessary experience, timely paying taxes and social contributions , and meeting other criteria provided by the customer. Thus, you cannot spend the funds provided for procurement at your own discretion. It is also impossible to choose "their" supplier, since customers must hold a tender, objectively and impartially evaluate all received offers from suppliers, and choose the offer that is most suitable for price, price and quality, depending on the chosen procurement method. Since 2015, all public procurement is carried out electronically on the public procurement portal (hereinafter referred to as the portal). To date, the portal is the only source of information on ongoing public procurement, as well as a tool that allows you to implement the entire cycle of procurement procedures for both the procuring entity and suppliers (contractors). Procurement information is published on the portal and must contain all requirements and criteria for suppliers. After the announcement is published, everyone who is willing and able to participate form their applications (so-called competitive applications) and submit in electronic form on the portal. Since the introduction of the portal (June 2, 2014) to date, 27,590 suppliers (contractors) and 4,072 procuring entities have been registered on the public procurement web portal. The main advantages of the electronic public procurement system are: Unified procedure for the formation and placement of state orders; Easy access to information; Creation of equal conditions of competition among suppliers; Reducing budgetary expenditures for the purchase of goods, works and services for state needs through increased competition; Reducing the cost of conducting public procurement procedures, since procurement announcements are published free of charge; Detailed statistics of the purchased goods, works and services (through the General Classifier of Public Procurements - OKGZ); Significant reduction of paper workflow; Increasing the transparency of public procurement procedures. The portal provides the following functionality: Simplified registration of participants in the process; Open participation in competitions; Access to tender documents; Transparency of decision-making during procurement procedures; Online filing of complaints; Possibility of price monitoring; Open access to the regulatory framework; Available information about the winners of the competitions. The Department of Public Procurement under the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic (hereinafter referred to as the Department) is taking measures to improve the public procurement system on an ongoing basis. Based on the analysis and monitoring of ongoing public procurement, incoming complaints and appeals, in order to support domestic producers, simplify public procurement procedures, reduce corruption risks, measures are being taken to improve legislation in the field of public procurement. Also, work is underway to improve the functionality of the portal, bring it in line with the requirements of legislation and integrate with other information systems. Today, the portal is integrated: with the system of the Central Treasury "IS Treasury Budget" for the purpose of reflecting the cost estimate, the amount of concluded contracts and accounting for the savings in the procurement of budgetary organizations; with the database of the State Tax Service for automatic receipt of information on tax arrears and arrears of social benefits (2019); In the medium term, it is planned to implement the following measures: Implementation of an electronic signature (ES) to improve the security of personal accounts, harmonize and develop software for the mutual recognition of ES in the EAEU member states, as well as for holding tenders on the web portal of public procurement and signing documents using ES. A full transition to ES with authorization and identification of users of the public procurement web portal is planned to be carried out from January 1, 2021, after the acquisition of ES by all users of the public procurement web portal. From October to December 2020, time is provided for the purchase of electronic signature by users of the public procurement web portal. Implementation of the module "consulting services" on the portal. At the moment, the module has been developed and preparatory work is being carried out in the test environment of the electronic public procurement system, after which pilot tenders for consulting services will be held. The work is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2020. Ensuring transparency of the post-tender phase. Relevant changes are provided for in the draft law “On Amendments to the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic“ On Public Procurement ”. After the approval of the necessary amendments to the Law, it is necessary to improve the functionality of the portal by reflecting the post-tender phase (subject and purchase price, delivery schedule, payment terms) to ensure transparency of the processes occurring after the conclusion of the procurement contract. Integration of the public procurement portal with the information systems of other government bodies for the effective exchange of the necessary data. Introduce a mechanism for paid complaints of suppliers (contractors) to reduce the filing of unfounded complaints and stimulate the activities of the Independent Interdepartmental Complaints Commission (hereinafter referred to as the Commission). It should be noted that at present, the members of the Commission work on a voluntary basis (on a free basis). To ensure the sustainability of the established grievance mechanism, it is necessary to introduce a grievance fee. Corresponding changes have already been made to the Law and preparatory work is underway to include complaints handling services in the list of paid public services. Creation of a database of suppliers (contractors), providing for the presence of a profile of participants in public procurement to prevent cases of fraud, supply of goods of inadequate quality and unfair fulfillment of contractual obligations. In turn, this will allow obtaining reliable and up-to-date information about suppliers (contractors), since it is planned to integrate the created Database of suppliers (contractors) with existing state information resources. This measure is underway as part of USAID's technical assistance provided at the request of the Department. Creation of a tool for public monitoring through the development and implementation of appropriate software products.
