Publications
A. K. Dolotbakova, Myrzaliyeva M.A., Mukhtarbekova R.M.
112 | 0
The problems of formation of logistics centers on export of kyzgyz meat products
Annotation: In 2015, the Government's Plan for the Development of Export of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2015-2017 was approved in Kyrgyzstan. This Plan has prioritized all traditional agri-food exports (dairy products, fresh and processed vegetables, fruits and nuts, wool and animal skins, cotton), as well as meat products and bottled water. The EAEU countries, the EU and China are considered as priority directions of supplies. Keywords: meat products, export, markets, foreign markets, logistics The construction of livestock facilities for the production, processing of meat and the production of high-quality beef and lamb is underway in the republic, but not enough to fully provide the population with high-quality meat and meat products, as well as export abroad. According to the Association "KygyzEt", the meat industry of Kyrgyzstan is located in deplorable condition. The most pressing problems in the meat industry at today there is a lack of modern slaughterhouses and meat processing plants that meet the EAEU standards. This leads to a low export potential of the industry, significant loss of profits for farmers and in general country due to loss of added value. Also, the insufficient number of veterinary and test laboratories and their insufficient staffing, the complete absence of modern logistics centers lead to large losses of profits. According to the estimates of the "KygyzEt" Association, to address these issues in the republic, it is necessary to build 40 modern slaughterhouses. Each district has one workshop with a capacity of 10 heads of cattle and 50 heads of small cattle per shift. We also need 10 mini-meat processing plants with a processing capacity of 3000 kg of meat per shift. The meat processing plants are planned to be located in large cities of the country. We also need 7 modern trade and logistics centers for meat, which will be located in the cities: Bishkek, Balykchy, Batken, Kyzyl-Kiya. It also requires 32 veterinary laboratories. Kyrgyzstan has developed successful international cooperation with Iran, since in July 2016 two representatives of the Iranian Veterinary Service arrived in Bishkek to take a number of restrictive medical and administrative measures aimed at preventing the spread of infectious diseases. As a result, Kyrgyzstan managed to export sheep meat to Iran. The country plans to continue and even increase its exports to Iran. Large unused reserves for increasing the production of meat of all types are available in small-scale production, where modernization is proceeding very slowly. Given the growth in the number of livestock and new requirements in the EAEU, the issue of organizing the slaughter of livestock in accordance with the requirements of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union TR CU 034/2013 "On the Safety of Meat and Meat Products" arises. The lack of sufficient own financial resources and government support hinders the rapid development of meat production and processing in the republic, including the construction of meat reproductive farms, feedlots, slaughtering and processing workshops. According to the Program of statistical works for 2018 "On carrying out in the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic the recount of livestock and poultry at the end of 2018" local authorities carried out a complete recount of livestock and poultry. The number of livestock and poultry kept in state and collective farms, subsidiary farms of enterprises and organizations, peasant (farm) farms, farms of individual entrepreneurs engaged in agricultural production and personal subsidiary farms of citizens was subject to registration. The recalculation of livestock and poultry shows that the tendency for the growth of the number of main types of farm animals remains in the republic (Table 1). Livestock and poultry population in Kyrgyzstan (in farms of all categories, at the end of the year, heads) 109 The largest share of the cattle livestock is kept in the farms of Osh (22.5% of the total livestock), Jalal-Abad (20.3%), Chui (17.8%) and Issyk-Kul (14.6%) regions, sheep and goats - in the farms of Jalal-Abad (21.2%), Osh (18.5%), Naryn (17.3%) and Issyk-Kul (14.9%) regions, horses - in the farms of Naryn (23 , 9%), Issyk-Kul (21.2%), Osh (19.3%), Jalal-Abad (14.3%) and Chui (14.1%) regions At the end of 2018, in all categories of farms in the republic, compared to the corresponding period of 2017, there was an increase in the number of main types of livestock. However, the number of cattle in state and collective farms, in comparison with the corresponding period of 2017, on the contrary, decreased by 350 heads or 3.0 percent. At the same time, the main problems in organizing slaughterhouses are: a low level of integrated integration into a single technological complex of meat producers, feed mills industry, slaughterhouses, meat processing and retail chains; remoteness of places where livestock are kept from slaughterhouses and refrigerators; insufficient level of infrastructure (logistics) development of the meat market. Diversification of livestock processing production allows enterprises to adapt to the rapidly changing conditions in the meat market, to increase the competitiveness of manufactured products to fill the food market with meat products of their own production to a level that ensures food security. Logistics centers only deal with products supplied under a contract. Logistics centers can only serve those farmers who can meet the specific requirements set by them. This means that farmers intending to use the services provided by the logistics center must adapt to the services provided by the logistics center. Requirements cover minimum lot size, minimum product quality, submission of required documentation. Therefore, farmers should be trained and farming groups should be encouraged. In some cases, facilities, in particular a warehouse built during the Soviet era, could be used as the basis for a modern local logistics center. This has a fundamental value, to determine the destination of products collected by the local logistics center, the main function of which will be the collection and storage of meat products. In all of the above cases, the private sector must play a central role, including in investment, planning, construction and operation. Government and the academic community will play a role where private sectors are limited, for example: - in the provision of land plots, - in promoting investments, - in a group of farmers, - in providing technical support. The creation of a model of a logistics center for the export of meat (local logistics center) should be through the coordination of existing projects of private companies to accumulate experience in the logistics center and exchange of experience with others. This logistics center model should have collection, storage and transport functions, and will also be used as a model for developing a strategy for integrating other functions such as sorting, handling, packaging and testing (certificate). In addition, it is recommended that this model should be used to train farmers who are users of the logistics center in order to form farming groups to facilitate the operation of the logistics center. International donor organizations could cooperate in training, while a private company could be responsible for running a model logistics center. It is assumed that the experience gained during the operation of the model logistics center will also be useful for the operation of the international logistics center, since the model logistics center could expand into an international logistics center in the future. List of references 1. A summary review of measures and mechanisms to support the export of agricultural products and food used in the member states of the Eurasian Economic union and leading exporting countries of agricultural products and food. Department of agro-industrial policy of the EEC. - Moscow, 2016. 2. Brink L. Countries of the CIS and the WTO: issues of agricultural policy and government support. - Rome, FAO, 2014. 3. Analysis of the possibilities of promoting jointly produced industrial products of the Member States for export in priority industries. EEC Industrial Policy Department. Moscow, 2017. 4. Serova E.V. Features of the situation with food security in Central Asian countries, main problems and consequences. Overview of trade policies in Europe and Central Asia. FAO Bulletin. - No. 20. - December, 2016. 4. FAO. Review of Agri-Food Trade Policy in Post-Soviet Countries 2016-2017 - Rome, 2018.
