Publications
1735 | 0
3
Fruit value chain
Abstract: This paper examines to get a clear picture about the status quo of fruit distribution, to identify current drawbacks, also to develop and to implement an end-to-end distribution system, covering the total value chain from the local farmer in the countryside, through regional consolidation points, through consolidation centers in the oblast up to the export preparation and processing. The study encompasses a conceptual framework for stepwise restructuring and transition to an efficient and responsive fruit value chain, tasks and milestones for implementation, accordingly apply following methods: interviews, document analysis, business process modeling techniques, all classical methods weak points analysis, requirement documentation techniques, workshops, network optimization models, facility locations models, transport optimization models, information flow optimization models and use-value analysis. Increasing the export volume of fruits – increasing foreign exchange revenue Ensuring food quality standards through the total production and distribution network Increasing the efficiency of the total production and distribution network Increasing value generation by integrating addition production processes and logistics services Based upon the increase in quantities, quality, efficiency and value generation: Increasing profitability und income throughout the total distribution and production network: from exporters and distributors to the farmers in the countryside Direct contribution to fighting poverty, especially for people in the countryside JEL codes: F 18
1468 | 0
3
The role of digitalization in the quality assurance of logistics networks
GÁBOR NAGY - research assistant, Institute of Logistics, University of Miskolc ÁGOTA BÁNYAI - associate professor, University of Miskolc BÉLA ILLÉS - univ. professor, University of Miskolc Abstract: Logistics, as one of the most integrated sciences, plays a key role in many segments of company operations. Nowadays, efficient, fast and reliable customer service is important, and to achieve this, companies have begun to operate in a networked manner. In addition to customer satisfaction, an important aspect in today's economic environment is finding the optimal point for each process, thus achieving a cost-effective operation strategy. With regard to the forms of operation, the network structure appeared, which changed the production structure taking place at one location to the multi-location operation. This form of operation has proven to be effective in serving the globalized system approach, but the system alone cannot be effective. It is very important to regulate, maintain, supervise and improve the processes for which quality assurance is responsible. The thesis presents the versions of the logistics network models, their characteristics and the technological solutions present today that can increase the level of quality. Furthermore, using a known method, we present a possible performance measurement procedure for logistics processes. Keywords: logistics network, quality assurance, digitization, performance measurement
904 | 0
1
Intensifying cross-border logistics collaboration opportunities using a virtual logistics center
Péter Tamás1*, Béla Illés2, Tamás Bányai3, Ágota Bányainé Tóth4, Umetaliev Akylbek5, Róbert Skapinyecz6 1,2,3,4,6 - Institute of Logistics, University of Miskolc, Hungary 5 - Department of Logistics, Kyrgyz-German Technical Institute, Kyrgyz State Technical University named I. Razzakov, Kyrgyzstan Аbstract There are a number of untapped opportunities for cross-border logistics cooperation, one of which is the operation of virtual logistics centers. The Institute of Logistics of the University of Miskolc researched the possibilities of establishing and operating Virtual Logistics Centers in many fields (e.g. automotive industry, maintenance systems, etc.). The paper describes a proposed concept for the operation of virtual logistics centers for cross-border cooperation, as well as explores the possible benefits of the application. The proposed concept can provide a good basis for the development of a virtual logistics center in the border regions of Miskolc (Hungary) - Košice (Slovakia), and also in the border regions of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) - Almaty (Kazakhstan). Keywords: cross-border cooperation, logistics service, virtual logistics center
D.R.Almazbekov, А.K.Dolotbakova
1482 | 0
Assessment of efficiency of investments in transport and logistic systems
The article deals with the main issues of assessing the effectiveness of investments in transport and logistics systems, which, within the framework of a program-oriented approach to financing transport systems, may become important from the point of view of rational use of budget funds at various levels. Key words: transport and logistics system, supply chain, investment, financial flows, cash flow, gross profit, total costs, the function of costs, fixed costs, variable costs. The evaluation of investment efficiency in transport and logistics systems within the framework of the application of a software-oriented approach to transportation system financing is of great importance in terms of rational use of budgetary funds at various levels. A regional transport and logistics system is a system that allows for the delivery of the necessary amount of cargo (passengers) to a specified point via an optimal route at the right time with the lowest costs. The cost of product creation consists of production costs and costs associated with the execution of all activities from material acquisition to the acquisition of goods by the end consumer. A significant portion of the costs is the added value associated with transportation and logistics expenses at each link of the "producer-consumer" chain. The movement of the material flow from the primary source of raw materials to the end consumer also incurs costs, which can account for up to 50% of the total logistics costs. Optimizing the movement of material flows in transport and logistics systems is largely achieved through improving their servicing with financial flows. Financial resources can be transformed into various other forms: goods, services, information, labor, etc. Therefore, the rational allocation of financial resources is an important condition for the efficient functioning of the regional transport and logistics system. Financial flow in logistics is the movement of finances not only within the logistics system but also between the logistics system and the external environment, which is necessary to ensure the efficient movement of material flow. Financial flows vary in composition, direction, purpose, and other characteristics. To optimize the flow of financial resources in logistics systems, it is necessary to classify them. Depending on the direction of movement, financial flows can be divided into positive and negative. These flows are interrelated: an insufficient volume of one type over a certain period of time leads to a decrease in the volume of another type. Therefore, in the financial flow management system, they should be considered as a complex object of management. The main goal of optimizing the movement of financial flows in the organization of a regional transport and logistics system is to ensure the movement of material flows with financial resources in the required volumes and at the right time, using the most efficient sources of financing (investments). This movement is influenced not only by the amount of financing but also by the location (site of action) of investments. Such points are considered as nodes of logistics chains. The location of these nodes should be associated with the transport hubs of the regional logistics system. This is necessary for coordinating the management of material flows at the nodes and distributing the functions of the elements (participants) of the transport and logistics system. The main resource flows that form a node are financial, informational, and material flows. These flows are constantly or periodically influenced by factors from the external and internal environment, as well as intentional control measures. A comprehensive approach to managing all types of flows should take into account the following characteristic: the use of management methods and models should be aimed at changing the maximum possible number of resource flow characteristics, which allows controlling the movement of materials by influencing financial flows. The use of pricing methods and cost allocation methods used in calculating the cost of resource extraction and determining the price of the final product allows us to correlate parameters such as "production costs of the product," "marginal utility of the final product for consumers," and "predicted financial performance of the system's operation." In the proposed model, by selecting management tools and methods, it is possible to control flows at the nodes by combining these flows. Management actions at the nodes are purposeful in nature - through modeling, incoming and outgoing parameters of the nodes or values and direction of financial and material flows that form them are changed. Most often, the goal of modeling and, consequently, the management process is to change the volume, time, or cost of the flow (investments) intended for financing the distribution channel. In this regard, nodes that encompass all the flows involved in the distribution process are subject to influence. The location of the nodes in the organizational management structure and the regional transport and logistics system is also taken into account during the modeling process, although it is not the only possible option. In some cases, it may be appropriate to modify the organizational structure or the location of the nodes within it to allow access to them. Bibliography 1. Надирян, С.Л. Влияние транспорта на инвестиционную привлекательность региона. /С.Л. Надирян, Д.Ю. Дудник, А.О. Гибашева // Вестник Сибирской государственной автомобильно-дорожной академии. - 2013. - № 5. - С. 146-150. 2. Коновалова, Т.В. Влияние инвестиций в основной капитал транспорта на развитие экономики региона / Т.В. /Коновалова, С.Л. Надирян // Вестник Саратовского государственного технического университета. -2013. - Т. 2. - № 2 (71). - С. 333-336. 3. Коновалова, Т.В. Оптимизация инвестиций транспортно-логистическую деятельность предприятия. / рян // Гуманитарные, социально-экономические и общественные науки. - 2013. - №3. - С. 208-210.
A.T.Turusbekova, A.V.Litvinova, A.A.Orozonova
1186 | 0
Organization of procurement activities of state-owned enterprises
The concept and types of electronic procurement are considered. The drivers of more active implementation of e-procurement technology have been identified. The organization of procurement processes of state organizations of the Kyrgyz Republic is briefly described. Special attention was paid to the legal aspect of public procurement. The main problems of e-procurement and ways to solve them are also considered. Key words: procurement logistics, electronic trading platforms, EDS, electronic bidding, procurement department, public procurement portal Currently, the functioning of both commercial and government organizations cannot be imagined without procurement activities. Any organization, in one way or another, carries out its activities through the procurement of goods, services, raw materials, and consumables: from purchasing office supplies and equipment for administrative work to acquiring high-tech equipment for direct use in production or service provision to clients. The issue of procurement activities for government or municipal organizations is resolved through the conduct of tenders. Government organizations plan the procurement process for the next year starting from September of the current year. The Procurement Department collects applications or requirements for the procurement of goods or construction of facilities from the respective departments. Before the annual plan is approved, the Procurement Department will include the goods and services in the annual list. The task at hand is to prefer one of two alternative solutions: either produce any product, raw material, or component using our own production facilities or procure the necessary inventory items from reliable suppliers or contractors who specialize in providing them. According to the "Public Procurement Law," government organizations can enter into a framework agreement with suppliers. The essence of a framework agreement is: - Procurement of goods at previously agreed prices throughout the year. - In force majeure circumstances, there will be no need for suppliers, as under any circumstances, the second party will fulfill its obligations according to the agreed-upon terms of the contract. - The main reasons why purchasing from suppliers may be more feasible include: - Lower costs of acquiring material resources from suppliers compared to the costs of self-procurement of goods and services. - Higher quality of goods from suppliers. Procurement by government organizations is conducted based on reasonable norms and regulations regarding the use of goods and services. As a result, the quantitative aspects of procurement have a much lower degree of subjectivity compared to specific cases. Government procurement is carried out to address national tasks, with the priority being the satisfaction of societal needs, achieved through the government's fulfillment of its organizational and economic functions. The mechanism of government procurement is structured in a way that gives the state a dominant role. In government procurement, the state acts as a regulator of economic processes. By encompassing both the procurement of goods and the execution of works and services, the term "government procurement" highlights its systemic nature, which necessitates the development of a unified mechanism for legal regulation of the relationships arising during the procurement process. Externally, government procurement, as a procurement itself, does not differ from private procurement. However, as government procurement, it still has its distinctive features that manifest in the nature of the government procurement process: - Public need for the purchase: Government organization's procurement can be seen as purchases made due to some objective necessity that is inherently present in the activities of the state. - Rationality of the purchase: In the case of government procurement, everything that is purchased is theoretically only those things and services that are truly necessary for the functioning of the government organization. The state, as a societal consciousness, cannot afford to buy unnecessary, defective, harmful, etc., items that may pose a danger to the entire state as a whole. For example, purchasing low-quality military equipment can result in defeat in a war. - Quantitative rationality (proportionality) of the purchase: Government organization's procurement is carried out based on reasonable norms and standards of using goods and services. Therefore, the quantitative dimensions of the procurements have a much lower degree of subjectivity compared to specific cases. Government procurement of goods and services beyond their reasonable physical limits for periodic consumption leads to overspending of government funds, unjustified material losses during storage, and shortages. At the first stage, which is the stage of forming the government order, a consolidated list of the government order is created based on the volumes and scope of the government order carried out by the government, recipients, and managers of consolidated budgetary funds. At the second stage, the government order functions as an offer. Government agencies, budgetary institutions, or other authorized recipients of budgetary funds, acting as "state customers," determine the procurement method, set deadlines for bid opening, establish qualification requirements and technical specifications for the procured goods, and announce a tender on the government procurement portal. At the third stage, the tender commission determines the winner in accordance with the qualification requirements, who is subsequently obliged to fulfill the contract. In any country, the sphere of public procurement is always under close scrutiny and attention of the prosecutor's office and the audit chamber. Public procurement is not only a tool for meeting public needs but also a powerful and effective instrument of state policy. For example, through the mechanism of government procurement, it is possible to influence economic growth and development, enhance business activity, manage tax policy, and so on. An important criterion in forecasting and formalizing procurement is the time and delivery schedules of goods. Relatively short delivery times allow for more flexible planning of orders to suppliers, forming smaller but more frequent deliveries. In this case, errors in forecasting the demand for goods can be compensated by fast delivery times. However, for long delivery periods, careful planning of the needs and sizes of orders for goods and materials is necessary, along with determining the delivery schedule. This is because there is a lack of modernized warehousing facilities and equipment for storing goods throughout Kyrgyzstan. Thus, the procurement of necessary goods and services by state enterprises is more efficient than the traditional method used before 2015. The electronic procurement format has reduced corrupt practices across the republic by threefold. This is due to the publication of procurement notices on the procurement portal, allowing all eligible suppliers who meet the qualification requirements set by the procurement department and the purchasing organization to participate. The results of the evaluation by the tender committee are also publicly disclosed within a specified timeframe. Suppliers who disagree with the committee's decision have the right to appeal it through legal procedures. As a result, the tender committee carefully considers its decisions, relying on the law on public procurement. However, just like in any sector, there are drawbacks to the previous interpretation in the public sector. In our final decision, the tender committee is guided by the condition that the lowest bid amount is important. Taking advantage of this, unscrupulous suppliers provide the lowest bid and win the positions specified in the tender lot. As a result, they deliver low-quality goods. According to the author of this article, it is necessary to refine the law on public procurement and address the loopholes in the legislation. As practice shows, goods of inadequate quality do not last long, and the purchasing organizations will have to re-tender for the same goods using the budget of the Kyrgyz Republic. Thus, more money from the budget of the Kyrgyz Republic is spent on acquiring the necessary needs of the purchasing organization for the same goods. The electronic digital signature was implemented nationwide in March 2021. All actions are now verified by an electronic digital signature. The automated processing of electronic documents has reduced the time from creating a request to publishing a purchase to a matter of days and hours. The deep data structure from planning to procurement has allowed for the implementation of a multi-level system of control over incoming information to ensure compliance with legislation. Thus, competitive procedures for the needs of budgetary institutions and state unitary enterprises are conducted according to the principles outlined in the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On Public Procurement" through the government procurement portal. These actions have created conditions for competition to thrive in this market segment. Increasing the share of competitive procurement in the overall volume of concluded contracts will lead to positive effects for the budget, such as cost savings. Bibliography 1. Закон Кыргызской Республики «О государственных закупках» от 3 апреля 2015 года № 72 2. Положение о применении рамочного соглашения от 31.12.2019 3. Юдина М. Трудности перевода. Роль закупок в становлении инновационной экономики // Информационно-аналитическое издание «Бюллетень Оперативной Информации «Московские торги». 2015. № 11. С. 46–49. 4. http://zakupki.gov.kg/popp/ 5. Ассоциация электронных торговых площадок [Электронный ресурс]: офиц. сайт. URL: http://www.aetp.κg
A.S.Umetaliev, U.T.Sultankulov, U.I.Asylbekov
1355 | 0
Introduction of artificial intelligence to the public procurement system
