Publications
418 | 0
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Application of elements of behavioral science in public procurement
The International School of Logistics at the Kyrgyz State Technical University has launched a new teaching course "Application of elements of behavioral science in public procurement". Developed with the support of the World Bank, this course will be integrated into the curricula of students studying the logistics of public procurement in the program of "Logistics". The procurement specialist must have the knowledge to ensure a reasonable balance of requirements - to carry out all procurement procedures in good faith and take into account the priorities of the state. In addition to the standard process of control and audit, the system of punishment, there are personal behavioral mechanisms that affect decision-making - fear of making a mistake, rejection of uncertainty, reassessment of negative consequences, readiness to act within the framework of known and standard behavior. These are the elements of behavioral science. The purpose of the new teaching course is to study psychological phenomena, emotions, moods and group interests in the process of public procurement. The key point of behavioral science is the importance of taking into account the behavior of the individual. A person is considered as an intuitively and rationally acting person. The main features of behavior and factors that influence the behavior of the individual are revealed. The popular behavioral model "prospect theory" is chosen as a reference point for the presentation. Prospect theory is compared with the standard microeconomic expected utility model. Key elements of Prospect Theory are emphasized, detailing with examples the different perceptions of utility from losses and gains, and the replacement of event probabilities with "weights" that reflect overestimation of the probability of bad outcomes and underestimation of the probability of good outcomes. Part of the material is devoted to the effect of ownership (endowment) in order to understand its presence in the life of every person. An explanation is given of such concepts as framing and its presence in rational behavior during public procurement. The teaching of this course is based on interactive practical work on real examples of procurement entities in the Kyrgyz Republic. Full text of the teaching course at the link:
Kalieva Aian
959 | 0
Sustainable Public Procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic
Abstract: The article discusses "sustainable" public procurement (Sustainable Public Procurement), which, along with economic efficiency, takes into account the positive impact on the environment and solves social problems. How public procurement can contribute to the sustainable development of the country and an overview of the current state of the Kyrgyz Republic on the introduction of sustainable public procurement. Keywords: public procurement; sustainable development; sustainable public procurement. Due to the deterioration of the environment and a number of environmental problems causing global warming and increasing social and economic tensions in countries, in particular in recent years due to the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, the issue of ensuring sustainable development, identified at the UN World Conference in 1992 (UN Convention on Environment and Development, 1992), has become acute for the world community. According to the UN, the global economy shrank by 4.3% in 2020. The crisis caused by the virus has been called the strongest in the last 90 years. The emerging situation with the COVID-19 pandemic showed all the inequalities between people and countries and made it clear once again that the world needs sustainable development. Sustainable development involves ensuring economic stability, environmental protection and achieving social justice (UN Conference on Sustainable Development, 2012). Environmentally safe production, rational consumption, reduction of social imbalance in society, economic support for developing industries and countries allow countries to move towards sustainable development. One of the effective mechanisms for implementing the sustainable development strategy for States is public procurement. Acting as the largest buyer in the market and having the political will and authority, the state can influence producers and consumers through public procurement and promote sustainable production and consumption. A number of countries at different levels of economic and social development apply sustainable procurement in practice, stimulating the production of environmentally friendly products, the secondary use of resources, supporting small businesses, addressing issues of social equality of national and ethnic minorities, creating new jobs and stimulating fair trade. Thus, public procurement really contributes to sustainable development. Sustainable development and sustainable public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic. Sustainable development is a process that meets the needs of the present without undermining the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Our Common Future, 1987). Sustainable development "includes components such as social justice, environmental protection and economic development" (Weybrecht, 2010). Social justice includes issues such as human rights, peace, security, justice, gender equality, cultural diversity, etc. Environmental protection implies protection in the field of water supply, energy, agriculture, biodiversity maintenance, protection of animals, fish, forests, etc. Economic development refers to "understanding the potential of economic growth and includes issues of poverty reduction, responsible consumption, corporate responsibility, energy efficiency, rational waste management, education issues, etc." ((Weitbrecht, 2010). Public procurement can be one of the effective mechanisms for the transition to sustainable development. There are several reasons for this. First of all, a huge share of budget funds is spent on public procurement. According to the European Commission, public procurement expenditures in European countries account for 13.67% of GDP (Public Procurement Indicators, 2014). According to the International Institute for Sustainable Development, in OECD countries, expenditures on public procurement of goods and services range from 45% to 65% of the national budget, which is 12-17% of GDP (Procurement&Public-PrivatePartnerships). According to data taken from the official portal of public procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic(http://cds.zakupki.gov.kg/statistic/procedures ) in 2020, the total cost of completed tenders amounted to 36.7 billion soms, which is equal to 21% of the total amount of state budget expenditures for 2020. (https://budget.okmot.kg/ru ). However, the share of successfully completed lots was only 54%, which indicates the inefficient work of purchasing organizations to assimilate the state budget. Compared with the indicators of the OECD countries, expenditures on public procurement of goods and services in the Kyrgyz Republic are lower, but despite this, the state is still the largest customer of goods and services in the country. The demand for ecological products from the state gives a signal to the market and promotes the spread of the "useful habit" of purchasing environmentally friendly goods, fair trade goods by private consumers. This, in turn, stimulates the production of environmentally friendly products and the development of socially responsible business (Preuss, 2009). As a result, all this contributes to solving economic, environmental and social problems. What does it look like in practice? The state, being the largest customer on the market, makes a decree to budget organizations to purchase only energy-saving lamps, this will increase the demand for energy-saving light bulbs on the market. In order to support small and medium-sized businesses, when concluding contracts, the state could first of all give preference to suppliers who are residents of the Kyrgyz Republic. Often, in practice, situations arise when factories themselves or exclusive distributors of goods and equipment that are located on the territory of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan or China participate in certain large contests on the EGZ portal. Of course, in such cases, all profits from the transaction and taxes go to the treasury of another state. As for the above-mentioned countries, public procurement in these countries takes place on official portals that are available only to residents of the country. On the part of the state , the following benefits are provided by the state to maintain domestic products: when purchasing goods that are produced in the Kyrgyz Republic by internal suppliers, the purchasing organization is obliged to provide benefits in the amount of 20 percent on the offered price when evaluating competitive bids, if there are necessary certificates for the supplied goods confirming the safety and quality of products. If the subject of procurement is work that can be performed by internal contractors of the Kyrgyz Republic and foreign contractors, the procuring entity is obliged to provide benefits in the amount of 20 percent to internal contractors, provided that the internal contractor uses at least 70 percent of local labor resources and at least 30 percent of local raw materials and materials. (According to article 4, paragraph 3, 4 of the Law "On Public Procurement" dated April 3, 2015 No. 72). On the environmental side of sustainable development, the Kyrgyz Republic needs decisive reforms. The revealed environmental damage at the Kumtor gold mine, as well as the primacy of the city of Bishkek in the rankings of the world's cities with the dirtiest air, make it clear that the environmental component must also be taken into account in setting priorities for the state. To date, the introduction of sustainable public procurement is only being introduced in the Kyrgyz Republic. Kyrgyzstan is one of the countries for the implementation of the UNDA SPP Project, which is led by the European Office of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and implemented jointly with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP), aimed at strengthening the capacity of individual countries in the EECCA region in the field of sustainable public procurement and increasing the ability of businesses to respond to public auctions with sustainability criteria. The project is being implemented in the period from 2018 to 2021. In the document NSR-2040, for focused and