Burulsun Daniyarova, Aida Dolotbakova
139 | 0
Potential of applying Logistics in improvement of agricultural exports of Kyrgyzstan
The development of agriculture in the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the priority areas of the Kyrgyz economy. This industry provides 1/5 of GDP and 50% of employment. More than 60% of the country's population lives in rural areas, and they all need to work. Therefore, the growth of the economy and the well-being of the country's citizens depend on the development of agriculture. The current state of agriculture does not meet the requirements of the existing market. The agrarian industry today remains ineffective and low-profit, has many unsolved problems. Livestock productivity and crop yields remain very low. Insufficiency and deterioration of equipment, lack of seed production, neglect of the irrigation system and other problems of the agricultural sector in Kyrgyzstan remain unresolved. Let's highlight the main problems of the agro-industrial sector that require urgent solutions: - Small-scale production. There are over 400 thousand small farms (peasant farms) that own small land plots. This fragmentation does not allow the accumulation of powerful production potential. - There is an acute lack of support from the state, state subsidies for irrigation of lands, plant protection, veterinary medicine, preservation and improvement of soil fertility, etc. - There is not enough agricultural machinery. - The need for plant protection products, mineral and organic fertilizers. - Difficulties in selling products. Numerous intermediary organizations between agricultural producers and sales markets, which generate significant income, mainly by infringing on the interests of farmers. - Certification. The underdevelopment of a product certification system that meets international standards is becoming a serious barrier to the export and development of agricultural products processing. - Decrease in soil fertility, ineffective use of land and water resources; - Lack of water resources. Losses of water from irrigation of land are almost 30% annually. - Integration of Kyrgyzstan into the EAEU and the impact of market globalization. It is impossible to solve all the problems at the same time, but in this article we want to draw attention to how, using logistic principles, it is possible to solve the problems associated with the export of agricultural products to the EAEU countries [2]. The lack of logistics has an extremely negative impact on the development of the country's economy and trade. This statement was made by Denny Cho, professor at the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania (USA), at an international conference on logistics and supply chain management with the participation of international experts in transport and infrastructure of the Kyrgyz Republic. "There are many problems in the logistics of Kyrgyzstan, one of the most important is the development of infrastructure." The professor, in particular, noted the existing unresolved problems in customs clearance and in the export of goods. “Naturally, you must first understand the essence of the problems. The population still lacks the concept of logistics itself. It is necessary that as many people in business and in government as possible understand how to develop logistics [1], - he explained his idea. The efficiency of Logistics worldwide is assessed by the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) on a five-point scale, with the lowest score being 1, the highest - 5. The index assesses six main factors: efficiency of the customs authorities; infrastructure; ease of organizing international supplies of goods; competence in logistics; the ability to track goods throughout the supply chain; adherence to delivery times [8]. Kyrgyzstan ranks 108th out of 160 possible in the world ranking of trade logistics (the index corresponds to 2.55 points). Figure 1. The distribution of the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) for 2018 all over the world As shown 0n the fig. 1, the following 5 countries occupy the highest position in the Logistics Performance Index according to the World Bank for 2018: Germany - 1st place; Sweden - 2; Belgium - 3; Austria - 4; Japan - 5th place. Such major powers as the United States are in 14th place; China is in 26th place. It should also be noted how the places in the rating of our closest partner countries are located: Kazakhstan -71; Russia -75; Uzbekistan - 99; Belarus - 103; Kyrgyzstan - 108th place; Turkmenistan - 126th place; Tajikistan -134 place [6]. As a rule, the bottom lines in the ranking are occupied by countries with a low income level, landlocked or countries where conflicts occur [5]. Figure 2. Dynamics of exports of plant products for the period 2008-2018 [4] Considering the dynamics of the export of plant products of the Kyrgyz Republic over the past 10 years, reflected on the fig. 2, one can observe a steady growth in the export of plant products from 2010 to 2014. Export indicators in 2014 are 2 times higher than in 2009. However, in 2015, with the accession of Kyrgyzstan to the EAEU, there is a significant decline in exports by 40.2%. Over the next three years, there has been a slight increase in exports. The figures for 2018 are below the highest export growth rate in 2014 by 28%. To achieve the set goals, namely the well-being of the agricultural sector, it is necessary to improve the state regulatory policy. In particular, legal and financial-credit relations, regulation of agricultural production, its purchase and processing, the introduction of new technologies, as well as the creation and expansion of logistics centers in all regions of the country [7]. To implement these measures, a state resolution for 2015-2017 was introduced. for the construction and expansion of logistics and agricultural trade centers. This policy should develop this sector and strengthen its export potential. Logistic centers began to be created where the harvested crop can be stored in special storage facilities. They meet the most modern requirements and standards. Similar storage facilities will be opened in all regions of Kyrgyzstan, where the grown crops will be stored with the least loss. The Ministry of Agriculture, Food Industry and Land Reclamation of the Kyrgyz Republic has submitted for public discussion a draft government decree “On approval of the Program for the Development and Increase of the Export Potential of Organic Agricultural Products of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023” [3]. The project was designed to develop and increase the country's export potential. Conditions are being created to ensure the availability of fresh farms for processing and export (seeds and seedlings) to modern technologies, methods, varieties, organization of the construction of storage warehouses, modern processing lines, creation of ubiquitous access to organic fertilizers, agricultural materials and agricultural machinery. It also provides for guaranteed sales of organic products in foreign markets at a high price. The EAEU provides common standards and rules for trade in one territory, but in a competitive environment. To receive benefits, it is necessary to have state institutions for the development and maintenance of the rules of the game. Summing up, we can say that in order to bring the efficiency of logistics to the proper level, our country needs to improve its infrastructure, customs system, simplify transportation and trade procedures, expand professional skills for the introduction of modern services, improve the regulatory framework for expanding logistics centers in all regions of the country. List of used literature 1. Denny Cho, professor at the University of Wharton School of Business Pennsylvania (USA). Materials of the international conference on Logistics and Supply Chain Management with the participation of international experts in transport and infrastructure of the Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek. Feb 2016 2. Kizdarbekova M.Zh. Problems and prospects for the development of logistics in Kazakhstan [Text]: Young scientist. - 2017. - No. 14. - S. 363-365. 3. Program for the development and increase of the export potential of organic agricultural products of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023. 4. Export of goods by sections. Statistical Book. Bishkek: National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic, 2019. 5. Aggregated LPI 2012-2018 [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: https://lpi.worldbank.org/international/aggregated-ranking 6. Logistics efficiency index: the gap remains [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: : http://www.vsemirnyjbank.org/ru/news/press-release/2014/03/20/logistics-performance-index-gap-persists 7. Indina M. The Ministry of Agriculture of Kyrgyzstan promises to solve problems in agriculture for 9 billion soms [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: https://knews.kg/2017/01/11/minselhoz-kyrgyzstana-obeshhaet-reshit-problemy-v-selskom-hozyajstve-za-9-mlrd-somov 8. Umetaliev A.S., Dolotbakova A.K., Kydykov A.A. Efficiency of logistics in Kyrgyzstan [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: http://ran-nauka.ru/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Nauka-8-2017.pdf
Aidai Baijigitova
201 | 0
Procurement in an Emergency Situations