This article discusses the main challenges of implementing artificial intelligence in government procurement and provides recommendations for addressing them. Institutional structures can leverage innovations in procurement by taking into account the specificities of artificial intelligence systems. Keywords: artificial intelligence, government services, machine learning, government institutions Government institutions around the world have a tremendous potential to harness the power of artificial intelligence (AI) to enhance government operations and citizen services. However, governments may lack experience in procuring advanced AI solutions and may exhibit caution in adopting new technologies. International organizations such as the World Economic Forum (WEF), along with companies like Deloitte and Splunk, have developed a set of steps for the utilization of AI in government procurement in their guide called "AI Procurement in a Box: AI Government Procurement Guidelines." This article will examine the key aspects recommended to countries for the integration of AI into their government procurement system. What is artificial intelligence? There is significant uncertainty regarding the nature of artificial intelligence (AI) systems and even what should be primarily considered as an algorithm. For example, a recent "algorithm" used by Stanford Medical School to allocate COVID vaccine doses essentially comprised a human-developed set of decision criteria rather than a complex system trained on available data. To discuss procurement-related issues, it is helpful to consider AI in a broader sense as "Automated Decision Systems" (ADS). These decision-making systems encompass "any systems, software, or processes that use computations to support or replace governmental decisions, judgments, and/or policy implementation that affect capabilities, access, freedoms, rights, and/or safety." The fact that these systems are increasingly being integrated into or even replacing governmental functions worldwide is crucial to understanding why they present significant challenges to current procurement processes. AI systems are typically optimized for specific goals, and the degree to which those goals align with their intended functions can vary significantly. They have the potential to improve the processes of governmental institutions and their interaction with citizens, such as using chatbots to facilitate communication and information retrieval. However, they also carry risks, such as when a facial recognition system used by the police mistakenly identifies an individual as a criminal, leading to their wrongful arrest. AI solutions that can be quickly implemented are often provided by private companies. As more and more aspects of government services are integrated into artificial intelligence systems and other privately-provided technologies, we observe a growing network of private infrastructure. As government agencies outsource critical technological infrastructures, such as data storage and cloud systems for data exchange and analysis, under the guise of modernizing public services, we see a trend of losing control over critical infrastructure and reducing accountability to the public that relies on it. Unlike private companies, which are accountable to their shareholders and driven by profit, government organizations are entrusted with considering the welfare of their entire population when providing solutions, and they are tasked with mitigating the harm caused by AI to the communities they serve. Two problems remain: The use of AI by the government is distinct. Governmental use of an algorithmic decision-making system entails different requirements than a product for private use. While it is expected that technology designed for public use will cater to the needs of all citizens, this is not necessarily the expectation for products created in private settings; in fact, many products are specifically tailored to a particular audience and then extended to a broader user base. This disconnect is often overlooked. Public use carries higher standards of compliance. Technologies designed for public use are subject to different requirements and legal criteria than the majority of privately-used technologies. "Government procurement" is one of the most heavily legislated and regulated areas of public administration. Typically, the activities related to government procurement are outlined in procurement guidelines provided by government entities and organizations. The absence of a clear procurement structure can complicate the development of accountability mechanisms that encompass all organizations. In the "AI and Procurement Primer" textbook by New York University, the authors identify six problems: The field of AI as a whole faces numerous terms that remain undefined. The first set of problems with definitions pertains to technologies and procedures: there is no consistent concept of AI or even an algorithm. This can hinder, for example, cataloging existing sociotechnical systems in government and hinder the development of procurement innovations specific to these technologies. Agencies and local authorities sometimes define these technologies for themselves, such as in registries or compliance reports, or as part of new regulations, but there is a lack of interagency coordination. Similarly, there are no agreed-upon definitions and procedures for assessing or auditing the impact of AI and its risks. The second set of problems with definitions relates to legal frameworks and principles, particularly fairness. There are vastly different understandings of what constitutes fairness in the context of AI. To arrive at a working definition of fairness that is truly fair, it is necessary to involve those who have suffered from AI's unfairness. The third set of problems with definitions pertains to metrics, especially success metrics, both for the AI system itself and the process by which it was acquired. There may be a lack of appropriate success metrics, or the success metrics may be contradictory. For example, fraud detection models measure success based on detecting anomalous behavior (e.g., abnormal for a human), which may indicate (but is not limited to) fraudulent behavior. Anyone whose credit card was frozen while on vacation would likely appreciate this distinction. These systems are not only used by banks; government institutions may also employ them to detect benefit fraud. While the technical definition of success may revolve around detecting as much fraud as possible, the practical definition of success may lie in detecting only those cases that are most likely to be fraud. Using the same methodologies, it will be possible to calculate potentially relevant companies and filter out those with a poor reputation and a high risk of misusing government procurement. The procurement process was designed to prevent abuses, but as a result, it contains reinforced sets of procedures that typically allow only large suppliers to meet the standards and compete for government contracts. Long-term contracts arising from these sets of procedures are entrenched within government institutions for many years and can create dependencies on the procedures. These dependencies can also extend to the emerging field of algorithmic auditing, where large suppliers who already have contracts with government institutions add algorithmic auditing to their portfolio of services, incentivizing government institutions to contract these services through their existing suppliers. Tensions in the procurement process also arise due to bottlenecks that can exist in procuring different services, such as when delays or distortions occur at various stages of procurement (particularly in the request for proposals, supplier selection, contract award, and execution). As the disproportionate impact of AI systems on individual citizens and communities becomes increasingly apparent, there is a pressing need to determine at what point in the procurement process risk and impact assessment should take place, importantly including the execution stage as well. Fig. 1. Procurement Activity Matrix As shown in the Procurement Activity Matrix, different types of tasks require varying levels of expertise and work volume. As the procurement process undergoes restructuring, it is necessary to identify points at which public participation and informed discussion can occur and be integrated. The incentives underlying both the procurement process as a whole and the various organizations involved in procurement can undermine the establishment of AI impact assessment structures. Sellers are driven by capitalist incentives and focus on generating profit by offering their services to government organizations. The primary responsibility of most suppliers lies with their shareholders, rather than with the clients or the people who use their services and systems. This means that current procedural and cultural procurement settings are supported by incentive structures that do not promote measures to protect the population or mitigate algorithmic harm, not least because they potentially slow down the procurement process. At this stage, the incentives of the government and the suppliers are effectively aligned: both are interested in quickly resolving the problem and transferring it through the contract once it is identified and budgets are approved. Both parties are also interested in presenting the technological solution as the most effective approach to any given problem. Government officials tasked with managing the procurement process may also lack an incentive to change the procurement process to account for potential AI technology harm. Their task is to procure as efficiently as possible, and there is no organizational or career reward for altering existing procedures. The institutional structure of government can pose challenges to innovations in procurement that consider the specificities of AI systems, especially when it comes to problem-solving timelines and implementing such innovations. According to former U.S. Chief Data Scientist DJ Patil, government policy is typically developed over a span of 10 years. Policies aim to exert influence during their (much shorter) tenure, often with the goal of re-election. The industry moves at an even faster pace. Policy and industry converge in speed when decision-makers are faced with the need to address problems within their jurisdiction, which may not necessarily align with government's organizational priorities and timelines. Another issue is that the "government" is often perceived as a monolithic entity, excluding alternative forms of governance from the discussion and, consequently, from innovation implementation efforts. Additionally, current procurement practices can undermine and erode infrastructural sovereignty. Procurement serves as a gateway for the adoption of technological infrastructure and, therefore, has long-term implications for cities, communities, and the agencies themselves. Due to limited capacity and/or resources to develop their own technologies, procurement entails the establishment of large-scale technological infrastructure, including AI, through private suppliers. This dynamic hinders transparency rather than promoting it: often protected by trade legislation, private suppliers are not obliged to open the "black box" and share information about their training data or models. Consequently, the promised outcome or narrative is often considered more important than the technological foundation. These promised outcomes and narratives often serve as a meeting point for agencies and the private sector, prioritized over establishing accountability in the procurement process, for example, in the context of climate emergencies and "clean technologies" or technologies deployed for public health management during the COVID-19 pandemic. AI systems implemented in such a manner that they can harm communities, for example, through excessive surveillance and policing, become infrastructural and are therefore unlikely to be dismantled, even if the harm is proven, such as in the case of smart sensors installed in streetlights. Increasing transparency and oversight in the procurement process (as opposed to focusing on technological prospects) can prevent the deployment of AI infrastructures that may be harmful by design. Agencies need resources to enhance literacy and expand capabilities regarding the consequences of acquiring AI systems, which includes knowledge sharing among agencies. The growing need to develop and ensure accountability structures in the context of procurement and deployment of AI systems by government institutions implies that these processes should be restructured to enable government agencies to understand the compromises and benefits of AI systems more quickly and confidently. Sufficient time should be allocated to identify and document the problem that the AI system should address and how it should address it. Affected communities must be heard. New legislation on artificial intelligence at both national and international levels (e.g., the EU's new AI regulation) should be effectively adopted and translated into changes in AI development, procurement, and usage. Working towards this process can create space for the development of the concept of collective accountability through AI procurement innovations, where government institutions, as buyers, can expand their authority by demanding accountability and transparency from suppliers and where agencies can revisit and iterate when issues arise. This new definition should serve as a reminder that political decisions are often encoded in the definition and construction of AI systems, and therefore, the procurement of these systems should consider nuances and account for other political definitions. Innovations in procurement are not possible without considering the legal implications, particularly those related to protecting purchasing organizations from liability. Government agencies often adhere to higher standards regarding their services and outcomes compared to private companies, and obligations are often seen as pure risks rather than an adaptive foundation for risk management. Furthermore, the influence of AI systems creates new complexities that challenge existing practices and accountability regimes. Currently, there are hardly any significant legislative safeguards to protect against the emerging discriminatory impacts of AI systems, such as human rights violations or anti-discrimination laws. Even when legal obligations concerning AI or other technologies apply to government institutions, these obligations are not necessarily taken into account by private companies when developing and testing technological products for use in the public sector. Instead, companies typically exploit spaces with limited citizen and government sector protections as a testing ground without accountability. Technologies tested in these liability-free spaces are then deployed by local agencies. Moreover, inherent uncertainty regarding the capabilities and functionalities (ex ante) and impact (ex post) of AI systems may require a reassessment of the distribution of obligations along AI supply chains. Direct contractors of government institutions may have multiple different suppliers, raising the question of who is responsible for the performance of the deployed AI system. Key measures that can help achieve greater clarity regarding the distribution of obligations along this AI supply chain include enhancing clarity in applicable contracts with suppliers (e.g., liability allocation, warranties, clarity on trade secret protection or incident insurance), thorough supplier vetting, post-deployment monitoring, and quality standards. The handbook also outlined a series of key actions for implementing AI in government procurement: Improving communication and understanding of AI systems, as well as the risks and harms they can pose, is essential. Procurement staff, policymakers, citizens, and suppliers need to have a better understanding of how specific instances of AI harm and risk are connected to larger structural issues, and vice versa. To create meaningful transparency, it is necessary to establish standards for reporting the goals and assumptions embedded in an AI system, as well as the risks and harms it may pose, along with recommendations for documenting and accounting for such reporting. There is a need for inter-agency communication and the exchange and building of capabilities in the procurement of AI systems. It is also necessary to clearly define intra-agency responsibilities for procuring AI systems and the impact they can have on citizens and the agencies themselves. Resources should be developed and shared to support individuals and communities within agencies working on improving procurement processes to mitigate harm from AI. Similarly, assistance should be provided to communities outside of agencies that are facing harm and issues related to AI. These resources and capacity-building opportunities should be interconnected in a network of procurement staff, AI researchers, advocacy representatives, and others. The realm of technologies that serve the public interest is expanding significantly. Government institutions are increasingly utilizing technologies, including artificial intelligence systems, in all aspects of their work. This means that there is a growing need for technologies that serve the public interest: professionals trained in both technical and social sciences who are capable of adequately assessing the social implications of constantly emerging technologies. Fortunately, among the next generation of technologists, there is also a growing desire to engage in meaningful work that considers the social impact of technology. Therefore, it is crucial that this talent is cultivated early and equitably. At the same time, both government institutions and the private sector need to focus on creating a range of job opportunities in the field of technologies that serve the public interest, hiring and retaining diverse talents at early stages of their careers, and supporting teams working on technologies that serve the public interest both within and beyond their organizations. Bibliography: AI Procurement in a Box: AI Government Procurement Guidelines. Sabine Gerdon, Eddan Katz, Emilie LeGrand, Gordon Morrison, Julián Torres Santeli World Economic Forum Guidelines 2020 AI and Procurement PRIMER Mona Sloane, Rumman Chowdhury, John C. Havens, Tomo Lazovich, Luis C. Rincon Alba 2021 For an up-to-date list of freedom of information laws around the world, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_information_laws_by_country (link as of 29.05.2020). Definition from the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council, a UK government research funding body. Абдыбеков, М.Д. Государственная закупка товаров, работ и услуг / М.Д. Абдыбеков, Н.А. Эшмамбетов. – Бишкек: 2000. Вульф, М. Потребности мира от глобальной торговой системы / М.Вульф. - Издательство Университета ООН, 2001. Джексон, Дж. Всемирная Торговая Организация: Конституция и Юриспруденция / Дж.Джексон. - Королевский Институт Международных дел, 1998. https://www.cnews.ru/news/line/2022-03-28_otechestvennyj_ii_uskorit https://www.coe.int/en/web/artificial-intelligence/ii-i-kontrol-koronavirusa-kovid-19
A.S.Umetaliev, A.K.Karmysheva
854 | 0
Study of public procurement practices
This article discusses the issues of improving legislation in the field of public procurement, the possibility of applying international experience. Among the significant changes that may affect the area of public procurement, one can note the simplification of procedures for conducting small purchases, support for the use of e-commerce tools, maintaining a common electronic database (archive) of current and completed purchases, and creating a statistical base for further analysis. Key words: public procurement, procurement plan, legislation. Introduction. The public procurement system is an integral part of the domestic trade sector for specific types of goods and services and serves as a mechanism for maintaining competition. The material and technical support for the implementation of government and municipal programs is one of the key factors contributing to the existence and gradual development of the public procurement system in the national economies of many countries. In the context of limited financial resources, countries pay increased attention to improving the legislative framework in the field of public procurement due to the fact that public procurement is one of the main directions of economic activity for any state. The legislative framework in the field of public procurement, regulating contractual relations between the public and private sectors, determines how the purchasing power of the state is realized in practice and is also intended to promote transparent and fair competition for obtaining government contracts. Thus, the quality of legislation on public procurement directly affects the quality of goods, works, or services delivered under government contracts and can significantly influence the volume of government expenditures. Outdated or ineffective legislation in the field of public procurement can lead to the wastage of limited budgetary resources and hinder fiscal reform implementation. Main Part. What is the work involved in government procurement? What are the main functions of public procurement? Ensuring compliance with and implementation of legislation on the contract system in the procurement of goods, works, and services to meet government needs, including the determination of suppliers (contractors, performers). Overall, as demonstrated by advanced international experience in the field of public procurement, it is necessary to eliminate factors that reduce efficiency and increase the costliness of the procurement process. However, we believe that ensuring a balance between the often competing principles of competitiveness, transparency, and efficiency should play a crucial role in the policy-making process in public procurement, taking into account the peculiarities of the local market, legal framework, and entrepreneurial culture. One of the most important factors that continue to influence the field of public procurement is the implementation of anti-corruption measures, particularly in countries with underdeveloped entrepreneurial culture. In relation to criteria based on advanced practices in developing public procurement models, they were subsequently transformed into indicators and evaluation criteria. The evaluation criteria are based on the idea that the primary function of legislation on public procurement is not to facilitate unhindered international trade or save public funds, but to establish minimum standards for procurement in the public sector. Legislation on public procurement regulates the processes of acquiring goods, performing works, and providing services for government clients. These processes are part of resource and budget management systems. The procurement process begins with the identification of the needs of government clients, followed by the development of a sourcing strategy, allocation of budgetary funds, and the implementation of tendering procedures, evaluation, and supplier selection. In the interest of a potentially significant number of end-users, after the contract is awarded, monitoring its execution is crucial. In public procurement rules, these processes are often reflected as three main stages: pre-tender stage, competitive bidding, and post-tender stage. In the case of government clients, the complex process of entering into commercial contracts must take into account the principles of the public sector, such as transparency in decision-making processes and accountability of the public sector to taxpayers, who are the ultimate beneficiaries of the goods provided under government contracts. The content of national legislation on public procurement depends on the goals of the government's procurement policy and the contractual and legal culture within a particular country. Fig. 1. Key Stages of the Public Procurement Process. Legislation in the field of public procurement should comply with international standards in order to uphold the principles of good governance. One of the main challenges in modeling the legal framework for public procurement is determining the extent to which advanced international experience is relevant to the socio-economic conditions of a particular country. For any state, the complexity lies in developing national legislation in the field of public procurement that adequately takes into account advanced international experience while also considering: (a) the specific characteristics of the local market (suppliers and contractors present in the market),/p> (b) the peculiarities of the country's business culture, (c) the level of development of communication technologies in the country. Additionally, the public procurement regulatory system should take into account the differences between government contracts funded from the state/municipal budget (classic government procurement) and contracts in the field of communal services (procurement in the communal sector). Normative gaps reflect how national legislation in the field of public procurement aligns with benchmark indicators. The greater the coverage of the legal regime of public procurement in a particular country, the smaller the normative gap will be. Therefore, the