active movement towards such a picture of the country's future, the priority directions of the Kyrgyz Republic until 2023 are defined: Stimulating technological modernization Modernization and implementation of energy-efficient technologies. Increasing the participation of renewable energy sources. Expansion of the area of green spaces. Conservation of tailings dumps and ensuring safety Rational management of water resources. Development of waste disposal and recycling infrastructure. According to the program for the development of the "green" economy in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023, which is currently at the stage of approval in the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, the goals for sustainable public procurement are also outlined. The goal is to increase the share of sustainable public procurement to 30% by 2023, and to 50% by 2040. To achieve it, the following tasks will be solved: 3.1. Improve legislation in the field of public procurement. Improvement of legislation in the field of public procurement, including provisions on technical specifications and relevant certificates for goods supplied, works performed and services rendered, confirming environmental criteria, product safety and quality, including requirements for social aspects. The Government's activities will be aimed at promoting the implementation of sustainable procurement and trade policies within the framework of multilateral and regional cooperation with the EAEU and the WTO. Regulations and instructions on evaluation criteria will be developed for purchasing organizations to determine sustainable/ "green" goods and services. 3.2. Promote the development of environmental certification. The development of environmental certification will be implemented through the introduction of international standards for sustainable procurement. Organizations will be assisted in the development and implementation of successful practices and policies for the implementation of sustainable purchases. It is also planned to introduce criteria that will allow the evaluation of goods and services produced according to established international labor standards (ILO, Fair Trade, etc.). Mechanisms will be developed to stimulate sustainable public procurement for suppliers, including providing access to preferential sources of financing. 3.3. To increase the potential of suppliers and purchasing organizations for the transition to sustainable public procurement. Increasing the capacity of purchasing state organizations and suppliers will be carried out through the development and implementation of training programs for both universities and training centers. Specialized courses for university teachers on sustainable/"green" public procurement will also be held on an ongoing basis. Conclusion In world practice, sustainable public procurement as a mechanism for implementing sustainable development policy is becoming increasingly widespread. For the successful implementation of the principles of sustainable public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic, it is necessary first of all to improve legislation in the field of public procurement, in which it is necessary to stimulate the work of domestic producers and suppliers of residents of the Kyrgyz Republic, as well as pay more attention to the environmental component of the country. List of used literature Shadrina E.V., Romodina I.V. Article: PUBLIC PROCUREMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE URL:https://vgmu.hse.ru/data/2017/04/05/1168492363/%D0%A8%D0%B0%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0,%20%D0%A0%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0%201-2017.pdf The future we want. UN Conference on Sustainable Development RIO+20. 2012. URL: https://rio20.un.org/sites/rio20.un.org/fi les/a-conf.216-l-1_russian.pdf.pdf (дата обращения: 07.07.2016). Convention on Environment and Development. The agenda for the XXI century. 1992, Rio de Janeiro. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/agenda21 (дата обращения: 02.05.2016) Official portal of public procurement URL: http://zakupki.gov.kg/ Overview of the current state of the Kyrgyz Republic on the implementation of sustainable public procurement (UGP) https://www.greengrowthknowledge.org/sites/default/files/uploads/RUS%20Full%20assessment%20of%20institution%20and%20legal%20framework%20Kyrgyzstan.pdf The Law "On Public Procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic (http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/111125) Open budget website (https://budget.okmot.kg/ru)
Borisova Vera
661 | 0
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Public procurement ecosystem
Borisova Vera Viktorovna - Professor of the Department of Logistics and Trade Policy, St. Petersburg State University of Economics. The results of her work are reflected in monographs, textbooks on commerce, logistics, marketing, including textbooks: "Supply Logistics", "Commercial Logistics", "Economic Logistics", "Logistics in the system of aggregate knowledge" published in collaboration with Professor Afanasenko I.D. in the publishing house of Peter and the publishing house of St. Petersburg State University of Economics; is a member of dissertation councils of a number of universities in the country, vice-president of the South-Russian Association of Logistics. Abstract. The publication discusses the application of digital technologies in the Russian contract system and the prospects for creating an ecosystem of public procurement; the practical experience of using digital technologies in the public procurement system is generalized. An ecosystem approach to improving the efficiency of public procurement has been highlighted. It is shown that the creation of an ecosystem of state procurement in Russia is associated with the restructuring of several its structural elements, the introduction of artificial intelligence algorithms, blokchain technologies, smart-contracts, dialogue interfaces, which is associated with social, economic and structural risks To read the article in detail, you can download the PDF file
Shadrina Elena V., Romodina Irina V.
637 | 0
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Sustainable public procurement: international experience
Abstract Sustainable public procurement (SPP) is a process of purchasing goods, services, works and utilities for public needs in a way that ensures benefits not only to the orga- nization, but also to society and the economy, whilst minimizes damage to the environ- ment. SPP can be part of the overall mechanism of sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how SPP can contribute to sustainable development, what is the legal framework for it, what factors promote and inhibit SPP, how SPP can be im- plemented in practice. By analyzing regulatory legal acts, the international SPP experi- ence, a large body of international academic research and reports of international organi- zations involved in the promotion of SPP, we advance two key features that make public procurement an effective mechanism of sustainable development: (1) the scale of public procurement and (2) the power and authority of procurement bodies. We distinguish between several different schemes of legal support of SPP. The main drivers of SPP are leadership, clarity of strategies and plans that articulate SPP goals, the legislative support of the SPP process, and the information support of procurement specialists. Our review of international experience in SPP is expected to contribute to a more vigorous imple- mentation of SPP by procurement authorities. Keywords: public procurement; sustainable development; sustainable public pro- curement. Citation: Shadrina, E.V. & Romodina, I.V. (2017). Gosudarstvennye zakupki dlya ustoychivogo razvitiya: Mezhdunarodnyi opyt [Sustainable Public Procurement: Inter- national Experience]. Public Administration Issues, no 1, pp. 149–172 (in Russian). Shadrina Elena V. PhD in Economics, Associate professor at the Management Department, Lead Research Associate, Centre for Public Private Interaction, HSE. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics. 38 Studencheskaya Str., Perm 614070, Russian Federation. E-mail: evshadrina@hse.ru Romodina Irina V. Junior Research Associate at the Centre for Public Private Interaction, HSE. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics. 38 Studencheskaya Str., Perm 614070, Russian Federation. E-mail: iromodina@hse.ru
Elvira Uyarra, Jacob Edlera, Javier Garcia-Estevez, Luca Georgiua, Gillian Yow
623 | 0
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Barriers to Innovation Through Public Procurement: A Supplier's Perspective.
We would like to acquaint you with an interesting article by the authors of which are Elvira Uyarra, Jacob Edlera, Javier Garcia-Estevez, Luca Georgiua, Gillian Yow. The authors represent Manchester Institute for Innovative Research, Manchester Business School, University of Manchester and United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Colombia. The article identifies factors in public procurement that affect the ability of suppliers to innovate. - The most important are tender specifications, skills, user-supplier interaction and risk management. - There are differences in the perception of obstacles between R&D and non-R&D participants. - Small firms and non-profit organizations are particularly disadvantaged in terms of procurement. Abstract article: Public procurement is increasingly seen as having an important factor in stimulating innovation. Despite this, numerous obstacles prevent the public sector from acting as an intelligent and informed purchasing client. This paper seeks to understand how barriers related to processes, competencies, procedures and relationships in public procurement affect the ability of suppliers to innovate and benefit from innovation. To find the answers, we conducted a dedicated survey of UK public sector suppliers using the probit model to examine the impact of structural, market and innovation determinants on supplier perceptions of these barriers. The main obstacles reported by suppliers relate to the lack of interaction with procuring entities, the use of overspecified tenders, low procurement competence and poor risk management in the procurement process. Such obstacles are most strongly perceived by R&D intensive organizations. Our results also show that certain organizations, especially small firms and non-profit organizations, face greater challenges in implementing innovations arising from the procurement process, such as contract size, lack of helpful feedback, and communication of opportunities.