Department of logistics Class of log-1-19 As known, the organization of procurement activities in a state of emergency is carried out within the framework of a different algorithm which is aimed to simplify the procurement process in order to promptly conduct tender procedures and, accordingly, ensure faster deliveries of goods, works and services (consulting / non-consulting). When an emergency situation is declared in the country, or when it occurs in any specific location, public bodies immediately respond and take appropriate measures, including the purchase and provision of goods, works and services (consulting / non-consulting) necessary for fight against emergencies. Before moving on to procurement procedures in an emergency, it is advisable to briefly describe the concept of emergency. The Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On Civil Protection" dated May 24, 2018 No. 54 gives the following definition of the term "emergency situation - a situation that has developed in a certain territory of the Kyrgyz Republic as a result of a dangerous natural or man-made phenomenon, accident, disaster, natural or other disaster, the impact of modern means of destruction that may or have resulted in human casualties, damage to human health or the environment, significant material losses and disruption of the living conditions of people. " In the event of an emergency, the authorized body in the field of civil protection is obliged to ensure "the priority life support of the population in the emergency zone - the timely satisfaction of the primary needs of the population: in water, food, basic necessities, medical services and facilities, utilities, housing, transport and information support”. Also, this Law determines that organizations in the field of civil protection, among other things, are obliged to create "stocks of material, technical, food, medical, individual and collective means of protection", which in turn implies a significant role in forecasting emergencies and, consequently, appropriate procurement planning. The main problems of inventory management in an emergency situation is the lack of time for its formation and / or the lack of the necessary financial resources, which often does not allow to fully and timely meet the needs in emergency situations and eliminate their consequences. To solve these problems, it is necessary to be able to simplify procurement procedures and ensure their efficiency. Below are the procurement methods (excerpts from national legislation) aimed at achieving these objectives. The Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On Public Procurement" dated April 3, 2015 No. 72 states that: The procuring entity has the right to independently carry out purchases by the method of direct conclusion of an agreement in cases where the purchase of goods, works and services in the event of an emergency situation only in the mode of high readiness and (or) liquidation of the consequences of an emergency to localize the consequences of force majeure, accidents requiring immediate recovery, as well as in the event of an urgent medical intervention; and The procuring entity may select individual consultants without a tender (using the direct contracting method) only in cases where the situation is extraordinary due to force majeure. When using this method, the procuring entity signs a procurement contract after monitoring prices among the received bids (proposals); According to the amendments made (of December 18, 2020) to the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on Public Procurement, the procuring entity can NOT initiate the inclusion of unreliable (unscrupulous) suppliers (contractors) and consultants, members of collegial executive bodies, persons acting as the sole executive body in the data base, as well as persons included in such a register: if the suppliers (contractors) and consultants recognized as the winner of the tender evaded the conclusion of agreements (contracts) on procurement in connection with the introduction of an emergency or state of emergency, subject to the publication of a procurement notice prior to the introduction of such regimes, or suppliers (contractors) and consultants violated the terms of the declaration guaranteeing a tender if such a violation is related to the introduction of an emergency or state of emergency, subject to the publication of a procurement notice prior to the introduction of such regimes; Also, the guarantee security of the tender by the procuring entity is NOT withheld in cases of refusal to sign the contract on the conditions provided for in the winning bid, due to the introduction of an emergency or state of emergency, subject to the publication of a procurement notice prior to the introduction of such regimes. Due to the current situation with the COVID-19 infection pandemic, as an example of simplifying tender procedures, we can cite recent temporary changes in the legislation of the Russian Federation regarding procurement from a single supplier (non-competitive method): The new edition directly provides for purchases in order not only to eliminate emergencies, but also to prevent them (with the introduction of a high alert regime); The provision that the objects purchased on this basis should not be included in the relevant List of goods, works and services, which significantly expands the scope of application, has been excluded; The rules on preliminary selection and request for quotations were canceled; Customers are given the opportunity, by agreement with the supplier (contractor, performer), to change the term of the contract and (or) its price (unit price), in the event of circumstances that entail the impossibility of performing the contract without changing it; Contracts can be entered without securing their performance, unless the contract provides for an advance. Procurement simplification procedures in emergency situations are also spelled out in the guidelines of donor organizations. For example, according to the World Bank's Procurement Rules for FIP Borrowers, emergencies “include those situations where the Bank believes that the Borrower / Recipient or, as the case may be, a member country has an urgent need for assistance due to a natural disaster, man-made disaster or conflict. In the event of an emergency in the Borrower's country, the specified World Bank Rules assume: Implementation of purchases at the stage of emergency response without prior consideration by the Bank; Streamlined competitive procedures with shorter application times (5 days); Elimination of the waiting period applied to give Bidders / Applicants / Consultants time to examine the Notice of Intent to Award a Contract and assess whether it is appropriate to file a complaint; Use of framework agreements including existing ones, Using simple and fast procurement and selection methods The Request for Proposals is a competitive method and is applied if, due to the nature and complexity of the purchased goods, works or non-consulting services, the Borrower will best meet its production needs if it allows Applicants to propose customized solutions or submit Proposals that may differ in how they fulfill or exceed the requirement of the RFP document. Request for quotations is a competitive selection method based on the comparison of price quotations of firms. This method may be more effective than more sophisticated methods for purchasing limited quantities of off-the-shelf finished goods or non-consulting services, standard specification commodities, or simple, low-cost construction work. Direct selection is used when proportionality, eligibility for funding, and value for money may require an approach such as direct selection, that is, inviting and negotiating with only one firm. This selection method may be appropriate if there is only one suitable firm, or there is a reason to use a preferred firm in an emergency. Also, in emergency situations, selection is applied based on the qualifications of consultants, within which it is impractical to draw up and evaluate bids, as this requires additional time. In addition, the World Bank Disaster Rules propose the cancellation of collateral and performance guarantees. For small contracts for the supply of goods or the execution of works, you can speed up the preparation of bids for small and medium-sized suppliers and contractors by removing the requirement for collateral. Nevertheless, when performing work, the customer can carry out a guarantee withholding of funds for the duration of the contractor's liability; when it comes to the delivery of goods, a manufacturer's warranty is required. In an emergency situation, where suppliers and contractors have difficulty obtaining a credit line from banking institutions, it is possible to increase the amount of prepayment for contracts for the supply of goods and performance of work to 40% of the total contract value, provided the supplier provides a bank guarantee for an equivalent amount. An additional measure is that in an emergency, UN Agencies can act as contractors on an out-of-competition basis to perform work that requires unique experience in emergency response, and take part in activities funded by the World Bank or a trust fund managed by the World Bank, one of the in the following ways: The UN implements a number of activities or the entire project entirely on behalf of the host country; The UN acts as a supplier of critical commodities (for example, vaccines) in the framework of the WB-financed project; and The UN acts as a provider of technical services for the WB-financed project. The following projects financed by the World Bank and currently being implemented in Kyrgyzstan can serve as an illustrative example of the application of the above procedures. “Building resilience to disaster risks in Kyrgyzstan”, namely the “Emergency Response Component for Immediate Response in the Event of a Declared Crisis or Emergency,” within which funds are allocated for the procurement of the following items of goods for rapid response teams, hospitals assigned for observation , primary health care centers, intensive care units: personal protective equipment; disinfectants; laboratory reagents required for diagnostics; medicines; medical devices; medical equipment; breathing support equipment; other goods (paper towels, liquid soap, shipping containers, etc.) as well as the purchase of fully equipped ambulances. The implementation of the Agreement on financing the "Emergency COVID-19 Project" between the Kyrgyz Republic and the International Development Association, signed on April 7, 2020 and ratified by the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 46 dated April 20, 2020, has begun. This project, funded by the World Bank, aims to prevent additional infiltration of infected persons and to limit the spread of infection within the country, which also applies procurement procedures in an emergency. The UN implements a number of activities or the entire project entirely on behalf of the host country; The UN acts as a supplier of critical commodities (for example, vaccines) in the framework of the WB-financed project; and The UN acts as a provider of technical services for the WB-financed project. The following projects financed by the World Bank and currently being implemented in Kyrgyzstan can serve as an illustrative example of the application of