normative gap is calculated as the difference between the maximum value of a specific benchmark indicator and the scores given for the quality of national legislation in public procurement, including the institutional framework. The normative gap demonstrates the extent to which opportunities for improvement are identified through the evaluation of existing legislation in the country (the "law on paper"). Conclusions and Recommendations. The public procurement system, for example, in Russian practice is a relatively new tool in the relationship between the government and business, and it began to develop shortly after the transition to a market economy. However, public procurement in other countries has a longer history, organically shaped under the influence of historical, economic, political, and other factors. While the institution of public procurement in Russia is based on adapting foreign experience, the process of its organization in the original conditions presents scientific interest. Below are the main provisions of the formation of public procurement in the USA and Europe. Foreign experience. The greatest experience in this field has been accumulated in the USA, where the first law on public procurement was adopted in 1792 [1]. The total volume of procurement is divided into several parts, the main ones being procurement for the needs of federal authorities (with the responsible body being the General Services Administration), as well as procurement for the needs of national defense, where the responsible body is the US Department of Defense. It should be noted that the legislation and organization of the procurement process in the country underwent significant changes in 1994 when a complete revision of public procurement was carried out. Among the most significant changes, the following should be noted: a) Simplification of procedures for conducting small procurements with a value of less than 100,000 dollars, which facilitated the participation of small and medium-sized businesses. b) Support for the use of e-commerce tools (email, payment systems, etc.) and parallel facilitation of paper document flow. c) Support for maintaining a comprehensive electronic database (archive) of current and completed procurements, which has created a statistical foundation for subsequent analysis. The Federal Contracting System (FCS) in the United States is a crucial element of government regulation and planning, serving both economic functions (such as facilitating the government's connection with the market economy, stimulating scientific and technological development, and supporting military production) and social functions (such as advancing healthcare, education, and other social sectors). This system is built on the principle of professionalism of the contracting authority, represented by the Office of Federal Procurement, established in 1974. It is important to highlight the protectionist policy in the country regarding American manufacturers. According to the package of laws known as the "Buy American" Act, issued by the U.S. Congress in 1933, there was a prohibition on the use of any foreign goods to meet government needs, except in cases where they significantly surpassed domestic goods in terms of quality and cost. In the European Union countries, the system of public procurement is largely based on the American experience. Firstly, it is worth noting the division of organizational methods into two main types: centralized and decentralized procurement. In the case of centralized procurement, purchases for various departments and agencies are conducted by a single entity, which then resells the goods or services to specific government entities at wholesale prices, minus a small margin. The advantage of this approach is the ability to secure low prices due to the large-scale wholesale nature of the purchases. However, the drawback is the loss of flexibility and the ability to accommodate various nuances and specifications of individual departments. Centralized systems are present in countries such as Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Poland, and others. In the second case, each department independently conducts procurement for its own needs, usually through a specially organized department. In contrast to the centralized system, the advantage here is the flexibility in procuring goods and services with specific characteristics, while the disadvantage is the significant costs involved in maintaining procurement departments within each department. This system is used in Finland and Portugal. Finally, among most European countries (such as Austria, Germany, France, Italy, etc.), a popular approach is the combined structure, where there is a single entity responsible for coordinating, planning, and monitoring procurement, while each department directly carries out the procurement process. A unique feature of the European Union is the fact that access to a unified database of orders is available for certain countries. Alongside the obvious advantages of such organization, the protection of domestic suppliers becomes a significant concern. Therefore, in many countries, preferential treatment is granted to local producers. In conclusion, despite the influence of foreign countries' experience on the formation of the Federal Contract System (ФКС) in our country at the present stage, it is important to take into account both the historical development and, as mentioned earlier, the contractual and legal culture of each individual country, within which fundamental principles of the procurement institution were established. It is worth noting that "Every form of government, once established, contains within itself the material for its own improvement," which implies that young countries have the opportunity to distinguish inherent aspects in the search for research, improve, and keep pace with the times. Bibliography: Баранова, В.П. Экономика и организация научной и хозяйственной деятельности // Инноватика и экспертиза. – М.: 2015 Mortgages in transition economies, Европейский банк реконструкции и развития, Лондон, 2007. Доступное по адресу: www.ebrd.com/downloads/research/ guides/mit.pdf Журнал институциональных исследований Учредители: Humanitarian Perspectives Publishing House ISSN: 2076-6297eISSN: 2412-6039
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Application of elements of behavioral science in public procurement
The International School of Logistics at the Kyrgyz State Technical University has launched a new teaching course "Application of elements of behavioral science in public procurement". Developed with the support of the World Bank, this course will be integrated into the curricula of students studying the logistics of public procurement in the program of "Logistics". The procurement specialist must have the knowledge to ensure a reasonable balance of requirements - to carry out all procurement procedures in good faith and take into account the priorities of the state. In addition to the standard process of control and audit, the system of punishment, there are personal behavioral mechanisms that affect decision-making - fear of making a mistake, rejection of uncertainty, reassessment of negative consequences, readiness to act within the framework of known and standard behavior. These are the elements of behavioral science. The purpose of the new teaching course is to study psychological phenomena, emotions, moods and group interests in the process of public procurement. The key point of behavioral science is the importance of taking into account the behavior of the individual. A person is considered as an intuitively and rationally acting person. The main features of behavior and factors that influence the behavior of the individual are revealed. The popular behavioral model "prospect theory" is chosen as a reference point for the presentation. Prospect theory is compared with the standard microeconomic expected utility model. Key elements of Prospect Theory are emphasized, detailing with examples the different perceptions of utility from losses and gains, and the replacement of event probabilities with "weights" that reflect overestimation of the probability of bad outcomes and underestimation of the probability of good outcomes. Part of the material is devoted to the effect of ownership (endowment) in order to understand its presence in the life of every person. An explanation is given of such concepts as framing and its presence in rational behavior during public procurement. The teaching of this course is based on interactive practical work on real examples of procurement entities in the Kyrgyz Republic. Full text of the teaching course at the link:
Kalieva Aian
2660 | 0
Sustainable Public Procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic
Abstract: The article discusses "sustainable" public procurement (Sustainable Public Procurement), which, along with economic efficiency, takes into account the positive impact on the environment and solves social problems. How public procurement can contribute to the sustainable development of the country and an overview of the current state of the Kyrgyz Republic on the introduction of sustainable public procurement. Keywords: public procurement; sustainable development; sustainable public procurement. Due to the deterioration of the environment and a number of environmental problems causing global warming and increasing social and economic tensions in countries, in particular in recent years due to the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, the issue of ensuring sustainable development, identified at the UN World Conference in 1992 (UN Convention on Environment and Development, 1992), has become acute for the world community. According to the UN, the global economy shrank by 4.3% in 2020. The crisis caused by the virus has been called the strongest in the last 90 years. The emerging situation with the COVID-19 pandemic showed all the inequalities between people and countries and made it clear once again that the world needs sustainable development. Sustainable development involves ensuring economic stability, environmental protection and achieving social justice (UN Conference on Sustainable Development, 2012). Environmentally safe production, rational consumption, reduction of social imbalance in society, economic support for developing industries and countries allow countries to move towards sustainable development. One of the effective mechanisms for implementing the sustainable development strategy for States is public procurement. Acting as the largest buyer in the market and having the political will and authority, the state can influence producers and consumers through public procurement and promote sustainable production and consumption. A number of countries at different levels of economic and social development apply sustainable procurement in practice, stimulating the production of environmentally friendly products, the secondary use of resources, supporting small businesses, addressing issues of social equality of national and ethnic minorities, creating new jobs and stimulating fair trade. Thus, public procurement really contributes to sustainable development. Sustainable development and sustainable public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic. Sustainable development is a process that meets the needs of the present without undermining the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Our Common Future, 1987). Sustainable development "includes components such as social justice, environmental protection and economic development" (Weybrecht, 2010). Social justice includes issues such as human rights, peace, security, justice, gender equality, cultural diversity, etc. Environmental protection implies protection in the field of water supply, energy, agriculture, biodiversity maintenance, protection of animals, fish, forests, etc. Economic development refers to "understanding the potential of economic growth and includes issues of poverty reduction, responsible consumption, corporate responsibility, energy efficiency, rational waste management, education issues, etc." ((Weitbrecht, 2010). Public procurement can be one of the effective mechanisms for the transition to sustainable development. There are several reasons for this. First of all, a huge share of budget funds is spent on public procurement. According to the European Commission, public procurement expenditures in European countries account for 13.67% of GDP (Public Procurement Indicators, 2014). According to the International Institute for Sustainable Development, in OECD countries, expenditures on public procurement of goods and services range from 45% to 65% of the national budget, which is 12-17% of GDP (Procurement&Public-PrivatePartnerships). According to data taken from the official portal of public procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic(http://cds.zakupki.gov.kg/statistic/procedures ) in 2020, the total cost of completed tenders amounted to 36.7 billion soms, which is equal to 21% of the total amount of state budget expenditures for 2020. (https://budget.okmot.kg/ru ). However, the share of successfully completed lots was only 54%, which indicates the inefficient work of purchasing organizations to assimilate the state budget. Compared with the indicators of the OECD countries, expenditures on public procurement of goods and services in the Kyrgyz Republic are lower, but despite this, the state is still the largest customer of goods and services in the country. The demand for ecological products from the state gives a signal to the market and promotes the spread of the "useful habit" of purchasing environmentally friendly goods, fair trade goods by private consumers. This, in turn, stimulates the production of environmentally friendly products and the development of socially responsible business (Preuss, 2009). As a result, all this contributes to solving economic, environmental and social problems. What does it look like in practice? The state, being the largest customer on the market, makes a decree to budget organizations to purchase only energy-saving lamps, this will increase the demand for energy-saving light bulbs on the market. In order to support small and medium-sized businesses, when concluding contracts, the state could first of all give preference to suppliers who are residents of the Kyrgyz Republic. Often, in practice, situations arise when factories themselves or exclusive distributors of goods and equipment that are located on the territory of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan or China participate in certain large contests on the EGZ portal. Of course, in such cases, all profits from the transaction and taxes go to the treasury of another state. As for the above-mentioned countries, public procurement in these countries takes place on official portals that are available only to residents of the country. On the part of the state , the following benefits are provided by the state to maintain domestic products: when purchasing goods that are produced in the Kyrgyz Republic by internal suppliers, the purchasing organization is obliged to provide benefits in the amount of 20 percent on the offered price when evaluating competitive bids, if there are necessary certificates for the supplied goods confirming the safety and quality of products. If the subject of procurement is work that can be performed by internal contractors of the Kyrgyz Republic and foreign contractors, the procuring entity is obliged to provide benefits in the amount of 20 percent to internal contractors, provided that the internal contractor uses at least 70 percent of local labor resources and at least 30 percent of local raw materials and materials. (According to article 4, paragraph 3, 4 of the Law "On Public Procurement" dated April 3, 2015 No. 72). On the environmental side of sustainable development, the Kyrgyz Republic needs decisive reforms. The revealed environmental damage at the Kumtor gold mine, as well as the primacy of the city of Bishkek in the rankings of the world's cities with the dirtiest air, make it clear that the environmental component must also be taken into account in setting priorities for the state. To date, the introduction of sustainable public procurement is only being introduced in the Kyrgyz Republic. Kyrgyzstan is one of the countries for the implementation of the UNDA SPP Project, which is led by the European Office of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and implemented jointly with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP), aimed at strengthening the capacity of individual countries in the EECCA region in the field of sustainable public procurement and increasing the ability of businesses to respond to public auctions with sustainability criteria. The project is being implemented in the period from 2018 to 2021. In the document NSR-2040, for focused and active movement towards such a picture of the country's future, the priority directions of the Kyrgyz Republic until 2023 are defined: Stimulating technological modernization Modernization and implementation of energy-efficient technologies. Increasing the participation of renewable energy sources. Expansion of the area of green spaces. Conservation of tailings dumps and ensuring safety Rational management of water resources. Development of waste disposal and recycling infrastructure. According to the program for the development of the "green" economy in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023, which is currently at the stage of approval in the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, the goals for sustainable public procurement are also outlined. The goal is to increase the share of sustainable public procurement to 30% by 2023, and to 50% by 2040. To achieve it, the following tasks will be solved: 3.1. Improve legislation in the field of public procurement. Improvement of legislation in the field of public procurement, including provisions on technical specifications and relevant certificates for goods supplied, works performed and services rendered, confirming environmental criteria, product safety and quality, including requirements for social aspects. The Government's activities will be aimed at promoting the implementation of sustainable procurement and trade policies within the framework of multilateral and regional cooperation with the EAEU and the WTO. Regulations and instructions on evaluation criteria will be developed for purchasing organizations to determine sustainable/ "green" goods and services. 3.2. Promote the development of environmental certification. The development of environmental certification will be implemented through the introduction of international standards for sustainable procurement. Organizations will be assisted in the development and implementation of successful practices and policies for the implementation of sustainable purchases. It is also planned to introduce criteria that will allow the evaluation of goods and services produced according to established international labor standards (ILO, Fair Trade, etc.). Mechanisms will be developed to stimulate sustainable public procurement for suppliers, including providing access to preferential sources of financing. 3.3. To increase the potential of suppliers and purchasing organizations for the transition to sustainable public procurement. Increasing the capacity of purchasing state organizations and suppliers will be carried out through the development and implementation of training programs for both universities and training centers. Specialized courses for university teachers on sustainable/"green" public procurement will also be held on an ongoing basis. Conclusion In world practice, sustainable public procurement as a mechanism for implementing sustainable development policy is becoming increasingly widespread. For the successful implementation of the principles of sustainable public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic, it is necessary first of all to improve legislation in the field of public procurement, in which it is necessary to stimulate the work of domestic producers and suppliers of residents of the Kyrgyz Republic, as well as pay more attention to the environmental component of the country. List of used literature Shadrina E.V., Romodina I.V. Article: PUBLIC PROCUREMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE URL:https://vgmu.hse.ru/data/2017/04/05/1168492363/%D0%A8%D0%B0%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0,%20%D0%A0%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0%201-2017.pdf The future we want. UN Conference on Sustainable Development RIO+20. 2012. URL: https://rio20.un.org/sites/rio20.un.org/fi les/a-conf.216-l-1_russian.pdf.pdf (дата обращения: 07.07.2016). Convention on Environment and Development. The agenda for the XXI century. 1992, Rio de Janeiro. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/agenda21 (дата обращения: 02.05.2016) Official portal of public procurement URL: http://zakupki.gov.kg/ Overview of the current state of the Kyrgyz Republic on the implementation of sustainable public procurement (UGP) https://www.greengrowthknowledge.org/sites/default/files/uploads/RUS%20Full%20assessment%20of%20institution%20and%20legal%20framework%20Kyrgyzstan.pdf The Law "On Public Procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic (http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/111125) Open budget website (https://budget.okmot.kg/ru)
Borisova Vera
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Public procurement ecosystem
Borisova Vera Viktorovna - Professor of the Department of Logistics and Trade Policy, St. Petersburg State University of Economics. The results of her work are reflected in monographs, textbooks on commerce, logistics, marketing, including textbooks: "Supply Logistics", "Commercial Logistics", "Economic Logistics", "Logistics in the system of aggregate knowledge" published in collaboration with Professor Afanasenko I.D. in the publishing house of Peter and the publishing house of St. Petersburg State University of Economics; is a member of dissertation councils of a number of universities in the country, vice-president of the South-Russian Association of Logistics. Abstract. The publication discusses the application of digital technologies in the Russian contract system and the prospects for creating an ecosystem of public procurement; the practical experience of using digital technologies in the public procurement system is generalized. An ecosystem approach to improving the efficiency of public procurement has been highlighted. It is shown that the creation of an ecosystem of state procurement in Russia is associated with the restructuring of several its structural elements, the introduction of artificial intelligence algorithms, blokchain technologies, smart-contracts, dialogue interfaces, which is associated with social, economic and structural risks To read the article in detail, you can download the PDF file
Shadrina Elena V., Romodina Irina V.
