Publications
Kalieva Aian
534 | 0
Sustainable Public Procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic
Abstract: The article discusses "sustainable" public procurement (Sustainable Public Procurement), which, along with economic efficiency, takes into account the positive impact on the environment and solves social problems. How public procurement can contribute to the sustainable development of the country and an overview of the current state of the Kyrgyz Republic on the introduction of sustainable public procurement. Keywords: public procurement; sustainable development; sustainable public procurement. Due to the deterioration of the environment and a number of environmental problems causing global warming and increasing social and economic tensions in countries, in particular in recent years due to the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, the issue of ensuring sustainable development, identified at the UN World Conference in 1992 (UN Convention on Environment and Development, 1992), has become acute for the world community. According to the UN, the global economy shrank by 4.3% in 2020. The crisis caused by the virus has been called the strongest in the last 90 years. The emerging situation with the COVID-19 pandemic showed all the inequalities between people and countries and made it clear once again that the world needs sustainable development. Sustainable development involves ensuring economic stability, environmental protection and achieving social justice (UN Conference on Sustainable Development, 2012). Environmentally safe production, rational consumption, reduction of social imbalance in society, economic support for developing industries and countries allow countries to move towards sustainable development. One of the effective mechanisms for implementing the sustainable development strategy for States is public procurement. Acting as the largest buyer in the market and having the political will and authority, the state can influence producers and consumers through public procurement and promote sustainable production and consumption. A number of countries at different levels of economic and social development apply sustainable procurement in practice, stimulating the production of environmentally friendly products, the secondary use of resources, supporting small businesses, addressing issues of social equality of national and ethnic minorities, creating new jobs and stimulating fair trade. Thus, public procurement really contributes to sustainable development. Sustainable development and sustainable public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic. Sustainable development is a process that meets the needs of the present without undermining the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Our Common Future, 1987). Sustainable development "includes components such as social justice, environmental protection and economic development" (Weybrecht, 2010). Social justice includes issues such as human rights, peace, security, justice, gender equality, cultural diversity, etc. Environmental protection implies protection in the field of water supply, energy, agriculture, biodiversity maintenance, protection of animals, fish, forests, etc. Economic development refers to "understanding the potential of economic growth and includes issues of poverty reduction, responsible consumption, corporate responsibility, energy efficiency, rational waste management, education issues, etc." ((Weitbrecht, 2010). Public procurement can be one of the effective mechanisms for the transition to sustainable development. There are several reasons for this. First of all, a huge share of budget funds is spent on public procurement. According to the European Commission, public procurement expenditures in European countries account for 13.67% of GDP (Public Procurement Indicators, 2014). According to the International Institute for Sustainable Development, in OECD countries, expenditures on public procurement of goods and services range from 45% to 65% of the national budget, which is 12-17% of GDP (Procurement&Public-PrivatePartnerships). According to data taken from the official portal of public procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic(http://cds.zakupki.gov.kg/statistic/procedures ) in 2020, the total cost of completed tenders amounted to 36.7 billion soms, which is equal to 21% of the total amount of state budget expenditures for 2020. (https://budget.okmot.kg/ru ). However, the share of successfully completed lots was only 54%, which indicates the inefficient work of purchasing organizations to assimilate the state budget. Compared with the indicators of the OECD countries, expenditures on public procurement of goods and services in the Kyrgyz Republic are lower, but despite this, the state is still the largest customer of goods and services in the country. The demand for ecological products from the state gives a signal to the market and promotes the spread of the "useful habit" of purchasing environmentally friendly goods, fair trade goods by private consumers. This, in turn, stimulates the production of environmentally friendly products and the development of socially responsible business (Preuss, 2009). As a result, all this contributes to solving economic, environmental and social problems. What does it look like in practice? The state, being the largest customer on the market, makes a decree to budget organizations to purchase only energy-saving lamps, this will increase the demand for energy-saving light bulbs on the market. In order to support small and medium-sized businesses, when