the above procedures. “Building resilience to disaster risks in Kyrgyzstan”, namely the “Emergency Response Component for Immediate Response in the Event of a Declared Crisis or Emergency,” within which funds are allocated for the procurement of the following items of goods for rapid response teams, hospitals assigned for observation , primary health care centers, intensive care units: personal protective equipment; disinfectants; laboratory reagents required for diagnostics; medicines; medical devices; medical equipment; breathing support equipment; other goods (paper towels, liquid soap, shipping containers, etc.) as well as the purchase of fully equipped ambulances. The implementation of the Agreement on financing the "Emergency COVID-19 Project" between the Kyrgyz Republic and the International Development Association, signed on April 7, 2020 and ratified by the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 46 dated April 20, 2020, has begun. This project, funded by the World Bank, aims to prevent additional infiltration of infected persons and to limit the spread of infection within the country, which also applies procurement procedures in an emergency. The UN implements a number of activities or the entire project entirely on behalf of the host country; The UN acts as a supplier of critical commodities (for example, vaccines) in the framework of the WB-financed project; and The UN acts as a provider of technical services for the WB-financed project. The following projects financed by the World Bank and currently being implemented in Kyrgyzstan can serve as an illustrative example of the application of the above procedures. “Building resilience to disaster risks in Kyrgyzstan”, namely the “Emergency Response Component for Immediate Response in the Event of a Declared Crisis or Emergency,” within which funds are allocated for the procurement of the following items of goods for rapid response teams, hospitals assigned for observation , primary health care centers, intensive care units: personal protective equipment; disinfectants; laboratory reagents required for diagnostics; medicines; medical devices; medical equipment; breathing support equipment; other goods (paper towels, liquid soap, shipping containers, etc.) as well as the purchase of fully equipped ambulances. The implementation of the Agreement on financing the "Emergency COVID-19 Project" between the Kyrgyz Republic and the International Development Association, signed on April 7, 2020 and ratified by the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 46 dated April 20, 2020, has begun. This project, funded by the World Bank, aims to prevent additional infiltration of infected individuals and to limit the spread of infection within the country, which also applies procurement procedures in an emergency. 1 http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/111787?cl=ru-ru 2 http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/111125 3 01.04.2020 N 98-ФЗ Федералдык мыйзам, https://kodeks63.ru/news/read/zakupki-v-usloviyah-chs-srochnyeizmeneniya-v-44-fz/novosti-v-sfere-zakupok 4 https://projects.vsemirnyjbank.org/ru/projects-operations/project-detail/P162635 https://projects.worldbank.org/en/projects-operations/project-detail/P172761 5 https://projects.worldbank.org/en/projects-operations/project-detail/P173766
Azizbek Kydykov
264 | 0
10
Development of the system of international transport corridors in Central Asia
Kyrgyz State Technical University The proposed article is devoted to the urgent problem of the development of land transportation between Europe and the Asia-Pacific region through the construction of new routes, primarily through Central Asia. The expert community predicts a reorientation of part of the cargo traffic from the sea route to the railway transport by 15-20% by 2025. At the same time, most of it is very interesting to send through the states of Central Eurasia, thereby reviving the potential of the ancient Silk Road routes. In accordance with the goal of the study, the following tasks were solved: investigated the development and operation of international transport corridors; Land transport corridors between Europe and Asia have been studied; analysis of the construction of railway routes through the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic; an analysis of the prospects for the development of Eurasian transit traffic; proposed a forecast for the development of the Europe-APR land transportation market in the future. The paper analyzes the existing and projected international transport corridors. An increase in interest in this problem was noted by the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Studies show that on the Eurasian continent, the number of rail routes is growing, providing transit traffic between Europe and the PRC, and the Asia-Pacific region as a whole. Most modern operating routes pass through Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (2 directions), Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation (1), Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan (1). A favorable forecast was made for the development of the market for transit rail routes through the territory of Central Asia, since the volume of transit through the territory of Russia has practically reached the limit of the technical capabilities of Transsib. The proposed article contains a feasibility study of transit rail routes through the territory of Central Asia, including two new routes being designed through Kyrgyzstan. One connects China through Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Iran, then through Iraq and Turkey to Europe. The second route passes through Kyrgyzstan to Tajikistan and further through Afghanistan to Iran. Further similar to the first route through Kyrgyzstan. A feature of the second route is the idea to use the European gauge along the entire length of the track.
Orozonova Azyk
353 | 0
Corruption in the sphere of public procurement
The topic of corruption in our time is quite relevant. She has been featured in many news years, and stories about the arrest of government officials for taking bribes are gaining popularity. The problem of corruption and counteraction to it has become especially acute in recent years - both in the world and in Kyrgyzstan. It is determined by the extremely high level of national and social danger of the social phenomenon under consideration. As a result of corruption offenses, the rights and legitimate interests of citizens and organizations are infringed upon, colossal material damage is caused. Corruption in Kyrgyzstan is a serious problem. According to the Corruption Perceptions Rating, the corruption index for Kyrgyzstan is gradually changing, while the position of Kyrgyzstan in the rating of countries is slowly improving: from 130th to 126th place. But, more than half of citizens do not believe that they can contribute to the fight against corruption in Kyrgyzstan. Kyrgyzstan was ranked 126th out of 180 places in the Corruption Perceptions Index 2019, which is compiled every year by the international organization Transparency International. Kyrgyzstan received 30 points out of 100, being on a par with Djibouti, Ukraine and Azerbaijan. Table 1 - Ranking of countries according to the Corruption Perceptions Index from 2006-2019 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Armenia 88 93 99 109 120 123 129 94 94 94 95 113 107 105 77 Russia 126 121 143 147 146 154 143 133 127 136 119 131 135 136 137 Kazakhstan 107 111 150 145 120 105 120 133 140 126 126 131 133 124 113 Kyrgyzstan 130 142 150 166 162 164 164 136 150 136 136 136 135 132 126 Source: Compiled by the author. Corruption in public procurement is a worldwide problem of humanity. This topic of corruption in the field of procurement for state and municipal needs is most relevant, since this direction of economic activity in our state appeared not so long ago, but was formed and received legislative confirmation only in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century. This is connected, first of all, with the historical reasons for the development of events in our state and, as a consequence, with the emergence of private property. The most common corruption schemes include: The direction of the potential supplier participating in the collusion for the amount obviously lower than that of other participants in public procurement; The establishment by the customer of extremely short terms for the implementation of the order or the performance of work, in which the execution of the order is possible only by a previously prepared supplier - a participant in the fraudulent scheme; The establishment of a deliberately uncompetitive price for the execution of a government order in the indicated volume, which will be of no interest to other potential suppliers; The establishment of an unattractive payment scheme for the execution of a state order (for example, with a long delay, etc.); Incorrect data entry (for example, mixing Cyrillic and Latin when writing the name of the application, etc.); the interpretation of the criteria for evaluating suppliers in favor of stakeholders, etc. So, corruption is an international problem, and almost every country in the world is faced with it on one scale or another. The level of corruption in the countries of the world in 2020 is closely related to the level of political and economic indicators of the state. This is due to the legal culture of the population, the effectiveness of the law enforcement system, education and provision of the population. The main task of combating corruption in the field of government orders is to control the integrity of suppliers and ensure the greatest independence of employees who exercise quality control and on whose decision the fate of a contract depends. The main areas of fraud prevention in public procurement include the following: Clear formulation of procurement requirements; Clear planning of the bidding process so that the exchange of information between procurement participants is as difficult as possible; Communicating information to employees about possible fraudulent activities; Analysis and monitoring of the market; High qualification of employees and its constant improvement; Improvement of legislative norms, including the separation of fraud and crimes in the field of public procurement as a separate corpus delicti.