Erke Turdumambetova
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Improving the training system at the Training Center Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic
Erke Turdumambetova, Director of the Training Center at the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic A progressive approach to the needs of course trainees and a flexible pricing policy of our center allow you to receive educational services at a high level, taking into account time and cost savings. The Training Center of the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic (hereinafter referred to as the Training Center) consists of highly qualified specialists with many years of practical experience in the field of additional professional education, thanks to which we have earned the trust of many of our clients. We are distinguished by a modern approach to the learning process, focus on the most relevant, modern and demanded technologies, thorough comprehensive study of educational programs for the most effective mastering of the material. New technologies not only change the way products and services are produced, but also create new opportunities for the implementation of civil rights, self-realization of the individual, gaining knowledge, educating a new generation and spending leisure time. For over 40 years, the Training Center has been operating in three main areas: 1. advanced training courses for the entire system of the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic, which is about 1000 employees from: the central office, 55 territorial departments and four subordinate organizations for which all training is carried out free of charge; 2. "open" courses, according to the Price List of tariffs for paid educational services conducted by the Training Center (for which everyone can sign up); 3. 16 online courses (in the state and official languages) presented by the center (free of charge) on the following topics: - Formation and execution of local budgets; - Program budgeting; - Incentive grants; - Single treasury account; - Public procurement management; - Course on public procurement for suppliers; - Course on working with the Public Procurement Portal; - Conducting public hearings on draft local budgets; - Formation of the civil budget for local budgets and many others. Over the past 8 years, more than 40 thousand students have studied at the Training Center, we rightly consider this a symbol of recognition of our center (2012 - 1415 people; 2013 - 1693; 2014 - 2696; 2015 - 9180; 2016 - 6715, 2017 - 6567, 2018 - 6030, 2019 - 5905). For comparison, in 2010 and 2011 the number of course participants was only: 470 and 477 people. Global trends (especially during a pandemic) indicate that the introduction of digitalization is an inevitable, natural process that is a requirement of the time. At the Training Center since 2016. there is a website - Educational portal (, created with the aim of introducing distance learning technologies (hereinafter - DOT) into the educational process. The educational portal is an information and educational system developed on the basis of AVN. This software product is built in accordance with the standards of information training systems. We consider it necessary to list some of those positive aspects that have led to an increase in the availability and popularity of the courses of the Training Center: - Entry into the Unified Register (list) of public services provided by executive authorities, their structural divisions and subordinate institutions "(April 9, 2013 No. 179); - Obtaining two licenses from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Kyrgyz Republic (in the field of additional education, as well as in the form of training - using DOT); - Opening of two branches of the Training Center of the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic in the cities: Jalal-Abad (2013) and Osh (2016); - Innovative equipment, equipped with audiovisual means and other teaching tools, as a result of the modernization of the infrastructure and material base of the Training Center (with the support of the project "Development of capacity in public finance management" MDTF); - Practitioners with extensive practical experience and who are the developers of the regulatory framework in the field of economics and finance, public procurement, and many others are involved in lecturing and carrying out practical work. (trainer from the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Central Treasury of the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Department of Public Procurement under the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic, State Enterprise "Info-system" and many others); - Annual holding of international events and many others. I would like to dwell in more detail on one of the activities of the Training Center - conducting training courses on public procurement. The Training Center, in accordance with its Regulations, since 2010. conducts courses for