concluding contracts, the state could first of all give preference to suppliers who are residents of the Kyrgyz Republic. Often, in practice, situations arise when factories themselves or exclusive distributors of goods and equipment that are located on the territory of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan or China participate in certain large contests on the EGZ portal. Of course, in such cases, all profits from the transaction and taxes go to the treasury of another state. As for the above-mentioned countries, public procurement in these countries takes place on official portals that are available only to residents of the country. On the part of the state , the following benefits are provided by the state to maintain domestic products: when purchasing goods that are produced in the Kyrgyz Republic by internal suppliers, the purchasing organization is obliged to provide benefits in the amount of 20 percent on the offered price when evaluating competitive bids, if there are necessary certificates for the supplied goods confirming the safety and quality of products. If the subject of procurement is work that can be performed by internal contractors of the Kyrgyz Republic and foreign contractors, the procuring entity is obliged to provide benefits in the amount of 20 percent to internal contractors, provided that the internal contractor uses at least 70 percent of local labor resources and at least 30 percent of local raw materials and materials. (According to article 4, paragraph 3, 4 of the Law "On Public Procurement" dated April 3, 2015 No. 72). On the environmental side of sustainable development, the Kyrgyz Republic needs decisive reforms. The revealed environmental damage at the Kumtor gold mine, as well as the primacy of the city of Bishkek in the rankings of the world's cities with the dirtiest air, make it clear that the environmental component must also be taken into account in setting priorities for the state. To date, the introduction of sustainable public procurement is only being introduced in the Kyrgyz Republic. Kyrgyzstan is one of the countries for the implementation of the UNDA SPP Project, which is led by the European Office of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and implemented jointly with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP), aimed at strengthening the capacity of individual countries in the EECCA region in the field of sustainable public procurement and increasing the ability of businesses to respond to public auctions with sustainability criteria. The project is being implemented in the period from 2018 to 2021. In the document NSR-2040, for focused and active movement towards such a picture of the country's future, the priority directions of the Kyrgyz Republic until 2023 are defined: Stimulating technological modernization Modernization and implementation of energy-efficient technologies. Increasing the participation of renewable energy sources. Expansion of the area of green spaces. Conservation of tailings dumps and ensuring safety Rational management of water resources. Development of waste disposal and recycling infrastructure. According to the program for the development of the "green" economy in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023, which is currently at the stage of approval in the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, the goals for sustainable public procurement are also outlined. The goal is to increase the share of sustainable public procurement to 30% by 2023, and to 50% by 2040. To achieve it, the following tasks will be solved: 3.1. Improve legislation in the field of public procurement. Improvement of legislation in the field of public procurement, including provisions on technical specifications and relevant certificates for goods supplied, works performed and services rendered, confirming environmental criteria, product safety and quality, including requirements for social aspects. The Government's activities will be aimed at promoting the implementation of sustainable procurement and trade policies within the framework of multilateral and regional cooperation with the EAEU and the WTO. Regulations and instructions on evaluation criteria will be developed for purchasing organizations to determine sustainable/ "green" goods and services. 3.2. Promote the development of environmental certification. The development of environmental certification will be implemented through the introduction of international standards for sustainable procurement. Organizations will be assisted in the development and implementation of successful practices and policies for the implementation of sustainable purchases. It is also planned to introduce criteria that will allow the evaluation of goods and services produced according to established international labor standards (ILO, Fair Trade, etc.). Mechanisms will be developed to stimulate sustainable public procurement for suppliers, including providing access to preferential sources of financing. 