Kydykov Azizbek A., Myrzalieva Madina A.
1754 | 0
The use of ecological transport as a way to promote green logistics in Kyrgyzstan
Keywords: logistics, green economy, environmental requirements, electric transport, electric vehicle, environment, air emissions, transport infrastructure. Abstract The proposed study analyzes the relevance and problems of environmental pollution in the Kyrgyz Republic. The air quality in the Chui Valley and especially in the capital, Bishkek, has significantly deteriorated, which negatively affects the health of residents. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The use of green logistics approaches made it possible to identify the main source of pollution. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. A set of measures to reduce emissions into the atmosphere is proposed, including changing people's consciousness and responsibility to reduce emissions, promoting electric transport. Urban passenger transport is of great socio-economic importance. That is how it can greatly influence the mindset of the population and the promotion of electric transport, since passengers use transport daily and all its improvements immediately become the subject of evaluation. An assessment of the minimum costs for the implementation of the proposed measures was carried out. A plan for the development of electric transport and transport infrastructure is proposed, including the stage of a pilot project and technical tests, as well as economic assessments and proposals. Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify approaches and methods of green logistics for the study of environmental problems of Bishkek and the Kyrgyz Republic in general and to propose measures to improve air quality, in particular the use of electric transport and urban electric passenger transport in particular. Studies have shown that the sustainable development of communities and the urban environment requires the use of green technologies and the desire to create a low-carbon society [1]: To achieve the goal, the united efforts of the government, the private sector and research intuition are of paramount importance for transforming scientific results into the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Special Volume (SV) accepts and reviews a wide range of green initiatives aimed at achieving the SDGs. This PROJECT includes fundamental research on alternative fuels, smart and environmentally friendly materials to reduce waste and environmental impact; technology system design tools to develop sustainable consumption and production for communities; a sustainable waste management system; a circular economy and incentive strategies, for example, through public policy and smart partnerships. In [2], the use of the principles of green logistics for clean air is investigated: The dynamic development of cities requires the effective solution of environmental problems that often arise as a result of the implementation of logistics processes of supply, production and distribution. Currently, the main goal of activities carried out with the help of logistics is to minimize the negative consequences of people's economic and residential activities, including external effects (for example, congestion, environmental pollution), while increasing logistical benefits, such as reducing costs and improving customer service (Ambrosino and Siomachen, 2014). Pure logistics process-this becomes the main element of logistics activity (Kadlubek, 2015). A systematic approach in logistics allows you to organize such activities that exclude the collision of environmental and economic goals. Green logistics emphasizes air protection. Relevant research and "green" supply chains are mainly aimed at achieving economic, environmental and social results (Subramanian and Gunasekaran, 2015). Thus, the concept of green logistics favors solutions leading to the implementation of all sustainable development goals, not just environmental ones. Green logistics covers activities focused on: environmental logistics management, low-carbon warehousing and packaging, low-carbon transportation, fleet management, alternative energy and logistics innovation (Zhang, Thompson, Bao and Jiang, 2014). Other goals of green logistics relate to reducing external costs due to climate change, air pollution, noise, vibration and accidents (Jedliński, 2014). Transport is one of the main sources of air pollution in the city. Therefore, green logistics should be supported by the urban logistics strategy " effective management of urban cargo transportation and other traffic flows, in order to achieve an optimal compromise between ensuring optimal logistics networks performance, reliable customer service and reducing environmental impacts, air pollutants, energy consumption and traffic congestion” (Amaral and Aghezzaf, 2015). The increase in the urban population and economic development lead to more air pollution in cities, which means a danger to health and a deterioration in the quality of life. For this reason, the city authorities should adjust the city's economic, residential and transport processes in such a way as to prevent air pollution. This approach is consistent with the concept of green logistics, which is aimed at reducing emissions, reducing waste and low energy consumption. In this paper, transport and especially freight transport is recognized as the main polluter. The problems of sustainable development and the use of green technologies are considered in the study [3]: A special volume (SV) accepts and considers a wide range of green initiatives aimed at achieving the goals of sustainable development. This PROJECT includes fundamental research on alternative fuels, smart and environmentally friendly materials to reduce waste and environmental impact; tools for designing technological systems to develop sustainable consumption and production for communities; a system for sustainable waste management; circular economy and stimulating strategies, for example, through public policy and reasonable partnership. Thus, an integrated approach is needed for the intended environmental goals. Ways to reduce the carbon emissions of passenger transport: the impact on the climate budget of India are investigated in [4]: an assessment of transport emissions with electric vehicles, electric networks (EG) and T&D losses was carried out. It is concluded that electric vehicles are unsuitable without increasing the efficiency of EG and T&D losses. Eleven different scenarios with estimated uncertainties for passenger traffic in the Mumbai metropolitan regions are formulated. The study also shows that the introduction of electric vehicles into the city without simultaneously improving EG will lead to an increase in net CO2 emissions. However, this work does not consider other emissions other than CO 2. The next study devoted to the problems of the impact of transport on the urban environment is [5]: the opening and gradual expansion of the regional express railway (RER) in the period from 1970 to 2000 in the Paris metropolitan region. The causal influence of urban railway transport on the location of firms, employment and population growth is considered. Thus, the relationship between transport, residential and business infrastructure is obvious. The study [6] is devoted to the same problem, in which a strong negative relationship between emissions and land use rules was found. By limiting new developments, the cleanest areas of the country seem to be pushing new developments to places with higher emissions. Cities usually have significantly less emissions than suburbs, and the gap between the city and the suburbs is especially large in older areas such as New York. Here, emissions from driving, public transport, heating homes and using electricity at home are considered. The experience of China [7] on the introduction of restrictions on driving transport in Beijing on individual behavior during trips is interesting. The restrictions prohibit drivers from using their cars one weekday a week on the basis of a license plate. This experience of organizational measures also contributes to reducing the number of cars in operation, which means it can reduce the amount of emissions into the atmosphere. Assessment of the impact of air pollution from transport in urban areas - an overview of the actual data was performed in [8]: a comprehensive review of studies on measurements of concentrations of pollutants in the microenvironment of urban transport, published in the period from January 2016 to July 2020 in the Medline, Scopus and Embase databases, was conducted. The average values and ranges of impacts for each mode of transport were calculated, as well as the impact ratios between modes of transport and factors within the same study. The results obtained indicate that higher concentrations of air pollutants are often observed in road transport compared to cycling and walking. Therefore, taking into account the broader and long-term benefits for public health and the environment, it is concluded that every effort should be made to prioritize active travel and public transport and allow more people to use these modes of transport. This confirms the role of public transport in the implementation of tasks to reduce emissions. The problems of air pollution and the concerns caused by it among urban