training, retraining and advanced training of personnel of the system of public procurement of goods, works and services with the issuance of confirming certificates of the established form of the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic.Stationary (one-day, two-day specialized; five-day basic; nine-day advanced) and distance learning (online) courses on public procurement procedures are conducted. June 26 this year The Law of the Kyrgyz Republic “On Amendments to the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic‹ “On Public Procurements” came into force. In aggregate with changes from January 11, 2019. in the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic “On public procurement”, there have been significant changes in terms of procurement procedures. In this regard, all training programs and materials were brought into line in accordance with the new edition of the Law. In particular, specialized courses were developed (Amendments to the Law "On Public Procurement"; "Rules for Participation and Submission of Competitive Bids in Electronic Public Procurement") in the amount of 8 academic hours. Also, for the first, second, third days of training within the Basic Course, the content of the Advanced Course and the content of existing online courses (presentations, modules, case studies, test questions), edits were made. To strengthen the training system of the Training Center, effective and currently popular tools - webinars - have also been introduced into the educational process. One of the important directions in the development of educational activities of the Training Center is the use of DOT, online courses have gained popularity and remain especially valuable for listeners in remote regions and with a tight work schedule who want to improve their skills. So since 2016. The training center launched online public procurement courses to provide procurement professionals and the business community with a wealth of knowledge ranging from legal requirements to best practices in public procurement. The course covers the procurement planning and bidding procedures required by the national public procurement process, and also contains video tutorials on “How to use the electronic public procurement portal”. The online version of the course is available to everyone on the Learning Center website. Taking into account the fact that the Internet connection is weak in remote villages, the training course was distributed on CDs among employees of territorial departments of the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic and municipalities so that employees of local state and municipal bodies could have "anytime, anywhere" access to this course. The pandemic has made it clear to us that procurement and timely deliveries are critical to providing the public with medicines and personal protective equipment. July 7, 2020 The training center, together with the Higher School of Economics National Research University (Perm, Russia), Crown Agents Ltd (Great Britain), held an international online seminar for 98 participants from different countries on the topic: “Procurement and supply chain management in a pandemic COVID-19 ", the purpose of which is to discuss the problems associated with the organization of operational procurement and supply chains, as well as ways to solve them during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the seminar, Brian Richmond, Director of Crown Agents and Tatiana Korotchenko, Head of the Representative Office in Ukraine shared their experience and discussed the problems faced by the countries, how to purchase the right quantity, the right quality and the required technical specifications. I would like to note that the staff of the Training Center during the Emergency Situation were able to urgently adapt many courses to the online mode and conducted them on a regular basis using DOT. Students of the course, using convenient electronic tools, in a convenient place for them, mastered new technologies and raised their level of competence. Topical online lectures were supplemented with various practical tasks and examples to connect to which through a computer or telephone, the listeners only needed access to the Internet. In order to increase the potential in the field of public procurement, as well as to provide high-quality additional education, the Training Center is always ready to cooperate with higher educational institutions not only in Kyrgyzstan, but also in the countries of near and far abroad. In the short term, the training center plans, together with the management of Info-system SE, to conduct activities within the framework of the Project for the development of a universal platform for distance learning "Digital Skills", as well as conduct training for external users of the information system registered as VAT payers on the topic: Electronic invoice ”, introduced by the State Tax Service under the GPC within the framework of the Project on the fiscalization of tax procedures.