1524 | 0
31
Sustainable public procurement: international experience
Abstract Sustainable public procurement (SPP) is a process of purchasing goods, services, works and utilities for public needs in a way that ensures benefits not only to the orga- nization, but also to society and the economy, whilst minimizes damage to the environ- ment. SPP can be part of the overall mechanism of sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how SPP can contribute to sustainable development, what is the legal framework for it, what factors promote and inhibit SPP, how SPP can be im- plemented in practice. By analyzing regulatory legal acts, the international SPP experi- ence, a large body of international academic research and reports of international organi- zations involved in the promotion of SPP, we advance two key features that make public procurement an effective mechanism of sustainable development: (1) the scale of public procurement and (2) the power and authority of procurement bodies. We distinguish between several different schemes of legal support of SPP. The main drivers of SPP are leadership, clarity of strategies and plans that articulate SPP goals, the legislative support of the SPP process, and the information support of procurement specialists. Our review of international experience in SPP is expected to contribute to a more vigorous imple- mentation of SPP by procurement authorities. Keywords: public procurement; sustainable development; sustainable public pro- curement. Citation: Shadrina, E.V. & Romodina, I.V. (2017). Gosudarstvennye zakupki dlya ustoychivogo razvitiya: Mezhdunarodnyi opyt [Sustainable Public Procurement: Inter- national Experience]. Public Administration Issues, no 1, pp. 149–172 (in Russian). Shadrina Elena V. PhD in Economics, Associate professor at the Management Department, Lead Research Associate, Centre for Public Private Interaction, HSE. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics. 38 Studencheskaya Str., Perm 614070, Russian Federation. E-mail: evshadrina@hse.ru Romodina Irina V. Junior Research Associate at the Centre for Public Private Interaction, HSE. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics. 38 Studencheskaya Str., Perm 614070, Russian Federation. E-mail: iromodina@hse.ru
Elvira Uyarra, Jacob Edlera, Javier Garcia-Estevez, Luca Georgiua, Gillian Yow
1520 | 0
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Barriers to Innovation Through Public Procurement: A Supplier's Perspective.
We would like to acquaint you with an interesting article by the authors of which are Elvira Uyarra, Jacob Edlera, Javier Garcia-Estevez, Luca Georgiua, Gillian Yow. The authors represent Manchester Institute for Innovative Research, Manchester Business School, University of Manchester and United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Colombia. The article identifies factors in public procurement that affect the ability of suppliers to innovate. - The most important are tender specifications, skills, user-supplier interaction and risk management. - There are differences in the perception of obstacles between R&D and non-R&D participants. - Small firms and non-profit organizations are particularly disadvantaged in terms of procurement. Abstract article: Public procurement is increasingly seen as having an important factor in stimulating innovation. Despite this, numerous obstacles prevent the public sector from acting as an intelligent and informed purchasing client. This paper seeks to understand how barriers related to processes, competencies, procedures and relationships in public procurement affect the ability of suppliers to innovate and benefit from innovation. To find the answers, we conducted a dedicated survey of UK public sector suppliers using the probit model to examine the impact of structural, market and innovation determinants on supplier perceptions of these barriers. The main obstacles reported by suppliers relate to the lack of interaction with procuring entities, the use of overspecified tenders, low procurement competence and poor risk management in the procurement process. Such obstacles are most strongly perceived by R&D intensive organizations. Our results also show that certain organizations, especially small firms and non-profit organizations, face greater challenges in implementing innovations arising from the procurement process, such as contract size, lack of helpful feedback, and communication of opportunities.
Kydykov Azizbek A., Myrzalieva Madina A.
3873 | 0
The use of ecological transport as a way to promote green logistics in Kyrgyzstan
Keywords: logistics, green economy, environmental requirements, electric transport, electric vehicle, environment, air emissions, transport infrastructure. Abstract The proposed study analyzes the relevance and problems of environmental pollution in the Kyrgyz Republic. The air quality in the Chui Valley and especially in the capital, Bishkek, has significantly deteriorated, which negatively affects the health of residents. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The use of green logistics approaches made it possible to identify the main source of pollution. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. A set of measures to reduce emissions into the atmosphere is proposed, including changing people's consciousness and responsibility to reduce emissions, promoting electric transport. Urban passenger transport is of great socio-economic importance. That is how it can greatly influence the mindset of the population and the promotion of electric transport, since passengers use transport daily and all its improvements immediately become the subject of evaluation. An assessment of the minimum costs for the implementation of the proposed measures was carried out. A plan for the development of electric transport and transport infrastructure is proposed, including the stage of a pilot project and technical tests, as well as economic assessments and proposals. Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify approaches and methods of green logistics for the study of environmental problems of Bishkek and the Kyrgyz Republic in general and to propose measures to improve air quality, in particular the use of electric transport and urban electric passenger transport in particular. Studies have shown that the sustainable development of communities and the urban environment requires the use of green technologies and the desire to create a low-carbon society [1]: To achieve the goal, the united efforts of the government, the private sector and research intuition are of paramount importance for transforming scientific results into the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Special Volume (SV) accepts and reviews a wide range of green initiatives aimed at achieving the SDGs. This PROJECT includes fundamental research on alternative fuels, smart and environmentally friendly materials to reduce waste and environmental impact; technology system design tools to develop sustainable consumption and production for communities; a sustainable waste management system; a circular economy and incentive strategies, for example, through public policy and smart partnerships. In [2], the use of the principles of green logistics for clean air is investigated: The dynamic development of cities requires the effective solution of environmental problems that often arise as a result of the implementation of logistics processes of supply, production and distribution. Currently, the main goal of activities carried out with the help of logistics is to minimize the negative consequences of people's economic and residential activities, including external effects (for example, congestion, environmental pollution), while increasing logistical benefits, such as reducing costs and improving customer service (Ambrosino and Siomachen, 2014). Pure logistics process-this becomes the main element of logistics activity (Kadlubek, 2015). A systematic approach in logistics allows you to organize such activities that exclude the collision of environmental and economic goals. Green logistics emphasizes air protection. Relevant research and "green" supply chains are mainly aimed at achieving economic, environmental and social results (Subramanian and Gunasekaran, 2015). Thus, the concept of green logistics favors solutions leading to the implementation of all sustainable development goals, not just environmental ones. Green logistics covers activities focused on: environmental logistics management, low-carbon warehousing and packaging, low-carbon transportation, fleet management, alternative energy and logistics innovation (Zhang, Thompson, Bao and Jiang, 2014). Other goals of green logistics relate to reducing external costs due to climate change, air pollution, noise, vibration and accidents (Jedliński, 2014). Transport is one of the main sources of air pollution in the city. Therefore, green logistics should be supported by the urban logistics strategy " effective management of urban cargo transportation and other traffic flows, in order to achieve an optimal compromise between ensuring optimal logistics networks performance, reliable customer service and reducing environmental impacts, air pollutants, energy consumption and traffic congestion” (Amaral and Aghezzaf, 2015). The increase in the urban population and economic development lead to more air pollution in cities, which means a danger to health and a deterioration in the quality of life. For this reason, the city authorities should adjust the city's economic, residential and transport processes in such a way as to prevent air pollution. This approach is consistent with the concept of green logistics, which is aimed at reducing emissions, reducing waste and low energy consumption. In this paper, transport and especially freight transport is recognized as the main polluter. The problems of sustainable development and the use of green technologies are considered in the study [3]: A special volume (SV) accepts and considers a wide range of green initiatives aimed at achieving the goals of sustainable development. This PROJECT includes fundamental research on alternative fuels, smart and environmentally friendly materials to reduce waste and environmental impact; tools for designing technological systems to develop sustainable consumption and production for communities; a system for sustainable waste management; circular economy and stimulating strategies, for example, through public policy and reasonable partnership. Thus, an integrated approach is needed for the intended environmental goals. Ways to reduce the carbon emissions of passenger transport: the impact on the climate budget of India are investigated in [4]: an assessment of transport emissions with electric vehicles, electric networks (EG) and T&D losses was carried out. It is concluded that electric vehicles are unsuitable without increasing the efficiency of EG and T&D losses. Eleven different scenarios with estimated uncertainties for passenger traffic in the Mumbai metropolitan regions are formulated. The study also shows that the introduction of electric vehicles into the city without simultaneously improving EG will lead to an increase in net CO2 emissions. However, this work does not consider other emissions other than CO 2. The next study devoted to the problems of the impact of transport on the urban environment is [5]: the opening and gradual expansion of the regional express railway (RER) in the period from 1970 to 2000 in the Paris metropolitan region. The causal influence of urban railway transport on the location of firms, employment and population growth is considered. Thus, the relationship between transport, residential and business infrastructure is obvious. The study [6] is devoted to the same problem, in which a strong negative relationship between emissions and land use rules was found. By limiting new developments, the cleanest areas of the country seem to be pushing new developments to places with higher emissions. Cities usually have significantly less emissions than suburbs, and the gap between the city and the suburbs is especially large in older areas such as New York. Here, emissions from driving, public transport, heating homes and using electricity at home are considered. The experience of China [7] on the introduction of restrictions on driving transport in Beijing on individual behavior during trips is interesting. The restrictions prohibit drivers from using their cars one weekday a week on the basis of a license plate. This experience of organizational measures also contributes to reducing the number of cars in operation, which means it can reduce the amount of emissions into the atmosphere. Assessment of the impact of air pollution from transport in urban areas - an overview of the actual data was performed in [8]: a comprehensive review of studies on measurements of concentrations of pollutants in the microenvironment of urban transport, published in the period from January 2016 to July 2020 in the Medline, Scopus and Embase databases, was conducted. The average values and ranges of impacts for each mode of transport were calculated, as well as the impact ratios between modes of transport and factors within the same study. The results obtained indicate that higher concentrations of air pollutants are often observed in road transport compared to cycling and walking. Therefore, taking into account the broader and long-term benefits for public health and the environment, it is concluded that every effort should be made to prioritize active travel and public transport and allow more people to use these modes of transport. This confirms the role of public transport in the implementation of tasks to reduce emissions. The problems of air pollution and the concerns caused by it among urban residents are studied in [9]: residents begin to adapt their behavior when traveling and take into account the quality of local air when choosing a house. A spatial and integrated model of choosing the location of residential buildings and transport for a city with air pollution due to traffic is proposed. Intra-urban spatial models of population density, choice of mode of transport and the resulting impact on the population are analyzed for urban conditions with different levels of health hazards and information about air pollution available to residents. This work highlights the need to link information about people's problems related to air pollution and integrated land use and transport measures. In this context, the health benefits are the result of a decrease in population density near urban centers. Thus, many studies have been devoted to the problems of air pollution and decarbonization. Various approaches to reducing the level of pollution are proposed, one of which is the use of electric transport, both public passenger and personal. In the Kyrgyz Republic, in order to stimulate the use of next-generation transport-electric vehicles by citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic has developed an Action Plan to stimulate the use of wheeled vehicles with electric motors and the creation of charging infrastructure [10]: Within the framework of the EAEU, it was decided to reset the rates of import customs duties of the Unified Customs Tariff of the EAEU until 31.12.2021. A proposal has been made to the EAEU to extend until 2025 the deadline for resolving the issue of applying a reduced unified rate of customs duties and taxes in respect of electric vehicles imported by individuals for personal use, since after the expiration of this decision, the rates of import customs duties will be paid according to the Unified Customs Tariff of the EAEU in the amount of 15% of the customs value. The Center for Standardization and Metrology under the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic is working on the standardization of electric charging devices and the introduction of international standards IEC 61851 and IEC 62196 into the national system of standards, and is also working on the classification of electric charging stations by type. Together with the Bishkek City Administration, the issue of the proposed location of the electric charging infrastructure within the city of Bishkek is being considered. The analysis of the current state of urban passenger transport was carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 2013 [11]: it was concluded that a competent policy for the development of the city and the development of public transport is currently being carried out. "Public Transport Development Plan". In such conditions, public transport should play a key role in servicing the movements of citizens. Today, 70% of all public transport operations are carried out by private carriers on minibuses. Municipal transport is uncompetitive due to a less developed route network, high traffic intervals, outdated infrastructure and poor quality of rolling stock operation. The disadvantage is also the lack of a legal framework for the management of the transport complex, which is why management processes are carried out manually, and any planning is impossible. At the moment, private carriers, which carry out 70% of transportation, are actually ignored by the public authorities. Therefore, to normalize the work of public transport and improve the quality of its services, first of all, a reform of the management system is required with the establishment of fair relations with private carriers, and not the development of infrastructure or attempts to oust private carriers from the market through the development of municipal transport. It is important to note that in a city like Bishkek, the construction of expensive rail transport is not required: a tram, a high-speed tram or a metro. According to the experience of Russian cities with a similar population (Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod), it can be assumed that the construction of even one metro line can take 20-30 years and will require huge investments in infrastructure, and as a result will not improve the conditions of movement. According to our estimate, one north–south metro line in Bishkek will be able to serve only 6-8% of all movements. As world experience shows, the lack of rail infrastructure can be a competitive advantage, since it simplifies the development of bus systems. In the draft concept for the development of Bishkek [12]: it is proposed to redirect the vector of the city's development from the horizontal (expansion of administrative borders, integrated development of undeveloped territories) to the vertical (intensification of the use of already built-up territory and stimulating the development of the city within the existing administrative borders). The parameters of land use in our project are linked to the development of public transport, which allows us to plan and optimize the load on the transport infrastructure. As you move away from the city center and the main lines of passenger transport, the density and number of floors of the building decreases (Fig. 1). The second section of this study is devoted to the problems of transport: the Bishkek street and road network has insufficient density, which is why the type of urban mobility based on the predominant use of personal vehicles cannot be stable and comfortable. In cities with similar parameters of the road network, international practice recommends imposing serious restrictions on the ownership and use of motor vehicles in order to shift the transport demand to other types of transport (Fig.2). In such conditions, public transport should play a key role in servicing the movements of citizens. Today, 70% of all public transport operations are carried out by private carriers on minibuses. Fig. 1 Conceptual scheme of the city development/ source: research of the author's team Fig. 2. The existing street and road network of Bishkek / Source: Research of the author's team At the same time, the existing route networks of municipal public transport - bus and trolleybus lines are proposed in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 Operating route networks of municipal transport in Bishkek According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the development of the route network and transport infrastructure as a whole is lagging behind the pace of development of the city. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is making efforts to improve the situation in the field of passenger transport in Bishkek, including reducing harmful emissions. In August 2020, a memorandum of understanding was signed between the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic on the urban transport electrification project [13]. The use of electric buses in Kyrgyzstan is a new and unfamiliar business. The paper [14] presents the result of the analysis of the efficiency and applicability of various options of electric passenger transport in the city. Technologies of electric buses-electric buses: electric buses with power in motion (In-Motion-Feeding), electric buses with charging in motion (In-Motion-Charging), electric buses with charging on the route (Opportunity Charging), electric buses with charging at the depot/station (Overnight Charging). "Disadvantages" of trolleybuses-IMF electric buses: 1. Power supply system: traction substations, feeding feeders, contact network-costs 2. Visual pollution (?)