residents are studied in [9]: residents begin to adapt their behavior when traveling and take into account the quality of local air when choosing a house. A spatial and integrated model of choosing the location of residential buildings and transport for a city with air pollution due to traffic is proposed. Intra-urban spatial models of population density, choice of mode of transport and the resulting impact on the population are analyzed for urban conditions with different levels of health hazards and information about air pollution available to residents. This work highlights the need to link information about people's problems related to air pollution and integrated land use and transport measures. In this context, the health benefits are the result of a decrease in population density near urban centers. Thus, many studies have been devoted to the problems of air pollution and decarbonization. Various approaches to reducing the level of pollution are proposed, one of which is the use of electric transport, both public passenger and personal. In the Kyrgyz Republic, in order to stimulate the use of next-generation transport-electric vehicles by citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic has developed an Action Plan to stimulate the use of wheeled vehicles with electric motors and the creation of charging infrastructure [10]: Within the framework of the EAEU, it was decided to reset the rates of import customs duties of the Unified Customs Tariff of the EAEU until 31.12.2021. A proposal has been made to the EAEU to extend until 2025 the deadline for resolving the issue of applying a reduced unified rate of customs duties and taxes in respect of electric vehicles imported by individuals for personal use, since after the expiration of this decision, the rates of import customs duties will be paid according to the Unified Customs Tariff of the EAEU in the amount of 15% of the customs value. The Center for Standardization and Metrology under the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic is working on the standardization of electric charging devices and the introduction of international standards IEC 61851 and IEC 62196 into the national system of standards, and is also working on the classification of electric charging stations by type. Together with the Bishkek City Administration, the issue of the proposed location of the electric charging infrastructure within the city of Bishkek is being considered. The analysis of the current state of urban passenger transport was carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 2013 [11]: it was concluded that a competent policy for the development of the city and the development of public transport is currently being carried out. "Public Transport Development Plan". In such conditions, public transport should play a key role in servicing the movements of citizens. Today, 70% of all public transport operations are carried out by private carriers on minibuses. Municipal transport is uncompetitive due to a less developed route network, high traffic intervals, outdated infrastructure and poor quality of rolling stock operation. The disadvantage is also the lack of a legal framework for the management of the transport complex, which is why management processes are carried out manually, and any planning is impossible. At the moment, private carriers, which carry out 70% of transportation, are actually ignored by the public authorities. Therefore, to normalize the work of public transport and improve the quality of its services, first of all, a reform of the management system is required with the establishment of fair relations with private carriers, and not the development of infrastructure or attempts to oust private carriers from the market through the development of municipal transport. It is important to note that in a city like Bishkek, the construction of expensive rail transport is not required: a tram, a high-speed tram or a metro. According to the experience of Russian cities with a similar population (Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod), it can be assumed that the construction of even one metro line can take 20-30 years and will require huge investments in infrastructure, and as a result will not improve the conditions of movement. According to our estimate, one north–south metro line in Bishkek will be able to serve only 6-8% of all movements. As world experience shows, the lack of rail infrastructure can be a competitive advantage, since it simplifies the development of bus systems. In the draft concept for the development of Bishkek [12]: it is proposed to redirect the vector of the city's development from the horizontal (expansion of administrative borders, integrated development of undeveloped territories) to the vertical (intensification of the use of already built-up territory and stimulating the development of the city within the existing administrative borders). The parameters of land use in our project are linked to the development of public transport, which allows us to plan and optimize the load on the transport infrastructure. As you move away from the city center and the main lines of passenger transport, the density and number of floors of the building decreases (Fig. 1). The second section of this study is devoted to the problems of transport: the Bishkek street and road network has insufficient density, which is why the type of urban mobility based on the predominant use of personal vehicles cannot be stable and comfortable. In cities with similar parameters of the road network, international practice recommends imposing serious restrictions on the ownership and use of motor vehicles in order to shift the transport demand to other types of transport (Fig.2). In such conditions, public transport should play a key role in servicing the movements of citizens. Today, 70% of all public transport operations are carried out by private carriers on minibuses. Fig. 1 Conceptual scheme of the city development/ source: research of the author's team Fig. 2. The existing street and road network of Bishkek / Source: Research of the author's team At the same time, the existing route networks of municipal public transport - bus and trolleybus lines are proposed in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 Operating route networks of municipal transport in Bishkek According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the development of the route network and transport infrastructure as a whole is lagging behind the pace of development of the city. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is making efforts to improve the situation in the field of passenger transport in Bishkek, including reducing harmful emissions. In August 2020, a memorandum of understanding was signed between the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic on the urban transport electrification project [13]. The use of electric buses in Kyrgyzstan is a new and unfamiliar business. The paper [14] presents the result of the analysis of the efficiency and applicability of various options of electric passenger transport in the city. Technologies of electric buses-electric buses: electric buses with power in motion (In-Motion-Feeding), electric buses with charging in motion (In-Motion-Charging), electric buses with charging on the route (Opportunity Charging), electric buses with charging at the depot/station (Overnight Charging). "Disadvantages" of trolleybuses-IMF electric buses: 1. Power supply system: traction substations, feeding feeders, contact network-costs 2. Visual pollution (?)- aesthetics 3. Complex intersections of the contact network-costs, aesthetics 4. Fixed route network (?) –passenger confidence 5. Low maneuverability (?) –2-3 lanes 6. Reliability of the power supply and current collection system! - prevention and improvement A comparison of different types of electric buses on the energy efficiency of transportation was made (Table 1) Passenger capacity / energy efficiency of transportation Table 1 Passenger capacity, people Energy per passenger, W*h/(pass*km) Mass of the drive, kg IMF 100 25 - IMC 95 26 312,5 OC 81 30 1250 ONC на тягу 26 96 5000 56 45 3000 From a technical point of view, all these options are very similar – a bus-type body and chassis, a traction electric motor, control devices and electric energy supply. The differences in the cost of various electric bus designs are mainly determined by the capacity, size and weight of the batteries. Which concept of an electric bus is most suitable for your city? To do this, it is proposed to take into account the specific conditions and resources of the city. A comparison of electric bus variants was made in the study [15]: Our analysis shows that a diesel bus running on conventional diesel remains the most economical technology until 2025, while the regulatory framework remains unchanged. But this contributes very little to the achievement of the central goals of the German government. "Mobility and Fuel Strategy" (MFS), for example, reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions or introducing new technologies. On the contrary, electric buses could make a significant contribution to achieving these goals. With the progress in the energy transition ("Energiewende") and the further development of the battery, the technology of electric buses will become more