Akylbek Umetaliev
452 | 0
Proposals for strengthen the public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the World Bank on November 10, 2007, in close cooperation with a group of specialists established by the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, assessed the public procurement system. The OECD methodology was based on four elements that assessed: (a) legal and regulatory framework; (b) institutional framework and good governance; (c) procurement operations and market practices; (d) reliability and transparency of the public procurement system. Figure 1 shows the scoring results for the four elements of the OECD. The highest composite score (2.1) was given to the legal and regulatory element (Element I). In other words, according to the assessment based on the baseline indicator (BI), in general, laws and regulations in the Kyrgyz Republic meet acceptable international standards. Conversely, the scores for the remaining three elements indicate serious deficiencies. However, in subsequent periods, clear and relevant results of the assessment did not serve as the basis for an action plan for the development of the public procurement system. The Public Procurement Agency was reorganized into the Department of Public Procurement Methodology (DPPM) and subordinated to the Ministry of Finance. The National Training Center for Procurement (NTCP), which achieved stable and good results, was privatized, and its functions were later restored with great difficulty in the Training Center of the Ministry of Finance. In February 2012, a regular country procurement review (CPR) was carried out and a report on the results of the review was drawn up by a joint mission of the World Bank (WB) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The most important recommendations for the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic to improve the efficiency of the public procurement system and to bring it in line with international best practices are proposed: 1. The legal framework for procurement should be reviewed and changed; 2. A strategy for improving the public procurement system for the next few years should be developed; 3. Annual reports on public procurement should be prepared and published through the procurement website; 4. The Department of public procurement Training Center should conduct frequent procurement training workshops for government officials involved in procurement activities and auditing of procurement transactions. The above and other important recommendations are mainly implemented by the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic: 1. The authorized state body, the Department of Public Procurement, has been reinstated with broader regulatory and coordinating powers. 2. With the support of the World Bank, amendments were made and the Law on Public Procurement was adopted in 2015. 3. An electronic public procurement portal has been developed and is operating. 4. Interaction with suppliers / contractors and civil / expert community has improved. 5. The mechanism for handling complaints and claims has been active. Following this assessment, all stakeholders were constantly and efficiently working again on Element I - a legislative and regulatory framework that was at a high international level 2.1 points out of 3, instead of working to improve the other three Elements. I can only assume that the incompetence of knowledge or the group interests of the participants in the public procurement process led them to the conclusion that the main obstacle “supposedly for the development of public procurement” was the Law “On Public Procurement”. As a result, the Law, passed in 1997, amended in 2004 and well received by the OECD, has undergone so many changes that it has become voluminous, unreadable, complex, controversial and incomprehensible. Especially for the direct users of the Law - procurement specialists, it has become unbearable and difficult to apply such a Law in practice. In the Law, you can find many errors not only of a semantic nature, but also grammatical, contradictory points and articles. The well-known principle of economics - the effect of reverse return (proverbs proving this principle: many cooks spoil soup, seven nannies have a child without eyes, when there are many shepherds, sheep die) worked, it was impossible to endlessly improve the Law, and stop still in 2008. Several examples can be given, reducing the basis for the application of the law: threshold amounts, unjustified exemption from the regulation of the Law - Article 2, paragraph 3.4.5, Article 21, paragraph 4.5., strengthening punitive measures for business-"black list", bureaucratization of complaints, the excessive complication of procedures by electronic procurement as a method, protectionism. In my opinion, further it is necessary to suspend any interference with the existing legislative and regulatory framework under far-fetched reasons and conduct a complete revision (reengineering). Optimize, synchronize, harmonize and unify all regulations immediately, by a competent consulting company with the participation of all stakeholders. As can be seen from the results of the 2007 assessment, for the baseline indicator “Institutional framework and governance of the public procurement system” (Element II), the average score was 1.0 on a three-point scale. Such an assessment meant the need to significantly strengthen the institutional framework - personnel and improve the efficiency of the management of the public procurement system. However, subsequently, it was not possible to ensure significant progress on this indicator, and the 2012 assessment indicated the following shortcomings and recommendations: 1. The level of procurement competence among government officials is low and there is no sustainable procurement capacity building strategy. 2. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic needs to strengthen and support the training center of the Ministry of Finance and other qualified educational institutions, universities as one of the sustainable mechanisms for strengthening procurement capacity. 3. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic needs to assess the needs for capacity development and, based on the results obtained, prepare and implement a national strategy for the development of procurement capacity, taking into account all available resources - such as existing mechanisms for training civil servants, universities, colleges, institutes, associations. The successful implementation of this task was the main goal of the education strategy in the public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic. On my personal initiative, in order to achieve this goal in 2009, I established the Department of Logistics at the Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I. Razzakov to study bachelors, masters and doctoral students in public procurement. Universities should become a center for knowledge, research and excellence for procurement professionals. The authorized public procurement body, procuring entities, suppliers and contractors, business and civil society involved in public procurement processes should work closely and interact with Universities. Bachelors and masters have the knowledge and skills to manage the complete procurement process - planning, specification development, supplier market analysis, customer requirements, transportation delivery design, administrate of contract, conduct research on efficiency issues in public procurement. We have built close relationships with procuring entities, suppliers, contractors, the expert community and civil society. The World Bank Group, recognizing the importance of institutional strengthening of the public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic, on May 13, 2020 launched the project "Establishment of public procurement and logistics observatory in the Kyrgyz Republic" at the Department of Logistics of the Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I. Razzakov. The public procurement and logistics observatory (PPLO) is a platform for observing procurement processes and promoting best practices, initiating dialogue between relevant stakeholders. PPLO will carry out qualitative and quantitative analysis of procurement processes in the Kyrgyz Republic, and share them with government officials and citizens through this portal, blogs, tweets, newsletters, seminars and trainings. It will also oversee procurement processes, disseminate innovative forms of public procurement, and advocate for best procurement practices in the Kyrgyz Republic. All this stimulates cost savings and improved procurement efficiency.
Temirbek Shabdanaliev
408 | 0
Public scrutiny and an effective criterion are important tools for public procurement management
T. M. Shabdanaliev, Chairman, Association of carriers and logistics of the Kyrgyz Republic. On behalf of the heads of transport and logistics enterprises, I would like to express my appreciation to the World Bank group, the government of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I. Razzakov for supporting and implementing the project "Establishment of the National Public Procurement and Logistics Observatory". The public procurement system in our country has passed the stage of formation and is developing in accordance with the current trends. There are a lot of problems and drawbacks in this area, and the established center will help to solve the main problem of the public procurement system – to graduate competent specialists in the management of procurement of goods, works and services. As a Chairman of the Public Supervisory Board under the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic until 2015, my colleagues and I have raised an issue about tender’s quality for several times. We have studied the tender’s procedure, transparency of results, and introduction of a protest mechanism. However, after 2015, the policy towards the activities of the Public Supervisory Board has changed and the results of their work have become less effective. Therefore, this center could establish cooperation with the Supervisory Boards and provide them with information, analytical opinions and research results to strengthen civil society control in the field of procurement. In autumn, 2017, I wanted to provide practical support to my brother from Kochkor village, Naryn region and drew up documents to participate in the procurement of meat for kindergartens and schools in Bishkek. We applied all the necessary documents and provided additional information about the advantages of our shop – industrial slaughter of animals in compliance with technology and temperature conditions, veterinary standards, sanitation and hygiene of employees. The consignment of meat was accompanied by a certificate of quality confirmation, a veterinary certificate with a driver's health record and a permit to transport meat by car. Also, we were providing an invoice with VAT to the buyer, by that we were promoting to pay taxes by the buyer and government. The tender Commission, after opening the envelopes and familiarizing the participants, read out the Protocol, where they selected the supplier who offered the lowest price. The Commission did not consider other delivery criteria. They did not discuss the availability of a production base, fattened livestock for systematic slaughter and meat supply, or the technologies used for slaughtering and butchering. For this purpose, our company invited a slaughterer technologist from the USA, who trained the USA and France method to our 12 employees under the "farmer - to-farmer" program. At the selection Committee meeting, there was no word about the documents confirming the quality, timing, delivery conditions and suitability of meat for cooking for children in kindergartens and schools. Suppliers were resellers - speculators who did not have their own shop and livestock for slaughter. After the tender, my brother and I talked to the Chairman of the Commission, he admitted that the main criterion for selecting suppliers was the price. We assumed that when conducting tenders, effective selection criteria are not taken into account, and there are corruption risks on the part of purchasing organizations. In addition, the contemporary history of Kyrgyzstan shows that there are a lot of dishonest officials in higher bodies of state authority who pass regulations with corrupt conditions to use it for personal gain in the future.