Dolotbakova Aida
376 | 0
Strengthening and intensifying scientific research the public procurement process in the Kyrgyz Republic
Candidate of Economic Sciences, Assoc. Department "Logistics"KSTU named after I. Razzakov The transition of the Kyrgyz Republic to a system of market relations has radically changed the conditions for the country's development. Ensuring sustainable and balanced development of the state on the basis of an integrated and rational use of all processes in a given territory is becoming a top priority. Public procurement is a necessary day-to-day process. This process needs constant improvement, as real life puts forward new requirements, new conditions. Therefore, the efficient and rational use of budget funds is a state task. The public procurement system can be understood as a set of rules that determine the essence and forms of relations aimed at meeting state needs, as well as persons participating in these relations [7, 2016; 8, 2016]. Myrzakerim U.B., studying the experience of development of other countries, reveals that the development of the public procurement system always occurs in stages and sometimes takes a long time. For example, the United States was the first to begin to regulate procurement and the first federal law on public procurement was adopted there back in 1792, but the procurement process became effective and rational only at the beginning of the twentieth century [17, 2019] In the conditions of the Kyrgyz Republic, the need for institutional development and increasing the efficiency of the public procurement system is widely discussed in the works of A.S. Umetaliev. He notes that procuring entities can function effectively only if there is an adequate legal and regulatory framework and institutional infrastructure, and professionalism and honesty of personnel involved in procurement are also required. An important aspect in terms of ensuring professionalism is the inclusion of a separate professional direction related to procurement into the civil service system [20, 2010]. Considering the regulatory framework of the public procurement system in the Kyrgyz Republic, Umetaliev A.S. writes that regulations should be improved to ensure the effective use of budget funds, as well as to reduce corruption schemes [21, 2013]. Sabyrova G.Zh. notes that in the field of public procurement of Kyrgyzstan, about 30 billion soms rotate and annually more than 15% of the gross domestic product is spent on public procurement. Considering the constant deficit of budgetary funds, their efficient and economical use at all times has been and remains a topical issue. Therefore, one of the most important tasks facing the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is to ensure openness and transparency of public procurement procedures. The government of the Kyrgyz Republic began to carry out a reform in the field of public procurement in 1994, and already in April 1997, the first Law of the Kyrgyz Republic “On public procurement” was adopted. Since then, the legal framework governing procurement has been regularly revised. According to Sabyrova G.Zh. internal audit is one of the few currently available and at the same time underestimated resources, the correct use of which can improve the efficiency of public procurement. An audit of public procurement is a check, analysis and assessment of information on the legality, feasibility, validity, timeliness, efficiency and effectiveness of procurement expenditures for planned to be concluded, concluded and executed contracts [19, 2014]. Several works by T.Sh. Abdyrov are devoted to detailed scientific research. and Adylbekova A.A. They noted that serious transformations in public procurement started in 2011, when the government began a reform in this area by introducing an electronic system. The reform resulted in the introduction of a unified system of electronic public procurement. The work on its creation was carried out by the state institution "Info-System"; in 2012, an information portal for public procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic was also created. By the end of May 2013, the number of portal users reached 1,843 purchasing organizations and suppliers. At the same time, the total number of participants in public procurement amounted to more than 2,000 budget organizations and 3,000 suppliers. According to the initial forecast, the number of potential participants should be from 5 to 7 thousand organizations. However, despite the reforms in the field of public procurement, there are also shortcomings. The regulatory and legal framework needs to be improved, it has not yet been possible to completely switch to electronic communication between suppliers and procuring organizations, it is necessary to improve the public procurement portal, and eliminate the shortage of certified specialists [7, 2016]. Abdyrov T.Sh. and Adylbekov A.A. write that with the adoption of the new Law of the Kyrgyz Republic dated April 3, 2015 No. 72, the methods of public procurement have changed. Today, there are five methods of public procurement: one-stage; two-stage; simplified; to lower prices; direct conclusion of the contract. The main method of public procurement is a competition through a one-stage method (the number of suppliers (contractors) wishing to participate in procurement procedures is not limited). Very rarely, a two-stage tender is held if the procuring entity cannot determine in advance the specific, technical characteristics and quality indicators of the purchased goods, works or services, and this requires discussion with suppliers (contractors) to make a decision that best meets the purchasing needs of the procuring entity; if the subject of procurement is research, experiment, preparation of a scientific opinion or provision of other specialized services. Competition by a simplified method is used in the case of purchases of ready-made goods that do not require special manufacturing, works and services with a specific description for an amount less than the maximum threshold amount. When conducting a tender by a simplified method to ensure competition and effective selection, the procuring entity shall consider the tender bids for goods, works and services of at least two suppliers (contractors). The price reduction tender is conducted through the public procurement web portal online. The initial price is set and the suppliers offer their price offers, that is, an auction takes place and the winner of the tender is the supplier who offered the lowest price offer. Procurement by direct contracting method - a procedure in which the procuring entity, without holding a tender, signs a procurement contract after price monitoring. The supplier (contractor) must meet the qualification requirements provided for in Article 27 of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic “On Public Procurement. There is a fairly high percentage of purchases using the method of direct conclusion of the contract, since it is 44.6% of the total number of trades held [2, 2016]. In the new Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On Public Procurements" dated April 3, 2015 No. 72, there is such a concept as a framework agreement. Framework agreement - an agreement between a procuring entity with two or more suppliers (contractors), signed as a result of competitive bidding, which stipulates the terms of a future contract. Exploring the "framework agreements", Abdyrov T.Sh. and Adylbekov A.A. note that they save time and cost in the sourcing process by eliminating the need to renegotiate standard terms and conditions. For long-term purchases, such agreements help to improve the relationship between buyers and sellers, since in this case, buyers and sellers work on individual solutions developed taking into account the needs of both parties [5, 2016]. Omuraliev U.K., Duishaeva M. indicate the weak institutionalization of the framework agreements procedures in the country's public procurement system. This is due to the incomplete implementation of the functionality of the framework agreements procedures, the first version of which was launched on the Public Procurement Portal only in 2018. In their opinion, framework agreements are a rather convenient and effective way of purchasing, allowing to reduce costs, to receive the necessary products on time and with an optimal price-quality ratio. However, despite the apparent simplicity, the procedures of framework agreements are rather complicated. Therefore, firstly, it is necessary to improve the regulatory framework of the framework agreement procedures, secondly, to implement the functionality of the framework agreement procedures of both stages on the Public Procurement Portal, and thirdly, it is necessary to have trained personnel who own the appropriate technologies for implementing the framework agreement procedures [18 , 2019]. The economic activity of the state is directly related to the procurement of certain goods and services at the expense of the state budget, namely, taxpayers' funds. How effective and transparent is the management of public procurement? Every year, governments spend huge amounts of budgetary funds on the purchase of certain goods and services. Corruption as "a social pandemic literally hit the public procurement sector ... damaging public finances." Due to the significant volume of funds circulating in the public procurement system and the specific structure of expenditures, it is this sector of public administration that is most susceptible to corruption. Every day the state must look for new ways to save taxpayers' funds, writes M.T. Koichueva. In her opinion, it is obvious that the old methods of public procurement should be replaced by new technologies, such as digitalization, which are designed to more efficiently manage public procurement, reduce state budget expenditures, and eliminate the use of corruption schemes [13, 2018]. Maksutov T.M. and Savina S.E. also see the solution to public procurement problems in the application of innovative digital technologies. Analyzing the characteristic features in the process of public procurement, they note the openness and transparency of the process as the main advantages of the electronic public procurement system [14, 2019]. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. see the main goal of introducing electronic tenders in procurement - not only in automating routine processes of interaction of procurement bodies with potential contractors, but also in reducing the cost of performing procurement procedures and drastically reducing the timing of these operations [6, 2016]. Zhunuspaev K.T. examines the features of monitoring public procurement in the context of combating corruption while optimizing public procurement. He pays special attention to monitoring the effectiveness of public procurement and draws attention to the fact that recent changes in the current legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic are quite significant. He also concludes that the supervision of public procurement is an effective means of fighting corruption within the existing system of public procurement contracts. In the future, public monitoring of public procurement may show concrete results [10, 2019; 12, 2019; 11, 2020]. Abdyrov T.Sh. and Adylbekov A.A. In their opinion, the formation of public control in the field of public procurement is just beginning to take place in Kyrgyzstan. In this regard, the activity of public inspectors is still a chaotic phenomenon and not regulated by any norms. The only advantage for this activity is the principle of transparency and openness, provision of free and free access to information on public procurement [3, 2016]. Continuing the topic of corruption, Ermekbaev A.Z., Sayakbaev T.D., Ermekbaeva S.A. write that the formation of government orders and government procurement in all countries is a zone of increased corruption, leading to significant budget losses. Traditionally, taking into account the damage from corruption in the public procurement system, it is conditionally divided into the following types of losses: Financial losses - the conclusion of transactions on unfavorable financial conditions for the state. First of all, this is the overestimation of the prices of purchased products in comparison with the current market level, the inclusion in the terms of government contracts of prepayment instead of deferred payment, etc. Quantitative losses - overestimation or underestimation of the volume of supplied materials or rendered services in comparison with the required quantity; purchase of goods and services for personal purposes of responsible officials, and not to meet government needs, etc. Quality losses - the conclusion of transactions in violation of the required technical conditions, such as the supply of goods, performance of work or provision of services of inadequate quality; the worst conditions for warranty and post-warranty service; insufficient requirements for quality control of work and services, etc. Political losses - deterioration of the investment climate in the country, loss of confidence on the part of citizens in government structures and the state as a whole, undermining of the country's economic and financial system, violation of the principles of free competition, etc. [9, 2019]. Public procurement, as one of the constituent segments of the economy of Kyrgyzstan, is important in ensuring the economic stability and security of the state. The annually allocated amount for state purchases from the state budget ranges from 20 to 23% in different years, and in its share in GDP is approximately 13-15% of the country's gross domestic product. Kyrgyz GDP and state budget expenditures from 2014 to 2018 were significantly increased in terms of the national currency. Let's compile a summary table since the introduction of statistics by the Department of Public Procurement under the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic (Table 1, Fig. 1). Starting from May 2015, all public procurement in the republic is carried out electronically, with the exception of cases provided for in the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On public procurement", as well as with the exception of purchases of goods from societies of disabled people in accordance with the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On state Kyrgyzstan provided the following procurement statistics for the period from 2015 to 2017. Despite the openness and accessibility of the electronic trading system, the level of participation in tenders is not high. So, for 187 389 tenders not a single application was received, for 100 474 - only one application and only for 263 952 tenders (about 48 percent of all tenders) more than two applications were received [9, 2019]. In the period from 2015 to 2017, 18, 26 and 68 suppliers and contractors were included in the database of unreliable (unscrupulous) suppliers (contractors), respectively. The register of unreliable suppliers is posted on the official portal of public procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic. In order to further strengthen impartial oversight of public expenditure and procurement, the state should expand the participation of civil society in this process, increase the volume of disclosure at all stages 5 of the procurement cycle through the further development of e-procurement and the wider use of e-government initiatives. It is necessary to work on further increasing the share of competitive procedures when concluding contracts in the total volume of public procurement. Kyrgyzstan should complete the procedure for signing the World Trade Organization (WTO) GPA. It is necessary to finalize the provisions of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on public procurement (a) on planning, supplementing them with the requirement to specify the procurement method, (b) on appealing procurement planning in relation to the proposed procedures, allowing potential bidders and the public to do so, and (c) on the conclusion of direct contracts in order to extend the notice period of the purchasers' intention to carry out the procurement in such a way that will allow market participants and the public to identify unjustified attempts to conclude such contracts and translate them into competitive bidding. For the sustainable development of infrastructure and the further development of the procurement system as a whole, it is necessary to introduce a three-year planning in the field of procurement (or for a similar medium-term period). A one-year scheduling constraint creates conditions for favoritism, unfair commercial gains, or outright contracting for relatively large volumes. In order to further improve anti-corruption standards, it is recommended to consider the application of certification of state and municipal companies according to the anti-corruption standard ISO 37001. The task of the state remains to create the most favorable economic, legal, ideological conditions for successful business activities [9, 2019]. Moldogaziev N.Sh. After analyzing the work of the automated public procurement program of the Kyrgyz Republic, I came to the conclusion that the electronic portal system currently does not minimize the risks of corruption when concluding contracts with contractors. As noted earlier, not everything is automated to prevent corruption in tendering. The program itself does not award the victory to the bidders, it only registers them. The rest of the registration procedure, the analysis of the participating organizations, the verification of the technical documentation of the participating companies is done by people, who also award the victory to one or another company. The portal was created to save time and prevent unnecessary paperwork for both the procuring entity employees and the firms participating in the tender. But it does not affect the objective decision on the tender. The final decision is made by the employees of the organization, they also conclude an agreement with the winning company, this causes distrust of the system of people who sometimes participate in tenders several times, they are disappointed in their success and stop their activities in the direction of public procurement. Among the advantages of the electronic portal, he notes that the portal with its automated document registration program and automated tender opening replaces the participation of a human resource by about forty percent. This saves time, minimizes direct contact between the supplier and the customer, at least at this stage of registration. That is, in modern conditions, the portal is not efficient enough and does not really save public funds. Improving and eliminating unwanted loopholes will be facilitated by the introduction of new settings and additional functions into the portal itself. After a step-by-step consideration of how it works, he comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to automate the part of tenders where, after opening, the analysis and announcement of the tender winner takes place [15, 2018]. In the work of Shirdakova G.T. and Abdukarimova A.A. through the analysis of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On trust management of state property", "On public procurement", "On public-private partnership", the Resolution of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic "On approval of the Regulation on the procedure for the provision of state property for rent", new approaches and procedures for improving the system cooperation between the state and business. They show examples of successful implementation of PPP projects and public procurement management, lease of state property, but at the same time they considered problems that hinder further development [22, 2020]. Also Abdukarimova A.A. and Shirdakova G.T. write about the Implementation of the "Tunduk" system project on database integration between the Department of Public Procurement under the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic, the State Tax Service under the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Social Fund of the Kyrgyz Republic to eliminate the need to provide paper certificates of the absence of debts of legal entities and individuals, which allows receive this information automatically from the State Tax Service and the Social Fund. Due to the improvement of public procurement procedures, trends in budget savings were noticeable. Currently, work is underway to improve the legislative norms of the public procurement system. It is also necessary to integrate the information system of banks operating on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic into the Tunduk system. First, such integration will help procuring entities to see the financial viability of bidders, and second, bidders will