profitable, especially from an environmental point of view. For electric buses, IMC is considered as the most economical technology for high-capacity lines (frequent maintenance, high-capacity vehicles) or lines with high energy demand. On the other hand, it is necessary to take into account all emissions into the atmosphere: exhaust gas emissions and emissions into the upper atmosphere during the production of energy carriers. Exhaust pipe emissions of conventional buses are calculated using the "Manual Database of Emission Factors for Road Transport" (HBEFA, version 3.2). The emissions of the electric bus use phase are determined by the production of electricity. The structure of electricity production is based on the work of AG Energiebilanzen , the Bundesverband Erneuerbare Energien (German Federation of Renewable Energy Sources)and the Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Energy Systems). Future electricity mixes are based on the 2011 Leitstudio. The calculated emission factors for electricity generation include emissions from power plants and primary energy supplies. An analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from the production of buses themselves was also carried out. Greenhouse gas emissions: All alternative concepts have increased emissions at the production stage compared to the diesel bus. They are strongly influenced by the size of the batteries in the corresponding electric bus concept. But also fuel cell hybrid buses have significantly higher emissions due to the production of vehicles. The higher fuel cell emissions are mainly due to the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) used in the hydrogen tank and the platinum used in the fuel cell. More efficient production processes for the production of carbon fiber, the use of electricity with a higher proportion of renewable energy sources and a higher proportion of recycled platinum can reduce these environmental consequences in the future. Thus, IMC is considered as an integral part of the strategy of electrification of urban public transport. The choice was made in favor of the IMC strategy at the current stage of technology and technology development. The choice of IMC technology electric buses was also made for San Francisco [16]: the city is expanding its fleet of zero-emission transit buses: after purchasing 93 Xcelsior XT60 articulated electric buses, the San Francisco Municipal Transit Agency (SFMTA) placed an order for 185 New Flyer XT40 buses equipped with the In Motion Charging (IMC) system, technology from Kiepe Electric. With the In Motion Charging function, trolleybuses cover sections of the route without overhead lines in battery-powered mode, and the batteries are then charged when the vehicle is again under the overhead lines. They are designed to improve the ride of passengers and reduce the impact on the environment. These new buses will serve passengers on the most mountainous and busiest routes of the city. 2. Materials and Methods * The assumptions made and their justification * Statistical and mathematical procedures used for data analysis and generalization. The methods used should be described, as a rule, in chronological order, with the necessary accuracy and details. Standard methods should only be mentioned or can be described with reference to the literature. If the method is new, it should be described in detail. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are accounted for by cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which there are less than 100 electric cars. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are accounted for by cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which there are less than 100 electric cars. As a solution, the mayor's office sees an increase in the fleet of public municipal transport to 60%-70%, this is an additional 400-600 units. large class buses (45-60 seats), which will optimize the quality and streamline the traffic flows of the capital's streets. The city administration is taking measures to improve the environment – buses with gas engines were purchased, which reduces harmful exhaust emissions. Efforts are also being made to expand the trolleybus fleet. However, the use of electric buses is a new and unfamiliar business for them, it is necessary to conduct special research and widely promote the use of electric transport first on passenger transport, then everywhere. An assumption was made about the effectiveness of the introduction of IMC electric buses in Bishkek with the aim of expanding the transport network and reducing air pollution and promoting green logistics in the Kyrgyz Republic. The following studies were also carried out: a survey of the structure of the rolling stock of public transport, including a study of the situation with trips on various types of transport, and a rational structure was recommended; the analysis of the trolleybus network is carried out in order to cover the outskirts of the city with trolleybus communication through the use of trolleybuses with increased autonomous travel. The study used econometric methods based on open source data, as well as data from our own research, data from expert analysis and a survey of the population. 3 Results 1. In the Kyrgyz Republic, in addition to small hydroelectric power plants, 18 electric power plants with a total installed capacity of 3,678 MW are operated, including 16 hydroelectric power plants and 2 thermal power plants. The share of HPP electricity generation is 88.5% of the total production [17]. With such a structure of electricity production, emissions into the upper atmosphere during the production of energy carriers are minimal, therefore, exhaust gas emissions from cars are the main air pollutant and the object of the impact of green logistics. 2. To select the recommended type of passenger electric transport, a classification of technical variants with averaged characteristics is compiled in Table 2. Classification of types of electric transport Table 2 Trolleybus (with minimal autonomous running)\ Electric bus with power in motion Electric bus with charging in motion (trolleybus with increased autonomous travel) Electric bus with charging at stops Electric bus with charging at the depot Name of the technology IMF (In-Motion-Feeding) IMC (In-Motion charging) OC (Opportunity charging) ONC (Overnight charging) Energy storage method - Charging when driving on a section equipped with a contact network Ultra-fast charging on the route during part of the stops Night slow charging Autonomous power reserve before 2 км 5 — 70 км 20 — 70 км more 150 км Easy to charge Absent Absent 5-25 minutes (at the bus stop) 4-10 hours (at the depot) The known disadvantages of the trolleybus are the binding to the contact network and the cost of the network itself. The contact network, together with cable lines and traction substations, is an expensive infrastructure object that requires significant investments in construction and maintenance. The construction of contact networks is quite high. Therefore, it is proposed to use the IMC option for Bishkek. In countries where the lines of the classic trolleybus have been preserved, the option of a "partial" trolleybus is justified, i.e. trolleybuses with autonomous running from batteries are a very profitable solution. 3. For Bishkek, on the basis of the city development scheme (Fig.1), the route network of municipal transport of the trolleybus carrier (Fig. 3b), the study of mobility and population of peripheral zones, the possibilities of extending trolleybus routes from final stops to residential areas using IMC were calculated (Table 3). The possibility of extending existing routes Table 3 # Name of the destination Route numbers Residential areas that fall within the area of additional coverage Lengthening of the route, km 1 Microdistrict "Jal" 5,14,1 Archa-Beshik, Chon-Aryk 5-6 2 Residential area "Ak-Orgo" 7,8,9,16 Selection, Ak-Ordo 6-7 3 Microdistrict "Asanbay" 10,11,17,13,15 Kok-Zhar, Beshkungey village 5-6 4 Residential district "Alamedin-1" 9,15,2 Novopokrovka village 8 5 Dordoy Market (Leather Factory) 4,17 Kelechek, Dordoi 5 The lengthening of routes is insignificant and is easily overcome by trolleybuses on autonomous travel, which pull over part of the passenger traffic in residential areas. Thanks to the introduction of the new product, trolleybus routes can be extended by 30-40 km, and the trolleybus route network can be expanded due to the possibility of movement from one trolleybus line to another. Buses, the route route of which partially coincides with the trolleybus, it will be advisable to replace them with trolleybuses. This improves the quality of passenger service and the role of public passenger electric transport. As can be seen from the table, the lengthening of routes can be 5-7 km, up to a maximum of 10 km from the existing final stop. The cost of building 1 km of a standard trolleybus network can reach 400 thousand US dollars, so the use of trolleybuses with a large autonomous course is a good alternative to the construction of new contact networks. Since the average cost of a trolleybus with an increased autonomous course for the CIS market is $ 182500 and is quite significant for Kyrgyzstan, as an alternative, you can use the option of converting existing trolleybuses of modern design into a trolleybus with an increased autonomous course. Such experience has been accumulated in the regions of the Russian Federation. At the heart of the alteration is the installation of lithium-ion batteries, a controller and an automatic lifting device for connecting to the contacts. The cost of reworking is about 22 thousand US dollars. Rework kit: a new electronic drive and 42 lithium-ion batteries, weighing about 1000 kg. An autonomous course of 15-20 km is provided, depending on the load. The Bishkek trolleybus fleet has 37 units of the 2018 Optima Trolleybus 5275.03 (RF) and 33 trolleybuses of the VMZ-5298.01-50 Avangard brand of Belarusian production (2013) as potential objects for re-equipment. 