Akylbek Umetaliev
436 | 0
Intensifying cross-border logistics collaboration opportunities using a virtual logistics center
Péter Tamás1*, Béla Illés2, Tamás Bányai3, Ágota Bányainé Tóth4, Umetaliev Akylbek5, Róbert Skapinyecz6 1,2,3,4,6 Institute of Logistics, University of Miskolc, Hungary 5 Department of Logistics, Kyrgyz-German Technical Institute, Kyrgyz State Technical University named I. Razzakov, Kyrgyzstan Аbstract There are a number of untapped opportunities for cross-border logistics cooperation, one of which is the operation of virtual logistics centers. The Institute of Logistics of the University of Miskolc researched the possibilities of establishing and operating Virtual Logistics Centers in many fields (e.g. automotive industry, maintenance systems, etc.). The paper describes a proposed concept for the operation of virtual logistics centers for cross-border cooperation, as well as explores the possible benefits of the application. The proposed concept can provide a good basis for the development of a virtual logistics center in the border regions of Miskolc (Hungary) - Košice (Slovakia), and also in the border regions of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) - Almaty (Kazakhstan). Keywords: cross-border cooperation, logistics service, virtual logistics center
Akylbek Umetaliev
801 | 0
The vision for institutional strengthen public procurement
The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic ensured the establishment of a public procurement system, and further is making efforts to integrate into global supply chains. Mitigating or overcoming this challenge requires a significant enhance the capacity building of the public procurement system. Existing, various short-term workshops and training courses cannot solve this problem. Therefore, it is necessary to launch educational programs at universities for bachelor, master and doctorate in public procurement. Universities should become the dissemination center of science, research and good practice for procurement professionals. The authorized public procurement agency, procuring entities, suppliers and contractors, business community and civil society involved in public procurement processes should closely cooperate and interact with universities. Established Public Procurement and Logistics Observatory at the Kyrgyz State Technical University has competent lecturers, teachers and researchers, also bachelors and masters for professional activities in public procurement and World Bank projects. Bachelors and masters have knowledge and skills in managing the complete procurement process - planning, specification development, supplier market analysis, customer requirements, transportation and delivery design, contract administration, procurement benchmarking, conduct research of problems on the effectiveness of public procurement. We have created close relations with procuring entities, suppliers, contractors, the expert community and civil society. Another feature of our integrated approach to supply chain management is the adoption of some form of synchronization of the customer’s and supplier’s processes (Donald Waters).
Akylbek Umetaliev
541 | 0
Akylbek Umetaliev published an article on the problem of production logistics JPE (2020) Vol.23 (1) Original Scientific Paper Tóth, L., Akylbek, U., Cservenák, Á., Bányai, T., Illés, B., Tamás, P. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS USING INDUSTRY 4.0 TECHNOLOGIES Received: 26 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 June 2020 Abstract: Industry 4.0 technologies can improve not only the performance of manufacturing and assembly processes, but also the efficiency of related logistic operations can be increased. Within the frame of this article we show a system for identifying product mixing problems using Industry 4.0 technologies. The identification of loading unit building equipments and products is based on RFID tags. We used Excel format database file to hold the binding matrix of the products. We have developed a software that controls our industrial IF30 RFID reader. Our software performs a product mix detection test as well. Key words: RFID, product identification, product mixing problems, Industry 4.0 Availability: Article is attached.