3.3. To increase the potential of suppliers and purchasing organizations for the transition to sustainable public procurement. Increasing the capacity of purchasing state organizations and suppliers will be carried out through the development and implementation of training programs for both universities and training centers. Specialized courses for university teachers on sustainable/"green" public procurement will also be held on an ongoing basis. Conclusion In world practice, sustainable public procurement as a mechanism for implementing sustainable development policy is becoming increasingly widespread. For the successful implementation of the principles of sustainable public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic, it is necessary first of all to improve legislation in the field of public procurement, in which it is necessary to stimulate the work of domestic producers and suppliers of residents of the Kyrgyz Republic, as well as pay more attention to the environmental component of the country. List of used literature Shadrina E.V., Romodina I.V. Article: PUBLIC PROCUREMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE URL:https://vgmu.hse.ru/data/2017/04/05/1168492363/%D0%A8%D0%B0%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0,%20%D0%A0%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0%201-2017.pdf The future we want. UN Conference on Sustainable Development RIO+20. 2012. URL: https://rio20.un.org/sites/rio20.un.org/fi les/a-conf.216-l-1_russian.pdf.pdf (дата обращения: 07.07.2016). Convention on Environment and Development. The agenda for the XXI century. 1992, Rio de Janeiro. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/agenda21 (дата обращения: 02.05.2016) Official portal of public procurement URL: http://zakupki.gov.kg/ Overview of the current state of the Kyrgyz Republic on the implementation of sustainable public procurement (UGP) https://www.greengrowthknowledge.org/sites/default/files/uploads/RUS%20Full%20assessment%20of%20institution%20and%20legal%20framework%20Kyrgyzstan.pdf The Law "On Public Procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic (http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/111125) Open budget website (https://budget.okmot.kg/ru)
Borisova Vera
462 | 0
11
Public procurement ecosystem
Borisova Vera Viktorovna - Professor of the Department of Logistics and Trade Policy, St. Petersburg State University of Economics. The results of her work are reflected in monographs, textbooks on commerce, logistics, marketing, including textbooks: "Supply Logistics", "Commercial Logistics", "Economic Logistics", "Logistics in the system of aggregate knowledge" published in collaboration with Professor Afanasenko I.D. in the publishing house of Peter and the publishing house of St. Petersburg State University of Economics; is a member of dissertation councils of a number of universities in the country, vice-president of the South-Russian Association of Logistics. Abstract. The publication discusses the application of digital technologies in the Russian contract system and the prospects for creating an ecosystem of public procurement; the practical experience of using digital technologies in the public procurement system is generalized. An ecosystem approach to improving the efficiency of public procurement has been highlighted. It is shown that the creation of an ecosystem of state procurement in Russia is associated with the restructuring of several its structural elements, the introduction of artificial intelligence algorithms, blokchain technologies, smart-contracts, dialogue interfaces, which is associated with social, economic and structural risks To read the article in detail, you can download the PDF file
Shadrina Elena V., Romodina Irina V.
437 | 0
12
Sustainable public procurement: international experience
Abstract Sustainable public procurement (SPP) is a process of purchasing goods, services, works and utilities for public needs in a way that ensures benefits not only to the orga- nization, but also to society and the economy, whilst minimizes damage to the environ- ment. SPP can be part of the overall mechanism of sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how SPP can contribute to sustainable development, what is the legal framework for it, what factors promote and inhibit SPP, how SPP can be im- plemented in practice. By analyzing regulatory legal acts, the international SPP experi- ence, a large body of international academic research and reports of international organi- zations involved in the promotion of SPP, we advance two key features that make public procurement an effective mechanism of sustainable development: (1) the scale of public procurement and (2) the power and authority of procurement bodies. We distinguish between several different schemes of legal support of SPP. The main drivers of SPP are leadership, clarity of strategies and plans that articulate SPP goals, the legislative support of the SPP process, and the information support of procurement specialists. Our review of international experience in SPP is expected to contribute to a more vigorous imple- mentation of SPP by procurement authorities. Keywords: public procurement; sustainable development; sustainable public pro- curement. Citation: Shadrina, E.V. & Romodina, I.V. (2017). Gosudarstvennye zakupki dlya ustoychivogo razvitiya: Mezhdunarodnyi opyt [Sustainable Public Procurement: Inter- national Experience]. Public Administration Issues, no 1, pp. 149–172 (in Russian). Shadrina Elena V. PhD in Economics, Associate professor at the Management Department, Lead Research Associate, Centre for Public Private Interaction, HSE. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics. 38 Studencheskaya Str., Perm 614070, Russian Federation. E-mail: evshadrina@hse.ru Romodina Irina V. Junior Research Associate at the Centre for Public Private Interaction, HSE. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics. 38 Studencheskaya Str., Perm 614070, Russian Federation. E-mail: iromodina@hse.ru
Elvira Uyarra, Jacob Edlera, Javier Garcia-Estevez, Luca Georgiua, Gillian Yow
421 | 0
1
Barriers to Innovation Through Public Procurement: A Supplier's Perspective.