4 Discussion It is in this section that the authors explain the meaning and significance of the results obtained. This section brings everything together, shows the importance and value of the work and, therefore, is the most innovative and difficult part of the article to write. There are significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions in Bishkek, but no active measures are being taken to solve these problems. First of all, of course, because of the lack of funding for the projects announced by the government. However, promoting the ideas of a green economy is no less important task. The efforts of both the Government and local communities and civil society are necessary. Urban passenger transport is of great socio-economic importance. It can greatly influence the mindset of the population and the promotion of electric transport, since passengers use transport daily and all its improvements immediately become the subject of evaluation and promotion. The next stage of research may be the idea of converting minibuses, which provide 70% of urban passenger traffic, into an electric car, which would also help reduce air pollution. The main obstacle is of course the cost of rework, which can reach 20-30 thousand US dollars. However, the components of the systems can be produced in Belarus and Russia, and the batteries can be purchased in China, which can reduce costs. It is possible to localize the production of individual components in Kyrgyzstan to reduce costs. Further implementation of the principles of the green economy can be the development of other types of renewable energy sources – wind energy and solar. There are potential opportunities for installing wind turbines in many places of the republic, and according to the number of sunny days per year (247), Kyrgyzstan also has great prospects for the development of solar energy. Conclusions In the Kyrgyz Republic, there is a need and there are prerequisites for the introduction of the principles of a green economy; The main driver of the ideas of ecological consciousness and decarbonization should be the project of introducing public passenger electric transport; It is necessary to develop other types of renewable energy sources in the republic. References [1] How circular economy and green technology can address Sustainable Development Goals? Edited by Jeng Shiun Lim, Yee Van Fan, Chunjie Li Last update 1 May 2021 https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/journal-of-cleaner-production/collection/10RMVSP1ZQQ?page-size=100&page=1 [2] Agata Mesjasz-Lech, Urban air pollution challenge for green logistics, 2nd International Conference "Green Cities - Green Logistics for Greener Cities", 2-3 March 2016, Szczecin, Poland, Transportation Research Procedia 16 ( 2016 ) 355 – 365 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310779353_Urban_Air_Pollution_Challenge_for_Green_Logistics [3] Jeng Shiun Lim, Yi Wan Fan , Chunji Lee How can the closed-loop economy and green technologies contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals?, Journal of Cleaner Production. May 1, 2021 https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/journal-of-cleaner-production/special-issue/10RMVSP1ZQQ [4] Deepjyoti Das, Pradip P.Kalbar, Nagendra R.Velaga Pathways to decarbonize passenger transportation: Implications to India’s climate budget, Journal of Cleaner Production Volume 295, 1 мая 2021 г. , 126321 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959652621005412 [5] Thierry Mayera, CorentinTrevien The impact of urban public transportation evidence from the Paris region, Journal of Urban Economics Volume 102, November 2017, Pages 1-21, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0094119017300608 [6] Edward L Glaeser, Matthew E.Kahn, The greenness of cities: Carbon dioxide emissions and urban development. Journal of Urban Economics Volume 67, Issue 3, May 2010, Pages 404-418 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0094119009001028 [7] Yizhen Gu, Elizabeth Deakin, Ying Long, The effects of driving restrictions on travel behavior evidence from Beijing, Journal of Urban Economics, Volume 102, November 2017, Pages 106-122 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0094119017300244 [8] Christina Mitsakou,James P.Adamson,Artemis Doutsia Huw Bruntb Sarah, J.Jonesb Alison M. Gowersa Karen S. Exleya, Assessing the exposure to air pollution during transport in urban areas – Evidence review, Journal of Transport & Health Volume 21, June 2021, 101064 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2214140521000943 [9] Mirjam Schindler, Judith Y.T. Wang, Richard D. ConnorsA, Two-stage residential location and transport mode choice model with exposure to traffic-induced air pollution, Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 93, May 2021, 103044 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0966692321000971 [10] Продвижение принципов Зеленой экономики в КР: стимулирование использования экологического транспорта на электрической тяге http://mineconom.gov.kg/ru/post/6597 [11] Исследование по совершенствованию городского пассажирского транспорта в г. Бишкек, Кыргызская Республика. Заключительный отчет. Краткий обзор. — Японское агентство международного сотрудничества (JICA). 2013 г. https://openjicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12127627_01.pdf [12] О. Таловская, А. Рыжков, Н. Хорт Бишкек: Проект — концепция модели развития до 2040 года https://urban.hse.ru/bishkek2040 [13] В Бишкеке появятся электробусы? https://kaktus.media/doc/418681_v_bishkeke_poiaviatsia_elektrobysy_podpisan_pervichnyy_dogovor_s_abr.html [14] С. Корольков, «Электробус – технические особенности вариантов исполнения». Троллейбусный комитет МСОТ. МОСГОРТРАНС (8 сентября 2017). https://docplayer.ru/57047153-Elektrobus-tehnicheskie-osobennosti-variantov-ispolneniya.html [15] Fabian Bergk Kirsten Biemann Udo Lambrecht Ralph Pütz Hubert Landinger. Potential of In-Motion Charging Buses for the Electrification of Urban Bus Lines (англ.) // Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. — 2016. http://www.scienpress.com/Upload/GEO/Vol%206_4_21.pdf [16] IMC® electric buses on trend in the USA: Kiepe Electric to supply 185 systems for San Francisco https://www.automotiveworld.com/news-releases/imc-electric-buses-trend-usa-kiepe-electric-supply-185-systems-san-francisco/ [17] Электроэнергетика Кыргызстана https://www.energycharter.org/fileadmin/DocumentsMedia/Events/20070426-Bishkek_Kyrgyzstan_Nazarov-ru.pdf
Research
Anastasia Goloshchapova
235 | 0
Changes in the Law "On Public Procurement" and their impact on its effectiveness
We are starting to publish analytical notes of students, teachers, experts and consultants based on the database of the BI analytics module of our website pplo.kg. BI - Business Intelligence, an application to the site analytics section. This application is integrated with the API and processes data from the public procurement website online. Anastasia Goloshchapova, a 1st-year master of the International Higher School of Logistics, chose the module "Evaluation of the effectiveness of the public procurement system" and, based on the processed actual data, conducted an analysis. Anastasia Goloshchapova, master of the International Higher School of Logistics of KSTU named after I. Razzakov. Changes in the Law "On Public Procurement" and their impact on its effectiveness. Currently, we have great opportunities and a variety of tools for the analysis of public procurement in our country. The source of information in my work was the tool for monitoring public procurement data from the pplo.kg website. It should be noted that in the spring of 2022, a new version of the Public Procurement Law (hereinafter referred to as the Law) came into force. At the same time, this Law does not regulate procurement carried out by state and municipal enterprises, joint-stock companies, where 50 percent or more of the share in the authorized capital belongs to the state, including their subsidiaries. At the moment, these organizations are regulated by the available internal tender documentation, and data on tenders are not published on the official state portal (http://zakupki.gov.kg/) In this regard, to present a general picture of the state system in the Kyrgyz Republic, we lack sufficient information about all state organizations. However, the information received from the pplo.kg website provides us with the opportunity to see the operation of the Law and the public procurement process.
Aldabergen Maksat Abunasyruly, Ashikeev Nursultan Zhilkeldievich
Research
206 | 0
Features of transportation of precious metals, ores and concentrates.