- aesthetics 3. Complex intersections of the contact network-costs, aesthetics 4. Fixed route network (?) –passenger confidence 5. Low maneuverability (?) –2-3 lanes 6. Reliability of the power supply and current collection system! - prevention and improvement A comparison of different types of electric buses on the energy efficiency of transportation was made (Table 1) Passenger capacity / energy efficiency of transportation Table 1 Passenger capacity, people Energy per passenger, W*h/(pass*km) Mass of the drive, kg IMF 100 25 - IMC 95 26 312,5 OC 81 30 1250 ONC на тягу 26 96 5000 56 45 3000 From a technical point of view, all these options are very similar – a bus-type body and chassis, a traction electric motor, control devices and electric energy supply. The differences in the cost of various electric bus designs are mainly determined by the capacity, size and weight of the batteries. Which concept of an electric bus is most suitable for your city? To do this, it is proposed to take into account the specific conditions and resources of the city. A comparison of electric bus variants was made in the study [15]: Our analysis shows that a diesel bus running on conventional diesel remains the most economical technology until 2025, while the regulatory framework remains unchanged. But this contributes very little to the achievement of the central goals of the German government. "Mobility and Fuel Strategy" (MFS), for example, reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions or introducing new technologies. On the contrary, electric buses could make a significant contribution to achieving these goals. With the progress in the energy transition ("Energiewende") and the further development of the battery, the technology of electric buses will become more profitable, especially from an environmental point of view. For electric buses, IMC is considered as the most economical technology for high-capacity lines (frequent maintenance, high-capacity vehicles) or lines with high energy demand. On the other hand, it is necessary to take into account all emissions into the atmosphere: exhaust gas emissions and emissions into the upper atmosphere during the production of energy carriers. Exhaust pipe emissions of conventional buses are calculated using the "Manual Database of Emission Factors for Road Transport" (HBEFA, version 3.2). The emissions of the electric bus use phase are determined by the production of electricity. The structure of electricity production is based on the work of AG Energiebilanzen , the Bundesverband Erneuerbare Energien (German Federation of Renewable Energy Sources)and the Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Energy Systems). Future electricity mixes are based on the 2011 Leitstudio. The calculated emission factors for electricity generation include emissions from power plants and primary energy supplies. An analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from the production of buses themselves was also carried out. Greenhouse gas emissions: All alternative concepts have increased emissions at the production stage compared to the diesel bus. They are strongly influenced by the size of the batteries in the corresponding electric bus concept. But also fuel cell hybrid buses have significantly higher emissions due to the production of vehicles. The higher fuel cell emissions are mainly due to the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) used in the hydrogen tank and the platinum used in the fuel cell. More efficient production processes for the production of carbon fiber, the use of electricity with a higher proportion of renewable energy sources and a higher proportion of recycled platinum can reduce these environmental consequences in the future. Thus, IMC is considered as an integral part of the strategy of electrification of urban public transport. The choice was made in favor of the IMC strategy at the current stage of technology and technology development. The choice of IMC technology electric buses was also made for San Francisco [16]: the city is expanding its fleet of zero-emission transit buses: after purchasing 93 Xcelsior XT60 articulated electric buses, the San Francisco Municipal Transit Agency (SFMTA) placed an order for 185 New Flyer XT40 buses equipped with the In Motion Charging (IMC) system, technology from Kiepe Electric. With the In Motion Charging function, trolleybuses cover sections of the route without overhead lines in battery-powered mode, and the batteries are then charged when the vehicle is again under the overhead lines. They are designed to improve the ride of passengers and reduce the impact on the environment. These new buses will serve passengers on the most mountainous and busiest routes of the city. 2. Materials and Methods * The assumptions made and their justification * Statistical and mathematical procedures used for data analysis and generalization. The methods used should be described, as a rule, in chronological order, with the necessary accuracy and details. Standard methods should only be mentioned or can be described with reference to the literature. If the method is new, it should be described in detail. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are accounted for by cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which there are less than 100 electric cars. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are accounted for by cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which there are less than 100 electric cars. As a solution, the mayor's office sees an increase in the fleet of public municipal transport to 60%-70%, this is an additional 400-600 units. large class buses (45-60 seats), which will optimize the quality and streamline the traffic flows of the capital's streets. The city administration is taking measures to improve the environment – buses with gas engines were purchased, which reduces harmful exhaust emissions. Efforts are also being made to expand the trolleybus fleet. However, the use of electric buses is a new and unfamiliar business for them, it is necessary to conduct special research and widely promote the use of electric transport first on passenger transport, then everywhere. An assumption was made about the effectiveness of the introduction of IMC electric buses in Bishkek with the aim of expanding the transport network and reducing air pollution and promoting green logistics in the Kyrgyz Republic. The following studies were also carried out: a survey of the structure of the rolling stock of public transport, including a study of the situation with trips on various types of transport, and a rational structure was recommended; the analysis of the trolleybus network is carried out in order to cover the outskirts of the city with trolleybus communication through the use of trolleybuses with increased autonomous travel. The study used econometric methods based on open source data, as well as data from our own research, data from expert analysis and a survey of the population. 3 Results 1. In the Kyrgyz Republic, in addition to small hydroelectric power plants, 18 electric power plants with a total installed capacity of 3,678 MW are operated, including 16 hydroelectric power plants and 2 thermal power plants. The share of HPP electricity generation is 88.5% of the total production [17]. With such a structure of electricity production, emissions into the upper atmosphere during the production of energy carriers are minimal, therefore, exhaust gas emissions from cars are the main air pollutant and the object of the impact of green logistics. 2. To select the recommended type of passenger electric transport, a classification of technical variants with averaged characteristics is compiled in Table 2. Classification of types of electric transport Table 2 Trolleybus (with minimal autonomous running)\ Electric bus with power in motion Electric bus with charging in motion (trolleybus with increased autonomous travel) Electric bus with charging at stops Electric bus with charging at the depot Name of the technology IMF (In-Motion-Feeding) IMC (In-Motion charging) OC (Opportunity charging) ONC (Overnight charging) Energy storage method - Charging when driving on a section equipped with a contact network Ultra-fast charging on the route during part of the stops Night slow charging Autonomous power reserve before 2 км 5 — 70 км 20 — 70 км more 150 км Easy to charge Absent Absent 5-25 minutes (at the bus stop) 4-10 hours (at the depot) The known disadvantages of the trolleybus are the binding to the contact network and the cost of the network itself. The contact network, together with cable lines and traction substations, is an expensive infrastructure object that requires significant investments in construction and maintenance. The construction of contact networks is quite high. Therefore, it is proposed to use the IMC option for Bishkek. In countries where the lines of the classic trolleybus have been preserved, the option of a "partial" trolleybus is justified, i.e. trolleybuses with autonomous running from batteries are a very profitable solution. 3. For Bishkek, on the basis of the city development scheme (Fig.1), the route network of municipal transport of the trolleybus carrier (Fig. 3b), the study of mobility and population of peripheral zones, the possibilities of extending trolleybus routes from final stops to residential areas using IMC were calculated (Table 3). The possibility of extending existing routes Table 3 # Name of the destination Route numbers Residential areas that fall within the area of additional coverage Lengthening of the route, km 1 Microdistrict "Jal" 5,14,1 Archa-Beshik, Chon-Aryk 5-6 2 Residential area "Ak-Orgo" 7,8,9,16 Selection, Ak-Ordo 6-7 3 Microdistrict "Asanbay" 10,11,17,13,15 Kok-Zhar, Beshkungey village 5-6 4 Residential district "Alamedin-1" 9,15,2 Novopokrovka village 8 5 Dordoy Market (Leather Factory) 4,17 Kelechek, Dordoi 5 The lengthening of routes is insignificant and is easily overcome by trolleybuses on autonomous travel, which pull over part of the passenger traffic in residential areas. Thanks to the introduction of the new product, trolleybus routes can be extended by 30-40 km, and the trolleybus route network can be expanded due to the possibility of movement from one trolleybus line to another. Buses, the route route of which partially coincides with the trolleybus, it will be advisable to replace them with trolleybuses. This improves the quality of passenger service and the role of public passenger electric transport. As can be seen from the table, the lengthening of routes can be 5-7 km, up to a maximum of 10 km from the existing final stop. The cost of building 1 km of a standard trolleybus network can reach 400 thousand US dollars, so the use of trolleybuses with a large autonomous course is a good alternative to the construction of new contact networks. Since the average cost of a trolleybus with an increased autonomous course for the CIS market is $ 182500 and is quite significant for Kyrgyzstan, as an alternative, you can use the option of converting existing trolleybuses of modern design into a trolleybus with an increased autonomous course. Such experience has been accumulated in the regions of the Russian Federation. At the heart of the alteration is the installation of lithium-ion batteries, a controller and an automatic lifting device for connecting to the contacts. The cost of reworking is about 22 thousand US dollars. Rework kit: a new electronic drive and 42 lithium-ion batteries, weighing about 1000 kg. An autonomous course of 15-20 km is provided, depending on the load. The Bishkek trolleybus fleet has 37 units of the 2018 Optima Trolleybus 5275.03 (RF) and 33 trolleybuses of the VMZ-5298.01-50 Avangard brand of Belarusian production (2013) as potential objects for re-equipment. 4 Discussion It is in this section that the authors explain the meaning and significance of the results obtained. This section brings everything together, shows the importance and value of the work and, therefore, is the most innovative and difficult part of the article to write. There are significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions in Bishkek, but no active measures are being taken to solve these problems. First of all, of course, because of the lack of funding for the projects announced by the government. However, promoting the ideas of a green economy is no less important task. The efforts of both the Government and local communities and civil society are necessary. Urban passenger transport is of great socio-economic importance. It can greatly influence the mindset of the population and the promotion of electric transport, since passengers use transport daily and all its improvements immediately become the subject of evaluation and promotion. The next stage of research may be the idea of converting minibuses, which provide 70% of urban passenger traffic, into an electric car, which would also help reduce air pollution. The main obstacle is of course the cost of rework, which can reach 20-30 thousand US dollars. However, the components of the systems can be produced in Belarus and Russia, and the batteries can be purchased in China, which can reduce costs. It is possible to localize the production of individual components in Kyrgyzstan to reduce costs. Further implementation of the principles of the green economy can be the development of other types of renewable energy sources – wind energy and solar. There are potential opportunities for installing wind turbines in many places of the republic, and according to the number of sunny days per year (247), Kyrgyzstan also has great prospects for the development of solar energy. Conclusions In the Kyrgyz Republic, there is a need and there are prerequisites for the introduction of the principles of a green economy; The main driver of the ideas of ecological consciousness and decarbonization should be the project of introducing public passenger electric transport; It is necessary to develop other types of renewable energy sources in the republic. 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Azizbek Kydykov, Akylbek Umetaliyev
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Prospects of public electric transport development in Bishkek
Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I. Razzakov Kyrgyz Republic, 720044, Bishkek, Aitmatova ave., 66 The proposed work analyzes the logistics system of passenger transport in Bishkek. On the basis of a review of the studies carried out and the proposed options for the development of the transport and logistics system, the conclusion about the need for priority development of the existing electric transport is substantiated. The analysis of modern world experience in the development of ground electric passenger transport is carried out. For the transport system of Bishkek, the choice of the development option with the use of a trolleybus with increased autonomous running has been substantiated. Key words: logistics system, transport infrastructure, air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, autonomous running, costs. Many countries are adopting programs to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, including from road transport. Concrete plans are being adopted to reduce the number of vehicles with internal combustion engines on the road. Instead, it is planned to increase the number of electric vehicles. Bishkek with a population of about 1 million has significant air pollution problems from automobile emissions. Cars are the most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are from cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which less than 100 are electric vehicles. The system of passenger transport in the city has its own characteristics [1]. Minibuses are the dominant transport in Bishkek. The minibus network consists of 120 route lines, including about 3000 units. minibuses and is serviced by 40 private operators. The route network covers 70% of the city's territory. According to the Department of Urban Transport under the Mayor's Office of Bishkek (hereinafter UGT), 30% -40% of the total number of route lines leave the route outside the city. The quantitative indicators of the work of the bus and trolleybus carrier are inferior to minibuses in all key parameters. According to the UGT of the Mayor's Office of Bishkek, in 2018 the number of route lines of municipal enterprises was: 10 by the bus and 10 by the trolleybus, about 110 trolleybuses out of the existing 156 and 110-120 buses go on the line every day. As a solution, UGT sees an increase in the park of public municipal transport up to 60% -70%, this is an additional 400-600 units. large class buses (100 passenger seats), which will optimize the quality and streamline traffic flows in the capital's streets. The city administration is taking measures to improve the environment - buses with gas engines have been purchased, which reduces harmful emissions. Efforts are also being made to expand the trolleybus fleet. However, for the correct organization of the logistics system of passenger transport, the structure of the rolling stock must correspond to the size of the urban population [2]. Bishkek belongs to the 2nd group of cities (table 1) and therefore, with the recommended average capacity (90-100 passengers - seats), it should have a rational structure of the passenger fleet. It is recommended that in the cities of the 1st-4th population groups, the bulk of traffic is carried out by rolling stock with an average capacity of 65-90 passengers. places. At the same time, the proportion of low-capacity rolling stock should not exceed 20% and decrease with the growth of the city's population. At the same time, it is necessary to increase the share of large-capacity rolling stock. Table 1 Recommended average passenger transport capacity depending on the population of cities City group Population, thousand people Average capacity of a unit of rolling stock, pas. - places 1 Over 1000 120—130 2 from 500 to 1000 90—100 3 from 250 to 500 75—80 4 from 100 to 250 65—70 5 from 50 to 100 45—50 The developed concept for the development of public transport [3] also recommends the need to achieve the desired ratios of transport shares: 70% of passenger traffic should be served by large-capacity rolling stock. While now - 70% of all public transport is carried out by private carriers in minibuses. All this is aimed at ensuring the convenience and comfort of the public transport system and reducing traffic. In addition, the introduction of low-emission transport is recommended. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is also taking measures to improve the situation in the field of passenger transport in Bishkek, including reducing harmful emissions. In August 2020, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic on the project for the electrification of urban transport [4]. This project provides for the purchase of modern energy efficient battery electric buses, charging infrastructure (substations, electrical installation and construction works), equipment for bus service. In addition, it is planned to modernize the infrastructure of bus depots, build all-weather parking spaces for new electronic buses. The project also includes the creation of a pilot "green" traffic corridor for electric buses. However, the use of electric buses in Kyrgyzstan is new and unfamiliar. Therefore, the result of the analysis of the efficiency and applicability of various options for electric transport in Bishkek is proposed. The classification of modern electric transport options is shown in Table 2 [5]. The disadvantages of the trolleybus are the connection to the overhead network and the cost of the network itself. The overhead network, together with cable lines and traction substations, is an expensive infrastructure facility that requires significant investments in construction and maintenance. There is also an intermediate solution. In countries where the lines of the classic trolleybus have been preserved, the option of a "partial" trolleybus is being considered, i.e. trolleybuses with autonomous running from accumulators. Table 2 Classification of types of electric transport # Trolleybus (with minimum autonomous running) \ Electric bus with power in motion Electric bus with recharging in motion (trolleybus with increased autonomous running) Electric bus with charging at stops Electric bus with charging at the depot Technology name IMF (In-Motion-Feeding) IMC (In-Motion charging) OC (Opportunity charging) ONC (Overnight charging) Energy storage method No Charging when driving on an area equipped with a contact network Ultra-fast charging on the route during some of the stops Nightly slow charging Autonomous power reserve to 2 km 5 — 70 km 20 — 70 km to 150 km Easy to charge Absent Absent 5 — 25 minutes (on the bus stop) 4 — 10 часов (on the parking) The most interesting of them: 1. Classic electric bus - ONC. With static charging at night in the depot, it combines all the advantages of a bus and a trolleybus. In addition, electricity is generally cheaper at night than during the day, which is also an advantage. However, its big drawback is the weight and price of the batteries. Therefore, the mileage of classic electric buses is limited - for most modern models it does not exceed 200 kilometers, which is not enough to work on routes throughout the day. This problem can be solved by electric buses with ultra-fast charging on the route during part of stops (OC), or with dynamic charging of batteries in motion. Dynamic charging takes significantly less time, although it requires a dedicated charging infrastructure. IN The existing contact network of a classic trolleybus or even a tram can serve as such an infrastructure in cities. 