be able to easily and quickly obtain bank guarantees for the bid and contract performance. In addition, it is necessary to improve the functions of the quick search for signed contracts on the web portal, since in order to find out the result of the past competition, you need to turn over all the pages of the site. Also, make the test mode of the web portal available to all users, this will help improve the skills of novice public procurement specialists and suppliers / contractors [1, 2020]. The most acute problems in public procurement are the problems of choosing high-quality goods, works and services, which are described by T.Sh. Abdyrov, A.A. Adylbekov. In a competitive environment, the buyer must find a supplier or contractor who can offer him a minimum price for the offered goods, works and services, as well as fulfill other conditions essential for him (additional requirements for product quality, delivery times, forms and terms of payments, etc.). etc.). The greatest difficulties are experienced by public hospitals, kindergartens, boarding schools, prisons, and so on, as they have to hold contests for food. The difficulty of competitive bidding for food products lies in the correct description of the technical specifications. For example, a kindergarten buys butter, because you cannot specify the brand, you write butter, calorie content, grams, but you cannot specify what the taste of butter should be, and you have to buy butter with the lowest price, but not high quality. Or you need to buy potatoes, which also indicate the calorie content, the diameter of the potato, but potatoes also have a bitter taste. And the list of such names in food products is very large [4, 2017]. Murzabekova Zh.T., Amirova M.A. Having analyzed the legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic on public procurement, we came to the conclusion that it does not provide equal access to goods and services of the EAEU member states to public procurement. They believe that the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic dated April 3, 2015. No. 72 "On Public Procurement" in relation to all, without exception, foreign potential participants in public procurement, a discriminatory regime has been established. In particular, Article 4 of this Law provides for a preferential regime for participation in public procurement for domestic suppliers in the amount of 20% of the price offer, which undoubtedly puts potential participants in public procurement from other EAEU member states with them in an unequal position. The EAEU Treaty stipulates that countries must ensure unhindered and free access to potential suppliers and suppliers of the Member States to participate in procurement carried out in electronic format by mutual recognition of an electronic digital signature made in accordance with the legislation of one Member State by another state. - a member. However, this factor is still defective [16, 2019]. Conducting scientific research on the problems of the development of the public procurement system is one of the important areas that make it possible to increase the efficiency of state budget regulation, to develop adequate measures to support public policy. Review of studies on this topic for 2010-2020. allows us to conclude that in the development system of state List of used literature: Abdukarimova A.A., Shirdakova G.T. Problems of the formation of the public procurement system in the Kyrgyz Republic. Alatoo Academic Studies. 2020. No. 1. S. 189-197. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Public procurement methods of the Kyrgyz Republic. Science, new technologies and innovations of Kyrgyzstan. 2016. No. 12. S. 93-94. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Public control as an effective tool for improving the public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic. Bulletin of the Tajik National University. A series of socio-economic and social sciences. 2016. No. 2/7 (213). S. 161-164. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Problems of choosing quality goods, works and services in public procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic. Economy. Control. Education. 2017. No. 1 (4). S. 13-14. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Framework Agreement in Public Procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic. Science, new technologies and innovations of Kyrgyzstan. 2016. No. 12. S. 91-92. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Development of electronic public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic. Bulletin of the Tajik National University. A series of socio-economic and social sciences. 2016. No. 2/8 (215). S. 139-141. Abdyrov T.Sh., Adylbekov A.A. Reforms in the public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic. Reform. 2016. No. 4 (72). S. 21-22. Adylbekov A.A., Abdyrov T.Sh. Stages of public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic. Scientific research in the Kyrgyz Republic. 2016. No. 4. P. 4-7. Ermekbaev A.Z., Sayakbaev T.D., Ermekbaev S.A. Reducing corruption losses in the public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic. Eurasian Scientific Association. 2019. No. 12-3 (58). S. 216-220. Zhunuspaev K.T. Anti-corruption policy in the Kyrgyz Republic: history, legal framework, main methods of struggle. Colloquium-journal. 2019. No. 28-8 (52). S. 49-51. Zhunuspaev K.T. Public control over public procurement in Kyrgyzstan. Scientific aspect. 2020.Vol. 1.No. 1.P. 27-31. Zhunuspaev K.T. The main problems of optimization of state anti-corruption in the public procurement system in Kyrgyzstan. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Technology Integral. 2019. No. 4-1. P. 34. Koichueva M.T. Digitalization of the public procurement system in the Kyrgyz Republic. In the collection: Development of the regional economy in the context of digitalization. Collection of materials of the International scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Chechen State University". Editors in charge: Tsakaev A.Kh., Saidov Z.A., Arsakhanova Z.A., 2018.S. 62-68. Maksutov T.M., Savina S.E. Implementation of an electronic public procurement system in Kyrgyzstan. In the collection: Science. Technology. Innovation. Collection of scientific papers. In 9 parts. Edited by A.V. Gadyukina. 2019.S. 175-179. Moldogaziev N.Sh. Analysis of the work of the automated public procurement program of the Kyrgyz Republic. Improvement methods and their effectiveness in modern working conditions. Bulletin of the Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University. 2018.Vol. 18.No. 11.P. 147-150. Murzabekova Zh.T., Amirova M.A. Topical issues of legal regulation of public procurement in the countries of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic. Bulletin of the Kazakh Humanitarian and Legal Innovative University. 2019. No. 2 (42). S. 30-33. Myrzakerim U.B. Development of the public procurement system in local governments. Bulletin of Osh State University. 2019.No. 2.P. 166-169. Omuraliev U.K., Duishaeva M. Realities and perspectives of framework agreements procedures in the public procurement system of the Kyrgyz Republic. Bulletin of the Kyrgyz State Technical University. I. Razzakov. 2019. No. 1 (49). S. 59-63. Sabyrova G. Zh. Internal audit of public procurement in educational institutions of the Kyrgyz Republic. Science and new technologies. 2014. No. 5. S. 106-109. Umetaliev A.S. Institutional development and enhancement of the public procurement system. Bulletin of Osh State University. 2010. No. 3. S. 202-209. Umetaliev A.S. Legal and regulatory framework for the public procurement system in the Kyrgyz Republic. Science and new technologies. 2013. No. 6. S. 131-133. Shirdakova G.T., Abdukarimova A.A. Prospects for cooperation between the state and business in the Kyrgyz Republic. Science, new technologies and innovations of Kyrgyzstan. 2020. No. 2. S. 145-150.
Research
Malika Ulanbek
Essay
101 | 0
The role of logistics in my future profession
There are quite a few such professions. But the main thing is that it is not enough to choose the right areas of activity, you have to study hard and master the basics of the profession, striving for real professionalism in your field. And so, I chose and studied different professions for a long time, and ultimately chose the profession - food technologist. This profession is not only in demand but also interesting. But in order to become a good technologist, you need to master a lot of knowledge and skills. A technologist must be versatile, know not only different sciences related to the technology of product production, but must be creative, be able to talk with people, and have leadership qualities, that is to know logistics! If we consider the role of logistics in production, then everyone will unanimously say that its role is enormous for the growth and development of production, because any production process at food processing enterprises begins with the acquisition of raw materials and material resources, which means from logistics. Logistics is the art of managing, planning, and also the ability to optimize production. Logistics in food production can contribute to strengthening the financial independence of an enterprise, improving management methods, and on the other hand, sustainable functioning. Meanwhile, the activities of food enterprises contribute to the solution of both economic and social problems to meet the needs of the population. At the enterprise level, the logistics system can supply and timely supply the production processes with the necessary resources. The implementation of this task is impossible without the activities of the industries of the production infrastructure: material and technical support, procurement, transport, communications, information industry, connects all links of the technological process, becomes an intermediary in the interaction of the manufacturer and the consumer, also provides storage and warehousing of production products. The effect of logistics is manifested in a high level of organization of production, which results in the saving of material and financial resources. These savings are reflected in the form of changes in indicators such as inventory levels, cycle times, capacity utilization rates, etc. In the modern world, people dream of a profession that brings joy, pleasure and decent pay.
Isaev Nazim
Essay
86 | 0
Why did I choose to be a buyer?