In this article we have considered aspects of the movement and legislative regulation of precious metals. They gave their recommendations for optimizing not only the logistics chain of this process, but also improving the information flow of the state in relation to legislative regulation. In this article we have considered aspects of the movement and legislative regulation of precious metals. They gave their recommendations for optimizing not only the logistics chain of this process, but also improving the information flow of the state in relation to legislative regulation. Keywords: precious stones, customs authorities, logistics, license, supply chain management, foreign economic activity, EAEU, smuggling, paperwork, precious stones, customs authorities, logistics, license, supply chain management, foreign economic activity, EAEU, smuggling, paperwork Precious metals have always been the object of close attention of states, collectors, smugglers and many others. They are gifted with this attention because they are very rare in nature. In nature, precious metals are almost always found in a free (native) state. In this regard, control over their extraction and transportation is quite often a problematic issue in many countries, and therefore a large number cannot be processed in time or encrusted in technology of global importance. The Kyrgyz Republic, being a state dominated by mountain chains, is rich in deposits of noble (precious), non-ferrous and rare metals. The mining industry is one of the leading sectors of the economy, and precious metals are of particular value to the state. No less important value is provided by the process of movement of precious metals from the point of view of logistics and economics. All cargo transportation of precious metals in the country is regulated by regulatory legal acts of the Kyrgyz Republic, where an important link is played by the Order of export from the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic and import into the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic of ores, concentrates and waste containing precious metals and related recoverable metals from September 14, 2017. Regulation and movement of precious metals are the objects of the Criminal and Administrative Code. These and other regulations regulate such logistics links in the handling of precious metals and stones as: mining; transportation and storage; processing and recycling; distribution and marketing. The cross-border movement of precious metals is of particular importance and requires close attention both from the state, represented by customs authorities, and from the participants of foreign economic activity. The movement of precious stones across the state border is subject to special state control, since the object of movement is of special value [1]. An important role in the customs clearance of goods and customs procedures is provided by the transport on which the cargo is transported. Let's consider the process of customs clearance from the moment of filing the declaration for goods (DT) to the customs authority without reference to the place of registration and without considering certain types of goods. The basis for the application of a permit document for precious stones will be: Decision of the EEC Board No. 30 dated 21.04.2015 "On Regulatory legal acts in the field of non-tariff regulation". Section 2.10 of the unified list (precious metals and commodities containing precious metals); Resolution of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 156 dated April 20, 2021 "On Approval of the List of Expert Organizations for Issuing Expert Opinions and Authorized Bodies for Issuing Permits for the Export and Import of Goods Included in the Unified List of Goods to Which Non-Tariff Regulation Measures are Applied in Trade with Third Countries, and Amendments to Some Decisions The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic in the field of non-tariff regulation"; Laws of the Kyrgyz Republic "On State regulation of foreign Trade activity", "On Licensing and Licensing system in the Kyrgyz Republic" and "On Export Control"; The final authorization document for foreign economic activity in the field of precious metals is a license issued by the Ministry of Economy and Commerce of the Kyrgyz Republic. Another necessary document is the certificate of origin. The final stage after the submission of the DT is the verification of funds for payment of customs duties. It is worth noting that from a logistical point of view, the process of registration and document management itself can significantly reduce the efficiency of the supply chain, if we consider the transportation of precious metals as one of its links. It is also important that difficulties with the transportation of precious metals arise due to the specifics of the EAEU regulatory legislation, gaps in the interpretation of a number of terms and significant differences from the international classification. In recent years, the number of offenses related to the illegal export of precious metals from the Kyrgyz Republic has sharply increased, which negatively affects this area. It is becoming increasingly important to strengthen the forms and methods of customs control of precious metals transported across the customs border of the Customs Union, the search and timely application of new technologies for the detection and identification of certain types of precious metals and precious stones in transported luggage [3]. It is important to combat the smuggling of products and other cultural values made of precious metals. This regulation could complement the technical regulations of instrument diagnostics. Summing up the results of this article, the transportation of precious metals according to the legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic was considered, touching upon other subtleties of the bureaucratic component, as well as the proposed recommendations and the expected result of these introductions, which optimizes the logistics chain at the stage of transportation, which will significantly affect these logistics operations and the exclusion of the smuggling sphere arising in the presence of precious metals. Based on the above, we can assume that the investigation of criminal cases of crimes related to the illegal (shadow) turnover of precious metals and stones requires special training of customs officers and the introduction of specialization in their training course. Simplification of license registration procedures significantly reduce the total cost of customs documentation. At this stage, a complete introduction to the electronic document management system is recommended, which will have a positive impact on all hidden aspects of customs documentation. The need for bilateral cooperation between state regulatory bodies and the business community of entrepreneurs, which will be based on the principles of openness, honesty and responsibility. Timely provision of reports on exported quantities of precious metals outside the state. It is also important to note that within the unstable economic situation in the world, monitoring of the legislative regulation of precious metals is necessary. This contributes to a timely solution and more efficient construction of the supply chain. List of literature Kalyabina K.I. Movement of precious stones across the customs border // In the collection: Current issues of education and science. Collection of scientific papers based on the materials of the international scientific and practical conference. - 2018. – pp. 72-74 Tarasova N.A., Bezrukova O.A. Improving the mechanism and procedure for the movement of precious metals and precious stones across the customs border of the Customs Union // In the book: Regions of the EAEU countries in the conditions of modern transformations. Collection of materials of the international scientific and practical conference. Responsible editor V.I. Tarasov. – 2017. – pp. 79-85. http://mineconom.gov.kg/ru - Website of the Ministry of Economy and Commerce. https://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=32462876&pos=3;-106#pos=3;-106 https://metalspace.ru/education-career/education/referat/645-blagorodnye-metally.html
GA
Goloshchapova Anastasia
Research
340 | 0 | 2
Comparative analysis Public Procurement Law (PPL) the Kyrgyz Republic and the Agreement on Government Procurement of the World Trade Organization (GPA WTO)
At the end of 2021, procuring entities signed about 8.538 contracts for a total amount of more than 5 billion dollars and with a wide variety of goods, works and services. Public procurement plays a key role in the "National Development Strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2018-2040" as one of the market-based tools for achieving smart, sustainable and inclusive growth with the most efficient use of public funds. Regulation public procurement should be modernized for broad participation in the procurement of representatives of small and medium businesses in order to mitigate unemployment and increase employment in the country. However, despite the increase in the volume of public procurement of goods, works and services, the savings of public funds after the procurement procedures in 2021 fell down by more than 38%. Given the above, it can be argued that the existing legal regulatory in the of public procurement, unfortunately, are ineffective sufficiently, especially in terms of covering the entire volume of goods, works and services procured by the government for public needs. To present date, 3240 procuring entities and 9510 suppliers registered on the portal of the public procurement website. According to the statistics of 2021, the most frequently used method "Direct contract" amounted to 41% among all procurement methods. I believe that this is a large percentage for this method and allows us to think about the imperfection of the procurement methods proposed in the PPL. It can also be assumed that this is the result of a trend in recent periods: state-owned enterprises and joint-stock companies with a state share did not begin to apply the PPL, attempts to ignore or not apply the PPL under various pretexts are intensifying, very often and in large volumes, goods, works and services are procured by the method “Direct contract” instead of open competitive bidding. In my final paper, the objects of analysis are: Public Procurement Law of the Kyrgyz Republic (Edition 14.04.22)Agreement on Government Procurement of the World Trade Organization (GPA WTO) (2012) The area of analysis “Legal, Regulatory and Policy Framework” implies a reliable system for conducting public tender procedures in a transparent and fair environment for all parties. The following criteria are included in the Legal and Regulatory Framework area of analysis: Scope of application and coverage of the regulatory frameworkProcurement methodsProcurement processSustainable public procurement Author: Goloshchapova Anastasia, Bachelor of the International School of Logistics and Public Procurement at the Kyrgyz State Technical University. The full text of the final paper can be downloaded from the link:
Kalieva Ayan Askatovna
Research
276 | 0 | 7
Procurement logistics: the impact of supplier selection on the efficiency of the supply chain
International procurement practice shows that companies that accept the logistics concept and build their strategy on its basis have the best indicator, reflecting the ratio of profit received from the sale of goods or services to the invested capital. Procurement logistics affects the costs associated with the sale of the organization's finished products. The policy of government procurement can contribute to solution key tasks of priority directions the national socio-economic policy. For example, support for small and medium enterprises, certain regions, sensitive groups of the population, environmental protection. At the same time, the objectives of economic policy may not always be consistent with rational guidelines for the management of government contracts, which mainly include ensuring competition through tendering and procuring goods with the best price-quality ratio. Thus, the policy of supporting national suppliers through price preferences violates these principles, but can be justified from the point of view of industrial policy. With regard to foreign suppliers, each country establishes an access regime, which often has significant restrictions. In an environment where import tariff rates have been significantly reduced and continue to decline, public procurement remains one of the key impetuses for further liberalization of international trade. Thus, two opposite trends are currently developing in the field of foreign trade regulation of the state order sphere - protectionism and liberalization of access for foreign companies. The latter is expressed not only in the formation and development of regulatory instruments at the multilateral level within the framework of the WTO Public Procurement Agreement, but also in the penetration of similar processes at the regional level due to the need to identify and use additional sources of growth and intensify foreign economic cooperation. The first trend is expressed in the fact that many countries use public procurement as a non-tariff barrier in international trade. Author: bachelor student Kalieva Ayan Askatovna Scientific adviser: Prof. Umetaliev A.S. Full text of the final paper