2. A trolleybus with significant autonomous running - IMC. It is an economically and environmentally viable option for cities with existing trolleybus infrastructure. For electric buses, IMC is considered the most economical technology for high-capacity lines (frequent maintenance, high-capacity vehicles) or lines with high energy demand. An analysis of passenger capacity and energy efficiency of transportation by various modes of transport is shown in Table 3. Table 3 Passenger capacity / energy efficiency of transportation Passenger capacity, people Energy per passenger W * h / (pass * km) Drive weight, kg IMF 100 25 - IMC 95 26 312,5 OC 81 30 1250 ONC to pull 26 96 5000 56 45 3000 The cost structure of individual electric bus systems is shown on picture 1. Pic. 1. Rolling stock cost structure From a technical point of view, all these options are very similar - the body and chassis of the bus type, the traction motor, the control devices and the supply of electrical energy. Differences in the cost of various designs of electric buses are determined mainly by the capacity, size and weight of batteries. On average, a lithium-ion battery with a mass of about 1000 kg provides an autonomous mileage of up to 25 km. This represents about 5% of the total mass of the IMC electric bus. Measures for the development of electric transport in Bishkek. The construction of contact networks is quite high (the cost of 1 km of the line is more than 400 thousand dollars), and the purchase of autonomous trolleybuses is a very profitable solution. For the city of Bishkek, a project is proposed (Table 4) for lengthening trolleybus routes from the terminal stops to the veins of the massifs using the IMC. Table 4 Extension of existing routes # Destination name Route numbers Residential areas falling into the additional coverage area Length of route, km 1 "Djal" district 5,14,1 Archa-Beshik, Chon-Aryk 5-6 2 "Ak-Keme" residensy 7,8,9,16 Selection, Ak-Ordo 6-7 3 "Asanbay" district 10,11,17,13,15 Kok-Jar, Beshkungei 5-6 4 "Alamedin-1" district 9,15,2 Nonopokrovka, 8 5 "Dordoi" market (Leather factory) 4,17 Kelechek, Dordoi 5 The lengthening of routes is insignificant and is easily overcome by autonomous trolleybuses, which pull part of the passenger traffic in the residential areas onto themselves. This improves the quality of passenger service and the role of public electric passenger transport. Bibliographic references 1. https://soros.kg/srs/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/A4.pdf 2. Passenger road transport Textbook for universities. Ed. V.A. Gudkova \ Gudkov V.A., Mirotin L.B., Velmozhin A.V., Shiryaev S.A., 2006 448 pp. 3. http://meria.kg/index.php?lang=kg 4. https://kaktus.media/doc/418681_v_bishkeke_poiaviatsia_elektrobysy_podpisan_pervichnyy_dogovor_s_abr.html 5. S. Korolkov, "Electric bus - technical features of design options." UITP trolleybus committee. MOSGORTRANS (September 8, 2017). © A.A. Kydykov, A.S. Umetaliyev, 2021
Dzheldogutova Nadira Kairatovna
2422 | 0
Virtual logistics centers as an efficient method of using resources
2nd year graduate student, Kazakh-German University, Almaty, Kazakhstan Specialty "Resource-saving production logistics", Scientific adviser - Kegenbekov Zhandos Kadyrkhanovich Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies of the Kazakh-German University Annotation. This article examines virtual logistics centers as the most efficient way to use resources. It also examines the impact of information technology on virtual logistics centers and presents the result to date. Key words: virtual logistic centers, information flow, information technology, cloud computing. Nowadays, the systematization and simplification of many processes through information technology is becoming more and more popular. Corporations and large organizations prefer virtual logistics, which is developing rapidly and provides an opportunity to save many resources such as time, speed of tasks, etc. A virtual logistics center gives you the opportunity to work remotely and complete tasks and teams, and this provides a chance to have employees around the world, which in logistics can play into the hands of an employer. Using the example of Uber, Amazon, Alibaba, they base all their business models by storing them in cloud platforms, all calculations are carried out on cloud computing, IT networks, etc. [1, p. 26] ICT has a fairly wide range of opportunities to increase competitiveness, as it establishes close partnerships between customers, suppliers and business partners through the modernization of management processes. The information flow itself runs parallel to material goods in the production system. Integration of the information flow makes the virtual logistics system augmented, productive and overcomes all barriers in flow processes [3, p. fifteen]. It is possible to highlight some of the difficulties faced by the integration of information flow into a virtual logistics system: - system integration; - stepwise implementation of the system functionality; - access to all databases of the organization; -methods of data visualization to support the perception of data in the analysis. When creating the virtual logistics centers themselves, the following obstacles must has considered: - Competitors in the field of related services may not take such a risk - bundling and providing complex services; - skeptical attitude to the joint effect, which involves the development of logistics activities in partnership; - the impossibility of connecting logistic information systems [7, p. 87]. Figure 1. Hierarchical organization of resources in an integrated system The rationale for creating a virtual logistics center is efficiently manage the vital capacity that is available. Available capacities are those resources that, in terms of their functional and technical characteristics, parameters, readiness for operation, has integrated into a virtual logistics system. Integrated logistics services require the use of resources such as buildings, machinery, equipment, labor. The individual or group use of the available capacities already depends on the client's requirements and the way of satisfaction. Mobile resources include cars, human resources, and financial capital. These resources has made available without any restrictions in accordance with the planned logistics services. Stable resources include roads, warehouses, transfer points, stations, ports, airports, etc. When designing a multi-purpose logistics center concept, a hierarchical architecture has used, as in Figure 1. The following sorting of resources is used: Stable resources; Organizational resources; Mobile resources. The connection between geo-locations and the characteristics of logistics services through stable resources with division into various decentralized locations will lead to an increase in traffic volumes. Moreover, the decentralization of the virtual logistics center will have a positive effect on reducing the capacity of transport routes by optimizing transport chains. In conclusion, we can conclude that many companies, guided by many positive aspects, create virtual logistics centers in partnership with their competitors, get a solution to many problems that arise with simple logistics centers. The correct distribution of resources takes place with the correct operation of decentralized centers. However, taking into account all the factors, do not forget that remoteness and virtuality introduce their own adjustments. For example, the main resource of every company is its human resource. Bibliographic list 1. Minakova I. et al. Innovations in inventory management of industrial enterprises // Innovative economy: prospects for development and improvement. - 2017. - No. 8 (26). 2. Kizim AA, Isaulova SS Virtual transport and logistics system. Logistic centers as points of virtual economic analysis // Finance and Credit. - 2004. - No. 1 (139). 3. Kizim AA, Kozenko VV Virtual logistics: problems and prospects // Economics of sustainable development. - 2013. - No. fourteen. 4. Khalyn VG Virtualization of information and logistics infrastructure of regional logistics distribution centers (for example, SKLP LLC) // Bulletin of the Rostov State University of Economics (RINH). - 2014. - No. 3 (47). 5. Krivdenko AN, Cherpakova EV APPLICATION OF VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGIES IN TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS SYSTEMS // Innovations in science and practice. - 2019 .-- S. 214-218. 6. Matveeva DA VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION IN LOGISTICS // Actual problems of aviation and cosmonautics. - 2018. - T. 3. - No. 4 (14). 7. Putkina LV Development of an innovative strategy for the activity of a commercial enterprise in the virtual market // Modern problems of science and education. - 2013. - No. 2. - S. 365-365. 8. Davydov SV Virtual logistics centers in regional transport and logistics systems // Transport Bulletin. - 2003. - No. 6. - S. 34-38.
Goloshchapova Anastasia Pavlovna, Zhailoobaev Sardar Umutbekovich
3093 | 0
Public procurement monitoring system for civil society
Scientific Supervisor- Dolotbakova A. K. Associate Professor of KSTU named after I. Razzakov Summaryt: This article examines the problem of the lack of a system for monitoring public procurement for civil society in Kyrgyzstan. The characteristic features of the country's civil society are highlighted and described. The paper proposes a solution to the "green flags" monitoring system based on the international method of the Civil Society Procurement Monitoring Tool. Keywords: Civil society, public procurement Sabyrova G.Zh. notes that in the field of public procurement of Kyrgyzstan, about 30 billion soms rotate and annually more than 15% of the gross domestic product is spent on public procurement. Considering the constant deficit of budgetary funds, their efficient and economical use at all times has been and remains a topical issue. Therefore, one of the most important tasks facing the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is to ensure openness and transparency of public procurement procedures [1]. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, more and more people began to think about the role of public procurement in their lives. They see governments buying personal protective equipment and ventilators and urgently building new hospitals to treat COVID-19 patients, etc. Every week we read about new scandals - huge prices, new firms getting contracts worth millions of dollars, money are lost and the list continues. The underdevelopment of the institution of civil society and the closed nature of state structures are confirmed by the world rating of democracy, which was compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit of the British company Economist Group, in 2020 Kyrgyzstan took 107th place among 167 countries. A year earlier, the country was number 101. According to the World Justice Project's 2015 index of government openness in the countries of the world, Kyrgyzstan ranks 64th out of 102 in it. Based on this, control and monitoring of public procurement by civil society is necessary to overcome the crisis of public confidence in the authorities. The population, observing and regulating the activities of public procurement, will have increased responsibility, and it will itself decide in what conditions it will live. With this tool, civil society will contribute to the country's economic policy. It is certainly impossible to eradicate corruption completely, however, reducing corruption risks is a goal that should be pursued by those who monitor procurement. Although monitors are not auditors and lack procurement skills and knowledge, they play an important role in improving the efficiency of public procurement. Most of these ideas come from civil society or journalists, not government investigations. But, fortunately, in recent years, citizens have been paying more and more attention to monitoring procurement. They want to make sure their money is spent openly, fairly and efficiently. And when information is available, great things happen, as evidenced by the growing number of citizen-led and civil society-led procurement monitoring organizations around the world. But what is procurement monitoring? How can this be done more efficiently through better technology and data access? What motivates citizens to look at contracts? There are so many approaches to “monitoring procurement” and they are all correct because they work for different contexts, goals and methods. Of all the known methodologies in the world, the Civil Society Procurement Monitoring Tool is used mostly. It is a tool widely used internationally and relies on the identification of red flags at every stage of the procurement process. Red flags are signs or indications of possible deficiencies, irregularities or corruption. It should be added that the identification of a red flag does not necessarily indicate the existence of a violation or act of corruption, but rather the potential for such to occur. Sometimes a red flag can be the result of a human or technical error without malicious intent, rather than a signal of corruption. Therefore, it is important for monitors to know not only how to identify red flags, but also the measures they can take to analyze them in-depth, including notifying the authorities responsible for supervision and control in the field of public procurement, investigating anti-competitive practices, conflict of interest, corruption, etc. [2]. To carry out monitoring activities, the public procurement process is divided into 4 main stages: Stage of planning and development of documentation for the award; The stage of initiating the procurement procedure; The stage of evaluating offers and awarding a contract; Stage of execution and monitoring of the contract. At each stage, a member of the civil society working group to guide the red flag instrument can promptly signal tenders that violate public procurement procedures. Risk indicators that can help identify potential irregularities or inefficiencies in contracting processes, such as: short tender periods; low number of bidders; low percentage of contracts concluded on a competitive basis; high percentage of contracts with amendments; large discrepancies between the amount awarded and the final amount of the contract. We can use this tool as an analogue. And given the level of a democratic institution, the level of corruption, culture of thinking, etc. We are able to adapt this public monitoring system in public procurement. The system itself is built on the basis of several fundamental components: A Procurement Monitoring Guide - provides the user with a detailed scheme for monitoring procurement procedures using forensic expertise and “red flags” signaling the possibility of a corruption risk. The Country-specific Monitoring Guides - allows you to relate the Monitoring Guide to the national specifics of public procurement systems. The Monitoring Assistant - An interactive checklist that makes it easy to spot red flags (signals) of corruption risk. Supporting Materials (The Links Pages) - a collection of additional resources to support monitoring procurement. The Learning Community - an additional interactive learning space where active users (CSPM) can leave their comments on improving the tool and share their experience in finding corrupt procurement. The Online Training - training in the practical use of the tool (CSPM) in procurement monitoring. The advantages of using the American model are flexibility and modularity. It reflects not only the systematized logic of building the monitoring and control process itself, but also provides the user with a structured tool for searching for corrupt purchases. Given the risk of reprisals and persecution arising in this process, it would be safer in Kyrgyzstan to apply the “green flag” system, when a civil society representative signals by putting up a green flag where he did not find any violations. Since the degree of corruption of state bodies in our republic is quite high, the direct system of using red flags will constantly lead to the emergence of conflicts and tensions. It is highly likely that outspoken and critical civil society representatives with red flags will be prosecuted and threatened to dissuade them from further participation in the monitoring process. Such acts of intimidation will need to be reported immediately to the relevant national authorities, which is not very pleasant for citizens. Although national authorities may have more opportunities to influence decisions and prevent corrupt practices and ensure that citizens' rights to freedom of expression and public information are respected, there is no guarantee in our country that they will not be drawn into corruption schemes. It is necessary to keep the names of persons or organizations involved in the monitoring process in complete confidentiality. The information they provide will be mentioned in the report in general terms, that is, "According to the views of civil society representatives of the country ...". Government involvement and lists of participants are not shared with the authorities, and the media should be actively involved in the process. Summing up, we can say that the benefits of involving civil society institutions and taking into account the interests of citizens in the management of state and municipal services and work to improve their quality include: For state and municipal bodies providing services: percentage reduction in complaints from the civil sector, disputes (related to non-compliance with legislation in terms of public hearings, consultations, etc.), in this regard, the saved time that was previously spent on their consideration can be spent on solving more important problems and tasks not related to complaints and disputes; percentage reduction of negative reviews about their activities, in general, and, in particular, in the field of service provision; assessment of the quality of services by civil society will affect the responsibility of the authorized state body in the provision of them. For the civil sector: significant improvement in public awareness of public procurement; percentage increase in the degree of satisfaction of civil society representatives with decisions made in the public sector, as well as with the results of services provided; reduction of moral costs. Thus, creating the institution of civil society, we solve the problem of fragmentation and ineffectiveness of monitoring and control of public procurement. There is still no public oversight in Kyrgyzstan. For people who want to understand this process, it is not clear where to turn for help, despite the fact that the procedure is quite difficult for an ordinary person to understand. And public associations and activists are simply unable to keep track of all the processes. Citizens do not trust the very procedure of public procurement and the effectiveness of control over it. In addition, the very ministries and departments responsible for procurement do not learn from their own and others' mistakes, freeing the hands of corruption and unfair competition in this area. List of used literature: 1. Dolotbakova A.K. On strengthening and intensifying scientific research of the public procurement process in the Kyrgyz Republic URL: [https://www.pplo.kg/repository/26/ ]. 2. Guidelines for Monitoring Public Procurement: A Tool for Civil Society URL: [http://viitorul.org/files/achiztii%20publice/Ghid%20Achizitii%20Societate%20Civila%20%202017%20-%20RUS.pdf].