This profession is very young. The last century in every enterprise there were specialist that implemented procurement activities and were called technical specialists or engineers. They performed various tasks related to calculating supply requirements, finding the necessary material solutions, establishing contacts with suppliers and much more. And as a result, they began to be called Buyers. Significant evolution has taken place over the past decades. As the history of the buying profession shows, before the role of specialists was reduced to a supporting or service function, sometimes they were called back-office. Unfortunately, the buyer's work was often not taken seriously, and this trend can still be traced. But the world does not stand still, and recently, buyers are increasingly required to work at a high strategic level. Today, there is a tendency to introduce procurement directors into the top management of the company, and without them important strategic decisions are not made. So far, this is not a mass phenomenon, but the trend is already encouraging, and I would like to hope that it will continue. This factor is one of the most important in the changing role of procurement in business. Therefore, I want to develop the profession of a buyer and therefore develop myself in it, as well as be one. It should also be noted how important professionalism and understanding of the essence of the purchased goods, works, services are. For example, materials and services need to be procured in different ways, in different ways to evaluate suppliers' proposals, to prepare technical specifications in different ways. This is especially evident when purchasing services. After unsuccessful attempts to purchase services according to the same principle as materials, conversations begin that the buyers do not understand anything, do not know, and destroy all ideas and ideas. As a result of such activities, business and internal customers complain: buyers only interfere, slow down, want to buy the cheapest and everything in the same spirit. The same is heard from suppliers and the market: as soon as buyers intervene, due to ignorance and lack of professionalism, they cannot evaluate ideas, creativity, the adequacy of services, it is just normal to compare services. That is why in such discussions one should insist on separating apples and oranges. It is impossible to classify all buyers as those who interfere with doing business. There are just unprofessional buyers who do not dive into the details and essence of the issues. This is another reason why I want to be in this area and in the future show by example that buyers are not a necessary part of logistics or business.
Akylbekov Batyrbek
Essay
54 | 0
Why is it necessary to engage in procurement?
For us, logistics specialists, it is very important to carry out procurement, since material flow management is an integral part of the logistics itself. Any trading and manufacturing enterprises have a department that is responsible for purchasing and is called the procurement department. He is primarily concerned with establishing relationships with suppliers - coordinated relationships ensure a continuous flow of goods from the businesses that supply them. They also solve economic and planning issues. The very idea of logistics is to get additional profit from the coordination of actions of all participants. This idea requires supply personnel to achieve the goals of their own enterprise not as an isolated object, but as a link in the logistics system. It should pursue the goal of improving the efficiency and functioning of the entire logistics subsystem. The supply goal should be based on modern marketing concepts, first a sales strategy is developed, then, based on it, we should build a production development strategy, then a supply and procurement strategy. But in my opinion, marketing does not offer methods of systemic organization from the primary source of raw materials to the final consumer. The most effective functioning of the procurement department and the possibility of achieving goals to a significant extent depends on the very systematic organization of the procurement department. If I have to work in the procurement department, then I have to fulfill clear terms of procurement, adhere to time frames, fulfill the quantitative volume of procurement, procurement goods of exceptionally high quality, procurement all these resources at the lowest prices, with delivery, in the shortest possible time and at the lowest cost. for transportation and storage. Unfortunately, in Kyrgyzstan, the functioning of the procurement system is not fully established, since many firms continue to work, focusing on the time when all the resources in the country were not purchased, but distributed. I believe that when I graduate from the university, the “Purchasing logistics” profile, I will successfully cope with high-ranking tasks and will build the most effective ways of supplying my enterprise.
Jumashova Akylai
Essay
143 | 0
The role of logistics in my profession as a food technologist
If we think for a moment about our favorite store or restaurant, the concept of logistics may not come to mind at first. But when you consider how exactly this establishment obtains the food and materials it needs for its day-to-day operations, the importance of logistics to our consumer lifestyle is undeniable. Logistics in simple words is the management of the processes of transferring goods or services from suppliers to consumers. In addition, the goal of logistics is to obtain the required amount of product at the lowest cost in a certain place and at a certain time. These activities include procurement, shipping, warehousing, material handling, protective packaging, inventory control, manufacturing orders, demand forecasting, marketing and customer service. Knowledge of logistics is necessary for people of different professions, especially a food technologist. Because food logistics is a wide range of activities associated with the efficient movement of raw materials from the source of supply to the beginning of the production line and finished products or semi-finished products, from the end of the production line to the point of consumption, according to customer requirements. Since a food technologist is a specialist responsible for the quality of food products at all stages: from receiving raw materials to packaging finished products, he must be competent in improving work productivity. Based on the formulation of the problem, one can understand that it can be completely solved only with the help of logistics. Because logistics, being inextricably linked with the production and economic activities of the enterprise, allows you to reduce costs or insure risks, for example, the risk of overstocking or shortage of finished products in warehouses. And in conclusion, I want to say that logistics plays an important role in my profession, because, ultimately, it depends on the actions of this service whether the customer will receive my product or not.
Alan Birmambetov
Essay
83 | 0
Тест блог 002
To answer this question, first you need to understand what procurement is. Pocurement is a procedure for obtaining goods, works or services, which consists in establishing the need for these goods, works and services, finding suppliers, concluding and enforcing an agreement for the supply of goods (performance of works or services). Purchasing an enterprise is one of the most important processes carried out in doing business. It is the procurement process that ensures the effective functioning of today's enterprises, significantly affects their competitiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Public procurement is a system through which state-owned companies look for suppliers of goods, works and services. Moreover, these purchases can be of any scale - from the purchase of pushpins to the construction of stadiums. Why participate in public procurement? Government procurement allows you to get a large and reliable customer who will pay for sure. It is also an opportunity to increase sales and expand the geography of trade. Rumor has it that only “insiders” manage to get government contracts, they say, “from the outside” it is not worth even trying. Don't believe this. If you produce a quality product or provide a qualified service, then there is every chance of getting a government order. And for this you do not need to spend money on advertising, but you will have to spend time and effort to figure out the details. Procurement logistics is a complex of operations aimed at supplying an enterprise with resources, the volume of finished products, and the movement of purchased material resources among departments within the enterprise and between them. The main goal of procurement logistics is to meet the needs of the company (production) in products (materials) with the highest possible economic efficiency. Procurement logistics tasks: 1) ensuring the procurement of material resources at the lowest prices and with the highest quality. By reducing the purchase prices of materials, you can significantly reduce the cost of production; 2) ensuring timely delivery of materials for production needs; 3) compliance with the terms of the procurement of raw materials and components; 4) determination of the optimal size of supplies; 5) compliance with the compliance of the number of supplies with the needs of production; 6) control over the quality of raw materials and components; 7) ensuring the storage of material resources (finished product) with minimal costs. Having learned the full range of procurement, let's draw conclusions. In my opinion, procurement is the main driving force of any enterprise. The efficiency of work and services depends entirely on procurement logistics. And if you do not prioritize purchasing, your business will not go far, but on the contrary, it will slide into a crisis abyss. Therefore, if you want a thriving sustainable business, pay sufficient attention to procurement. Good luck in your endeavors.
Olesya Petrenko
Research
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Organization of procurement activities of the enterprise
Currently, many large trade enterprises in the region are doing serious work to modernize and improve their procurement activities. The correct organization of procurement activities is the basis for the successful operation of any trade enterprise. Procurement is the acquisition of goods for various purposes for their final sale. In this case, trade enterprises are an effective assistant for manufacturers of goods, as they help to most fully and accurately meet the needs of the end consumer. By properly organizing procurement activities, the company not only contributes to meeting consumer demand, but also reduces the likelihood of commercial risk associated with the lack of sales of goods. Content Introduction Chapter 1. Theoretical foundations of public procurement and procurement activities 1.1. Definition of the concept of "public procurement" 1.2. The essence, content and basic concepts of procurement Chapter 2. Features of the organization of procurement activities at the enterprise "MegaCity" 2.1. Enterprise characteristics 2.2. Analysis of the main financial and economic indicators of the activities of LLC "MegaCity" Chapter 3. Ways to improve procurement activities at the company LLC "MegaCity" 3.1. Measures to improve procurement activities in the trading enterprise LLC "MegaCity" 3.2. Change in the need for resource support of a trading enterprise Conclusion List of references
Literature
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