Beck Victoria
Research
798 | 0
Improvement of modern logistics in the field of tourism
Abstract: this article discusses the improvement of modern logistics in the field of tourism. Keywords: logistics, tourism, transport, route. Currently, the development of logistics processes and technologies has covered various areas of production, economic, social and economic activities, as well as the use of logistics in the field of tourism product circulation. It should be noted that tourism should be approached as a separate large and independent economic complex of the national economy, since this sphere unites different industries, covering a certain wide space that includes enterprises and firms of various industries. Tourists, in turn, fall into the role of buyers, where everyone strives to satisfy all their needs during their holidays by virtue of their capabilities. Paying for services, goods and various tourist works, the demand for travel by tourists is formed and, therefore, the industry itself is financed in this way. In the context of growing globalization, the world tourism industry is of priority interest and great prospects for the Kyrgyz Republic. Using the unique potential of nature and cultural heritage of Kyrgyzstan, it is necessary to integrate harmoniously into the tourism industry of the world economy and achieve intensive development of tourism in the republic, ensuring steady growth of employment and income of the population, stimulating the development of tourism-related industries and increasing the inflow of foreign investment into the economy. The steady growth of the influence of tourism both on the world economy as a whole and on the economy of individual countries and regions is one of the most significant, permanent and long-term trends that accompanies the formation and development of the world economy. It is becoming obvious that tourism is becoming a large independent branch of the national economy, whose activities are aimed at meeting the specific needs of the population. The diversity of these needs is met not only by tourism enterprises, but also by enterprises of other industries, which determines the importance of tourism as one of the factors of multiplicative impact on the development of the economy. Tourism is one of the factors of global integration processes, and the tourism business is now becoming a significant sector of the economy. The Kyrgyz Republic has the necessary initial prerequisites for the development of a viable tourism industry. Today, when widespread interest in untouched places and adventure tourism is growing in the world, Kyrgyzstan can take a worthy place in the world tourism market. The Kyrgyz Republic is located in the center of Eurasia, at the junction of promising aviation, transport and economic arteries between Europe and Asia, North and South. The main task in this area is to make the republic accessible to foreign tourists by establishing direct international air links, for which it is necessary to carry out a number of measures, including: to create conditions for the functioning of competitive airlines in the air transportation market, to improve flight safety and the quality of passenger service. In tourism, logistics is understood as: the organization of the movement of tourist flows on the basis of competent management of material and information flows; rational organization of the development of a new product and its distribution. The task of logistics is to minimize the costs of bringing the product to the consumer. At the same time, much attention should be paid to advertising logistics. It is necessary to clearly identify the areas of advertising activity, priority advertising methods, marketing research based on statistical data. All systems should work to reduce costs and ensure the quality of tourist products. For the best functioning of logistics in the company, a system of specific questions is used in each situation, i.e. certain tasks are set. In addition to the above, logistics links the tasks of quality and safety with legal responsibility. When performing any task set by the firm, there is a constant process of linking this task with the legal basis. The logistics system (LS) of a travel company is an adaptive system in which the elements are the divisions of the enterprise that perform the functions of optimizing the movement of service flows and the flow of tourists. One of the main ways of intensive development of domestic and inbound tourism is to improve the quality of service in the practical activities of all organizations of the tourism industry. The Kyrgyz Republic is located in the center of Eurasia, at the junction of promising aviation, transport and economic arteries between Europe and Asia, North and South. The main task in this area is to make the republic accessible to foreign tourists by establishing direct international air links, for which it is necessary to carry out a number of measures, including: to create conditions for the functioning of competitive airlines in the air transportation market, to improve flight safety and the quality of passenger service. To ensure a high quality of tourist service, it is necessary to equip these highways accordingly, improve the quality of the roadway, increase the safety of highways, equip the routes with signs and information boards in foreign languages, etc. The construction of essential road service facilities (roadside hotels, paid parking lots, catering facilities and other recreation and entertainment facilities) is of great importance. To date, the expansion of the tourism sector directly depends on the use of logistics technologies that minimize transport costs, deliver passengers and cargo on time and safely, and minimize damage en route. It should be noted that tourism should be approached as a separate large and independent economic complex of the national economy, since this sphere unites different industries, covering a certain wide space that includes enterprises and firms of various industries. Tourists, in turn, fall into the role of buyers, where everyone strives to satisfy all their needs during their holidays by virtue of their capabilities. Paying for services, goods and various tourist works, the demand for travel by tourists is formed and, therefore, the industry itself is financed in this way. As for tourism within the country, one of the urgent problems is the provision of the transport component. This problem applies to air traffic, rail, as well as automobile traffic and road construction. Due to the low level of organization of air flows within the country, which in comparison with international transportation is one of the main factors that limits the development of tourism in the regions of the country. Solving these problems will attach great importance to the development of tourism within the country. List of used literature: https://moluch.ru/conf/econ/archive/134/ Yankovenko V.A. "Logistics in tourism".Konchenkova A.I. "Science today: theoretical and practical aspects".
Cholponkul kyzy Akmaral
Research
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The criterion of competence of public procurement specialists
Annotation: this article discusses the criterion of competence and qualification requirements for a specialist in the field of public procurement. Keywords: public procurement, procurement of goods, works, services, specialist, state and municipal needs, qualification, professional competence, training, training. Introduction. Public procurement is an important area of economic activity where significant amounts of consolidated budget funds are spent . This type of activity requires a procurement specialist to have versatile knowledge and competencies in various fields of activity - macro and microeconomics , marketing , law ( including the provisions of legislation on the supply of goods , the performance of works , the provision of services that are the subject of a tender or other type of procurement procedure and the basics of labor legislation ). A public procurement specialist should have the skills and be able to draw up annual procurement plans, prepare procurement assignments or competitive lists, depending on the type of procurement procedure, negotiate, organize and conduct pre-contractual and claim work, tenders, and conclude contracts. Participation in public procurement involves the ability to work freely on the official website and electronic trading platforms . Qualification characteristics of the position of the employee " Public Procurement Specialist in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan was developed in accordance with the requirements for conducting public procurement procedures for goods ( works , services ) on a competitive basis , established by Decree of the President of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan dated April 3 , 2015 No. 72 " On Public procurement " The criteria for the competence of a specialist in the subject area of the standard include the necessary professional training, a sufficient level of knowledge and practical skills. In turn, the necessary professional training includes the availability of higher education, experience in scientific and practical activities, the mandatory availability of a document on retraining or advanced training in the field of public procurement. Verification of compliance with the criterion of necessary professional training is carried out on the basis of the documents submitted by the applicant. By testing, interviewing and preparing draft documents in accordance with the task, the level of knowledge and practical skills of the applicant is checked. Based on the verification of compliance with the standard of competence of specialists in the field of procurement, applicants are awarded quality certificates in one of two subject areas: procurement for state and municipal needs;procurement by certain types of legal entities. The main objective of the professional activity of a specialist in the field of public procurement should be to increase the efficiency of the use of budget funds in procurement, the quality of goods, works and services provided for public needs, professional level, competitiveness and motivation of personnel. In accordance with the requirements of the professional standard, training of specialists should be carried out at all levels of professional training, namely in the system of secondary vocational and higher education, in order to meet the need for positions and jobs of different skill levels. A specialist in the field of public procurement must possess: knowledge of the regulatory and legal regulation of procurement activities;skills in planning, organizing, implementing and controlling purchases, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of procurement activities;experience in performing professional functions: preparation of procurement documentation, monitoring, examination of goods, documents, etc. The demand of the market for the training of specialists in the field of public procurement creates the need to train qualified teaching staff with the necessary level of qualification and competence. Conclusion Based on the above, it can be argued that the field of public procurement needs qualified personnel. Specialists in this field are obliged to maintain and improve the level of their qualifications and professional education by studying at advanced training courses or professional retraining. This may be an incentive to develop and offer an appropriate educational product – an educational program. The educational training program of a specialist in the field of public procurement must meet the established requirements of the educational and professional standard.
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