Orumbayev Temirlan Azamatuly
1876 | 0
Simulation modeling as a way to predict passenger traffic
2nd grade master-student, Resource-efficient production logistics, Kazakh-German University, Scientific supervisor – KegenbekovZh.K., candidate of technical sciences, associate professor, Kazakh-German University, Abstract The simulation method allows you to build models that describe the processes in the way they would be in reality. In such a model, you can experiment with event streams and execution times, either for a single case or for a given number of trials. In this case, the results can be recorded and appropriate conclusions can be drawn. A large class of systems is reduced to queuing systems (QS), which is difficult to investigate using analytical methods. The purpose of this work is the possibility of obtaining indicators for predicting passenger traffic using simulation modeling. To achieve the goal, the following tasks are present: study of the simulation system; the choice of a software product in which the model can be built; analysis of the current situation in the field of public transport. Certain events affect the transition of the QS from one state to another - the arrival of applications and their processing. The stream of events is formed from a sequence of random occurrences of events that follow, one after another at random times. Often, the actions of the whole system are determined not by one, but by several streams of events at once. Key words: logistics, modeling, passenger traffic, public transport, transport system. The transport system evolves annually under the influence of a very large number of unstable factors, which inevitably affects the area of functioning of public transport. The main task of both the city and private enterprises in the field of public transport and transport networks is to create and provide an affordable, reliable, constant and convenient passenger transportation service. At the moment, the indicator of the organization of passenger traffic is not very good, one can even say that it is bad. Problematic situations in planning transportation are associated with the following factors [1, p. 25]: setting a schedule for the operation of vehicles; analysis and correction of routes; work on servicing passengers during the trip and during their transfer; setting tariffs; a limited number of vehicles and so on. All of the above problems are by no means indirectly related to the study of change trends and the creation of passenger traffic, as well as the construction of a forecast of passenger traffic. Simulation and forecasting of passenger flows often include [2, p. 102]: collection of statistics and marketing research; studying the parameters that can affect the appearance and change of passenger traffic; forecasting the demand for transportation and the behavior of passengers in the short and long term for all transport services; substantiation and calculation of prospective passenger traffic; analysis of the results obtained and ideas for solving problems. The administration of any city has and will try to eliminate some routes, not to analyze the situation, not taking into account the indicators of passenger traffic on these routes. This hasty decision of the city administration was canceled, there were no analogues, which caused the need for transfers, increased the cost of passenger travel. After that they will have to start these routes again, it is hard to imagine how many resources our administration lost in this unsuccessful attempt [3, p. 113]. But if we assume that all changes, before taking effect, would be tested in a simulation environment that can simulate the model of the city's transport hub, then if any route was canceled, we could know the consequences in advance. If we initially knew the number of people who need public transport on a daily basis, then it would be possible to pre-allocate routes by discarding unnecessary ones or adding necessary ones. AnyLogic software is based on an object-oriented system. This approach to understanding complex systems is one of the best methods for managing the complexity of information today, this theory allows you to show and master the structure of a complex system in a simple and natural way [5]. The result of the work done is a “flexible” model that can easily adapt to the required options. The model is a forecast for the indicators of passenger traffic, which has the ability to regulate the movement of vehicles and pedestrians. This model has the ability to adjust many parameters, which will allow you to select the value for the required situation. Parameters such as: the number of buses that will pass along the route within an hour; the capacity of buses; dimensions and speed; the number of pedestrians; pedestrian movement, speed and other parameters. The transport situation is very often a problem area in the city, a large number of public and personal transport. As a result, there are frequent traffic jams. Also in this area there is a railway station, several shopping centers, for example. And this fact implies a huge passenger traffic Based on the work, a model can be built that operates in three modes. In this work, we consider the general case of pedestrian traffic with arbitrary data, we build a graph of the bus stop. We make a forecast of passenger traffic indicators. We can regulate the number of incoming pedestrians and approaching vehicles. Such a simulation model makes it possible to understand not only the operation of public transport, but also to forecast the appearance of passengers, which we can obtain based on the given parameters. What can help organize the work of urban transport. In the future, on the basis of the constructed model, a complete study of the city can be carried out. The following parameters can be changed in the city: elimination and addition of traffic lights, increase or decrease in their work in different modes; widening of road lanes, with a large congestion of cars, by completing roads or banning parking; transfer of stops, pedestrian crossings in order to establish the work of public transport and increase passenger flow; redistribution of buses on each route at certain hours; complete elimination of the route if necessary; construction of additional stops, streets, crossings and much more, as well as all possible consequences can be studied and checked without fear of irreversible negative consequences in life. Thus, in the future, with the availability of relevant statistical data, they can be used to build a model of the real situation and correct some negative aspects in the city's transport system. If we know the value of passenger traffic for each individual transport hub, then there will be it is possible to redistribute buses on routes, add or remove if necessary, thereby increasing profits for the city and reducing losses. Bibliographic list 1. Arrak, AO Socio-economic efficiency of passenger transportation / AO Arrak. - Tallinn: 1982 - 200c. 2. Artynov, A. P. Automation of planning and management of transport systems / A. P. Artynov, V. V. Skaletskiy. - M .: Nauka, 1981 .-- 272 p. 3. Aliev, A.S. Modeling of traffic flows in a large city with application to the Moscow agglomeration / A. S. Aliev, A. I. Strelnikov, V. A. Shvetsov, Yu. Z. Shershevsky // Automation and Telemechanics. - 2005. —No.11. — p. 113-125. 4. Kobelev, NB Fundamentals of simulation of complex economic systems: a tutorial / NB Kobelev. - M .: Delo, 2003 .-- 336 p. 5. Website of the AnyLogic software developer // https://www.anylogic.ru/ (was available on January 8, 2021)
Nurbaeva Damilya Kambarovna
2390 | 0
Application of SAP ERP software in the framework of transport and logistics clusters
2nd grade master - student,Kazakh-German UniversityDepartment of Logistics,Scientific supervisor – Kegenbekov Zhandos KadirkhanovichPh.D., associate professorHead of the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology One of the most effective ways to modernize and develop transport potential is the creation and development of transport and logistics clusters. A transport and logistics cluster is defined as a complex of geographically localized interconnected companies and organizations specializing in the storage, escort and delivery of goods and passengers. The most important part of the functioning of the cluster is information flows, which include collection and registration of data, processing and transmission of data, storage, protection and analysis of information. The development and implementation of modern information technologies is currently one of the urgent tasks of transport logistics. Key words: cluster, SAP-ER, logistic center For the first time the concept of a cluster appeared in the 80s in the works of the famous economist Michael Porter. Transport and logistics clusters (TLC) are one of the mixed types of clusters, which include a complex of infrastructure and companies specializing in the storage, escort and delivery of goods and passengers. Transport and logistics clusters are developing in regions with significant transit potential. The elements that belong to the core of the cluster carry out the main activity, and may include 3PL providers, 4 PL providers, multimodal and intermodal transport operators, large trucking and railway companies, airlines. Cluster servicing objects are objects that are required, but activities that are not directly related to the functioning of the "core" objects. The service objects can include enterprises that implement the service functions of the cluster, i.e. informational, sales, repair, etc. In addition, the service facilities include the financial center of the cluster, i.e. a banking structure that provides financial support for the activities of cluster enterprises [1]. Also, they will include commodity and customs warehouses, freight forwarders, customs brokers. Complementary elements of the cluster will include research institutes and educational institutions. Ancillary sites will include consulting businesses, resellers, distributors, companies, licensing and certification bodies. A feature of auxiliary elements is that their presence is not necessary for the full functioning of the TLC. For the sake of optimizing the activities of the cluster, the functions of advertising, marketing and information services will be more profitable to outsource. The most important part of the functioning of the cluster is information flows, which include data processing and transmission, storage, protection and analysis of information. It is possible to solve the problem of accelerating document circulation, improving the quality of registration, ensuring the smooth movement of goods by automating information processes. Various electronic data interchange systems are widely used today. The development and implementation of modern information technologies is currently one of the urgent tasks of transport logistics. One of the possibilities for the development of the cluster will be the use of SAP ERP software. ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system is needed in order to store and process critical data, without which the functioning of the company is impossible. SAP ERP software used within the TLC will allow you to manage external and internal resources. Concern SAP was founded in Germany in 1972. It is currently one of the largest software development companies in the world. From the very beginning of its activity, the company has been engaged in the automation of management processes within enterprises, covering accounting, financial transactions and orders for the production of products. Over time, personnel management and warehouse management appeared among the modules of the system. More detailed information about the modules is presented in Table 2. Currently, SAP consists of groups of logically related operations (transactions) within separate business functions. Table 2. Functional areas of the SAP program Module Description of the module function MM Purchase Material management. Acceptance of procurement bids PP Production Discrete or continuous production planning FI and CO Tracking financial control and management accounting. Analysis of profit, expenses and income НСМ People staff recruitment, salary payments EWM Storage Warehouse management CS Service Service cycle management, analytical reporting SD Sales Systematic sales processes, picking, shipping Source [2] SAP ERP is an enterprise resource planning system that allows a company to maintain and optimize its processes. The main applications of SAP ERP are logistics, human resources and finance. Figure 1 shows the organizational levels of the sales system in the SAP program and the structure of materials management. Picture 1 Materials Management Structure in SAP ERP Source [3] The Global bike in this scheme is a client - it is an independent unit in the system. The rest of the divisions in the system will be company code. The company code represents a legally independent unit of account and is the minimum unit for which a complete set of regulatory reporting can be created. The installation of SAP ERP software has certain advantages and disadvantages, which are indicated in Table 3. As in the ERP system, this software has the ability to include a large number of processes, given the possibility of expansion and growth of the company. Table 3. SWOT analysis for the implementation of SAP ERP software in the framework of transport and logistics clusters Strengths: Weaknesses: system flexibilitymultilingual interfacereduced human errorimplementation experience among large companiessupplier reliability long-term nature of achieving positive resultssoftware costconstant technical support requirementthe complexity of the system due to the large number of connections between objects Capabilities: Possible risks: process optimizationclose cooperation between cluster elements at all stages of work lack of experience in implementing the system at the cluster leveldata security,long process of setup and testinghigh level of implementation costsineffective project management Source: compiled by the author based on [3] Kareva I.N. in the article "Comparative characteristics of SAP and Oracle ERP systems" notes that the flexibility of the SAP system will be both an advantage and a disadvantage After conducting the SWOT analysis, it is worth highlighting the proposals for the implementation of the SAP ERP system in the transport and logistics cluster. The main purpose of using the SAP system within the transport and logistics cluster will be to improve business processes. Figure 2 shows the proposed hierarchy of the transport and logistics cluster after the implementation of SAP software. The cluster itself will be considered a client, and its structural elements will be company codes. Picture 2. Organizational structure of TLC after SAP ERP implementation. Compiled by the author based on [4] The process of implementing the system itself will be a rather complicated and lengthy process. It is recommended to split the software implementation process into several stages, which are indicated in Table 4. The exact timeline will depend on the participants of the transport and logistics cluster, and the full transition may take several years. Table 4 Stages of SAP ERP software implementation in the transport and logistics cluster. Name of the stage Description of the stage preparatory stage study of the client's previous activities negotiations with the supplier development and approval of proposals for improving the cluster's performance conclusion of a contract the supplier and the client come to a decision regarding the solutions provided, taking into account the specifics of the cluster operation software installation supplier provides SAP software staff training training employees to work with the program in practice service maintenance Includes maintenance after performing the services specified in the contract compiled by the author based on [4] It is worth paying special attention to the stage of employee training. The stage should include theoretical lessons and the necessary teaching materials for training, as well as practice of working with the program. Difficulties may arise in the fact that it is necessary to organize training of employees of the cluster elements in accordance with their job responsibilities. In addition, the use of the SAP ERP system in the daily activities of the cluster will require some adaptation even after successfully mastering the theoretical and practical course. Klaus Schira, one of the founders of SAP, commented on his customer training experience: “I have never learned so much in such a short time, thanks to the mistakes that twenty of my students made. You will never make so many mistakes working alone”. [4] In recent years, the influence of information and communication technologies on the possibilities for the development of TLC has been growing. The development and implementation of modern information technologies is currently one of the urgent tasks of logistics. The greatest effect from the use of an ERP system can be achieved provided that all cluster members are in the same information space. The SAP system used in the transport and logistics cluster will inform all participants at the same time. Bibliographic list: Prokofieva T., Klimenko V. Methodological aspects of building a cluster model in the transport and logistics infrastructure of the region // Logistics and supply chain management. – 2011. – № 6 // http://www.lscm.ru/index.php/ru/po-godam/item/1122 (was available on April 20, 2020) Yudina S. Kuznetsova M. Practice of information systems implementation management in foreign companies // Young scientist. – 2017. – № 13. – С.418-421. Kareva I. Comparative characteristics of ERP systems SAP and Oracle // Young scientist. – 2014. – № 20. – С. 279-281. The official website of the SAP company https://www.sap.com/corporate/en/company.htmlм (was available on 19.04.2020)
A. K. Dolotbakova, Myrzaliyeva M.A., Mukhtarbekova R.M.
2431 | 0
The problems of formation of logistics centers on export of kyzgyz meat products
Annotation: In 2015, the Government's Plan for the Development of Export of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2015-2017 was approved in Kyrgyzstan. This Plan has prioritized all traditional agri-food exports (dairy products, fresh and processed vegetables, fruits and nuts, wool and animal skins, cotton), as well as meat products and bottled water. The EAEU countries, the EU and China are considered as priority directions of supplies. Keywords: meat products, export, markets, foreign markets, logistics The construction of livestock facilities for the production, processing of meat and the production of high-quality beef and lamb is underway in the republic, but not enough to fully provide the population with high-quality meat and meat products, as well as export abroad. According to the Association "KygyzEt", the meat industry of Kyrgyzstan is located in deplorable condition. The most pressing problems in the meat industry at today there is a lack of modern slaughterhouses and meat processing plants that meet the EAEU standards. This leads to a low export potential of the industry, significant loss of profits for farmers and in general country due to loss of added value. Also, the insufficient number of veterinary and test laboratories and their insufficient staffing, the complete absence of modern logistics centers lead to large losses of profits. According to the estimates of the "KygyzEt" Association, to address these issues in the republic, it is necessary to build 40 modern slaughterhouses. Each district has one workshop with a capacity of 10 heads of cattle and 50 heads of small cattle per shift. We also need 10 mini-meat processing plants with a processing capacity of 3000 kg of meat per shift. The meat processing plants are planned to be located in large cities of the country. We also need 7 modern trade and logistics centers for meat, which will be located in the cities: Bishkek, Balykchy, Batken, Kyzyl-Kiya. It also requires 32 veterinary laboratories. Kyrgyzstan has developed successful international cooperation with Iran, since in July 2016 two representatives of the Iranian Veterinary Service arrived in Bishkek to take a number of restrictive medical and administrative measures aimed at preventing the spread of infectious diseases. As a result, Kyrgyzstan managed to export sheep meat to Iran. The country plans to continue and even increase its exports to Iran. Large unused reserves for increasing the production of meat of all types are available in small-scale production, where modernization is proceeding very slowly. Given the growth in the number of livestock and new requirements in the EAEU, the issue of organizing the slaughter of livestock in accordance with the requirements of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union TR CU 034/2013 "On the Safety of Meat and Meat Products" arises. The lack of sufficient own financial resources and government support hinders the rapid development of meat production and processing in the republic, including the construction of meat reproductive farms, feedlots, slaughtering and processing workshops. According to the Program of statistical works for 2018 "On carrying out in the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic the recount of livestock and poultry at the end of 2018" local authorities carried out a complete recount of livestock and poultry. The number of livestock and poultry kept in state and collective farms, subsidiary farms of enterprises and organizations, peasant (farm) farms, farms of individual entrepreneurs engaged in agricultural production and personal subsidiary farms of citizens was subject to registration. The recalculation of livestock and poultry shows that the tendency for the growth of the number of main types of farm animals remains in the republic (Table 1). Livestock and poultry population in Kyrgyzstan (in farms of all categories, at the end of the year, heads) 109 The largest share of the cattle livestock is kept in the farms of Osh (22.5% of the total livestock), Jalal-Abad (20.3%), Chui (17.8%) and Issyk-Kul (14.6%) regions, sheep and goats - in the farms of Jalal-Abad (21.2%), Osh (18.5%), Naryn (17.3%) and Issyk-Kul (14.9%) regions, horses - in the farms of Naryn (23 , 9%), Issyk-Kul (21.2%), Osh (19.3%), Jalal-Abad (14.3%) and Chui (14.1%) regions At the end of 2018, in all categories of farms in the republic, compared to the corresponding period of 2017, there was an increase in the number of main types of livestock. However, the number of cattle in state and collective farms, in comparison with the corresponding period of 2017, on the contrary, decreased by 350 heads or 3.0 percent. At the same time, the main problems in organizing slaughterhouses are: a low level of integrated integration into a single technological complex of meat producers, feed mills industry, slaughterhouses, meat processing and retail chains; remoteness of places where livestock are kept from slaughterhouses and refrigerators; insufficient level of infrastructure (logistics) development of the meat market. Diversification of livestock processing production allows enterprises to adapt to the rapidly changing conditions in the meat market, to increase the competitiveness of manufactured products to fill the food market with meat products of their own production to a level that ensures food security. Logistics centers only deal with products supplied under a contract. Logistics centers can only serve those farmers who can meet the specific requirements set by them. This means that farmers intending to use the services provided by the logistics center must adapt to the services provided by the logistics center. Requirements cover minimum lot size, minimum product quality, submission of required documentation. Therefore, farmers should be trained and farming groups should be encouraged. In some cases, facilities, in particular a warehouse built during the Soviet era, could be used as the basis for a modern local logistics center. This has a fundamental value, to determine the destination of products collected by the local logistics center, the main function of which will be the collection and storage of meat products. In all of the above cases, the private sector must play a central role, including in investment, planning, construction and operation. Government and the academic community will play a role where private sectors are limited, for example: - in the provision of land plots, - in promoting investments, - in a group of farmers, - in providing technical support. The creation of a model of a logistics center for the export of meat (local logistics center) should be through the coordination of existing projects of private companies to accumulate experience in the logistics center and exchange of experience with others. This logistics center model should have collection, storage and transport functions, and will also be used as a model for developing a strategy for integrating other functions such as sorting, handling, packaging and testing (certificate). In addition, it is recommended that this model should be used to train farmers who are users of the logistics center in order to form farming groups to facilitate the operation of the logistics center. International donor organizations could cooperate in training, while a private company could be responsible for running a model logistics center. It is assumed that the experience gained during the operation of the model logistics center will also be useful for the operation of the international logistics center, since the model logistics center could expand into an international logistics center in the future. List of references 1. A summary review of measures and mechanisms to support the export of agricultural products and food used in the member states of the Eurasian Economic union and leading exporting countries of agricultural products and food. Department of agro-industrial policy of the EEC. - Moscow, 2016. 2. Brink L. Countries of the CIS and the WTO: issues of agricultural policy and government support. - Rome, FAO, 2014. 3. Analysis of the possibilities of promoting jointly produced industrial products of the Member States for export in priority industries. EEC Industrial Policy Department. Moscow, 2017. 4. Serova E.V. Features of the situation with food security in Central Asian countries, main problems and consequences. Overview of trade policies in Europe and Central Asia. FAO Bulletin. - No. 20. - December, 2016. 4. FAO. Review of Agri-Food Trade Policy in Post-Soviet Countries 2016-2017 - Rome, 2018.
Burulsun Daniyarova, Aida Dolotbakova
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Potential of applying Logistics in improvement of agricultural exports of Kyrgyzstan
The development of agriculture in the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the priority areas of the Kyrgyz economy. This industry provides 1/5 of GDP and 50% of employment. More than 60% of the country's population lives in rural areas, and they all need to work. Therefore, the growth of the economy and the well-being of the country's citizens depend on the development of agriculture. The current state of agriculture does not meet the requirements of the existing market. The agrarian industry today remains ineffective and low-profit, has many unsolved problems. Livestock productivity and crop yields remain very low. Insufficiency and deterioration of equipment, lack of seed production, neglect of the irrigation system and other problems of the agricultural sector in Kyrgyzstan remain unresolved. Let's highlight the main problems of the agro-industrial sector that require urgent solutions: - Small-scale production. There are over 400 thousand small farms (peasant farms) that own small land plots. This fragmentation does not allow the accumulation of powerful production potential. - There is an acute lack of support from the state, state subsidies for irrigation of lands, plant protection, veterinary medicine, preservation and improvement of soil fertility, etc. - There is not enough agricultural machinery. - The need for plant protection products, mineral and organic fertilizers. - Difficulties in selling products. Numerous intermediary organizations between agricultural producers and sales markets, which generate significant income, mainly by infringing on the interests of farmers. - Certification. The underdevelopment of a product certification system that meets international standards is becoming a serious barrier to the export and development of agricultural products processing. - Decrease in soil fertility, ineffective use of land and water resources; - Lack of water resources. Losses of water from irrigation of land are almost 30% annually. - Integration of Kyrgyzstan into the EAEU and the impact of market globalization. It is impossible to solve all the problems at the same time, but in this article we want to draw attention to how, using logistic principles, it is possible to solve the problems associated with the export of agricultural products to the EAEU countries [2]. The lack of logistics has an extremely negative impact on the development of the country's economy and trade. This statement was made by Denny Cho, professor at the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania (USA), at an international conference on logistics and supply chain management with the participation of international experts in transport and infrastructure of the Kyrgyz Republic. "There are many problems in the logistics of Kyrgyzstan, one of the most important is the development of infrastructure." The professor, in particular, noted the existing unresolved problems in customs clearance and in the export of goods. “Naturally, you must first understand the essence of the problems. The population still lacks the concept of logistics itself. It is necessary that as many people in business and in government as possible understand how to develop logistics [1], - he explained his idea. The efficiency of Logistics worldwide is assessed by the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) on a five-point scale, with the lowest score being 1, the highest - 5. The index assesses six main factors: efficiency of the customs authorities; infrastructure; ease of organizing international supplies of goods; competence in logistics; the ability to track goods throughout the supply chain; adherence to delivery times [8]. Kyrgyzstan ranks 108th out of 160 possible in the world ranking of trade logistics (the index corresponds to 2.55 points). Figure 1. The distribution of the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) for 2018 all over the world As shown 0n the fig. 1, the following 5 countries occupy the highest position in the Logistics Performance Index according to the World Bank for 2018: Germany - 1st place; Sweden - 2; Belgium - 3; Austria - 4; Japan - 5th place. Such major powers as the United States are in 14th place; China is in 26th place. It should also be noted how the places in the rating of our closest partner countries are located: Kazakhstan -71; Russia -75; Uzbekistan - 99; Belarus - 103; Kyrgyzstan - 108th place; Turkmenistan - 126th place; Tajikistan -134 place [6]. As a rule, the bottom lines in the ranking are occupied by countries with a low income level, landlocked or countries where conflicts occur [5]. Figure 2. Dynamics of exports of plant products for the period 2008-2018 [4] Considering the dynamics of the export of plant products of the Kyrgyz Republic over the past 10 years, reflected on the fig. 2, one can observe a steady growth in the export of plant products from 2010 to 2014. Export indicators in 2014 are 2 times higher than in 2009. However, in 2015, with the accession of Kyrgyzstan to the EAEU, there is a significant decline in exports by 40.2%. Over the next three years, there has been a slight increase in exports. The figures for 2018 are below the highest export growth rate in 2014 by 28%. To achieve the set goals, namely the well-being of the agricultural sector, it is necessary to improve the state regulatory policy. In particular, legal and financial-credit relations, regulation of agricultural production, its purchase and processing, the introduction of new technologies, as well as the creation and expansion of logistics centers in all regions of the country [7]. To implement these measures, a state resolution for 2015-2017 was introduced. for the construction and expansion of logistics and agricultural trade centers. This policy should develop this sector and strengthen its export potential. Logistic centers began to be created where the harvested crop can be stored in special storage facilities. They meet the most modern requirements and standards. Similar storage facilities will be opened in all regions of Kyrgyzstan, where the grown crops will be stored with the least loss. The Ministry of Agriculture, Food Industry and Land Reclamation of the Kyrgyz Republic has submitted for public discussion a draft government decree “On approval of the Program for the Development and Increase of the Export Potential of Organic Agricultural Products of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023” [3]. The project was designed to develop and increase the country's export potential. Conditions are being created to ensure the availability of fresh farms for processing and export (seeds and seedlings) to modern technologies, methods, varieties, organization of the construction of storage warehouses, modern processing lines, creation of ubiquitous access to organic fertilizers, agricultural materials and agricultural machinery. It also provides for guaranteed sales of organic products in foreign markets at a high price. The EAEU provides common standards and rules for trade in one territory, but in a competitive environment. To receive benefits, it is necessary to have state institutions for the development and maintenance of the rules of the game. Summing up, we can say that in order to bring the efficiency of logistics to the proper level, our country needs to improve its infrastructure, customs system, simplify transportation and trade procedures, expand professional skills for the introduction of modern services, improve the regulatory framework for expanding logistics centers in all regions of the country. List of used literature 1. Denny Cho, professor at the University of Wharton School of Business Pennsylvania (USA). Materials of the international conference on Logistics and Supply Chain Management with the participation of international experts in transport and infrastructure of the Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek. Feb 2016 2. Kizdarbekova M.Zh. Problems and prospects for the development of logistics in Kazakhstan [Text]: Young scientist. - 2017. - No. 14. - S. 363-365. 3. Program for the development and increase of the export potential of organic agricultural products of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023. 4. Export of goods by sections. Statistical Book. Bishkek: National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic, 2019. 5. Aggregated LPI 2012-2018 [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: https://lpi.worldbank.org/international/aggregated-ranking 6. Logistics efficiency index: the gap remains [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: : http://www.vsemirnyjbank.org/ru/news/press-release/2014/03/20/logistics-performance-index-gap-persists 7. Indina M. The Ministry of Agriculture of Kyrgyzstan promises to solve problems in agriculture for 9 billion soms [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: https://knews.kg/2017/01/11/minselhoz-kyrgyzstana-obeshhaet-reshit-problemy-v-selskom-hozyajstve-za-9-mlrd-somov 8. Umetaliev A.S., Dolotbakova A.K., Kydykov A.A. Efficiency of logistics in Kyrgyzstan [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: http://ran-nauka.ru/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Nauka-8-2017.pdf