We would like to acquaint you with an interesting article by the authors of which are Elvira Uyarra, Jacob Edlera, Javier Garcia-Estevez, Luca Georgiua, Gillian Yow. The authors represent Manchester Institute for Innovative Research, Manchester Business School, University of Manchester and United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Colombia. The article identifies factors in public procurement that affect the ability of suppliers to innovate. - The most important are tender specifications, skills, user-supplier interaction and risk management. - There are differences in the perception of obstacles between R&D and non-R&D participants. - Small firms and non-profit organizations are particularly disadvantaged in terms of procurement. Abstract article: Public procurement is increasingly seen as having an important factor in stimulating innovation. Despite this, numerous obstacles prevent the public sector from acting as an intelligent and informed purchasing client. This paper seeks to understand how barriers related to processes, competencies, procedures and relationships in public procurement affect the ability of suppliers to innovate and benefit from innovation. To find the answers, we conducted a dedicated survey of UK public sector suppliers using the probit model to examine the impact of structural, market and innovation determinants on supplier perceptions of these barriers. The main obstacles reported by suppliers relate to the lack of interaction with procuring entities, the use of overspecified tenders, low procurement competence and poor risk management in the procurement process. Such obstacles are most strongly perceived by R&D intensive organizations. Our results also show that certain organizations, especially small firms and non-profit organizations, face greater challenges in implementing innovations arising from the procurement process, such as contract size, lack of helpful feedback, and communication of opportunities.
Kydykov Azizbek A., Myrzalieva Madina A.
1245 | 0
The use of ecological transport as a way to promote green logistics in Kyrgyzstan
Keywords: logistics, green economy, environmental requirements, electric transport, electric vehicle, environment, air emissions, transport infrastructure. Abstract The proposed study analyzes the relevance and problems of environmental pollution in the Kyrgyz Republic. The air quality in the Chui Valley and especially in the capital, Bishkek, has significantly deteriorated, which negatively affects the health of residents. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The use of green logistics approaches made it possible to identify the main source of pollution. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. A set of measures to reduce emissions into the atmosphere is proposed, including changing people's consciousness and responsibility to reduce emissions, promoting electric transport. Urban passenger transport is of great socio-economic importance. That is how it can greatly influence the mindset of the population and the promotion of electric transport, since passengers use transport daily and all its improvements immediately become the subject of evaluation. An assessment of the minimum costs for the implementation of the proposed measures was carried out. A plan for the development of electric transport and transport infrastructure is proposed, including the stage of a pilot project and technical tests, as well as economic assessments and proposals. Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify approaches and methods of green logistics for the study of environmental problems of Bishkek and the Kyrgyz Republic in general and to propose measures to improve air quality, in particular the use of electric transport and urban electric passenger transport in particular. Studies have shown that the sustainable development of communities and the urban environment requires the use of green technologies and the desire to create a low-carbon society [1]: To achieve the goal, the united efforts of the government, the private sector and research intuition are of paramount importance for transforming scientific results into the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Special Volume (SV) accepts and reviews a wide range of green initiatives aimed at achieving the SDGs. This PROJECT includes fundamental research on alternative fuels, smart and environmentally friendly materials to reduce waste and environmental impact; technology system design tools to develop sustainable consumption and production for communities; a sustainable waste management system; a circular economy and incentive strategies, for example, through public policy and smart partnerships. In [2], the use of the principles of green logistics for clean air is investigated: The dynamic development of cities requires the effective solution of environmental problems that often arise as a result of the implementation of logistics processes of supply, production and distribution. Currently, the main goal of activities carried out with the help of logistics is to minimize the negative consequences of people's economic and residential activities, including external effects (for example, congestion, environmental pollution), while increasing logistical benefits, such as reducing costs and improving customer service (Ambrosino and Siomachen, 2014). Pure logistics process-this becomes the main element of logistics activity (Kadlubek, 2015). A systematic approach in logistics allows you to organize such activities that exclude the collision of environmental and economic goals. Green logistics emphasizes air protection. Relevant research and "green" supply chains are mainly aimed at achieving economic, environmental and social results (Subramanian and Gunasekaran, 2015). Thus, the concept of green logistics favors solutions leading to the implementation of all sustainable development goals, not just environmental ones. Green logistics covers activities focused on: environmental logistics management, low-carbon warehousing and packaging, low-carbon transportation, fleet management, alternative energy and logistics innovation (Zhang, Thompson, Bao and Jiang, 2014). Other goals of green logistics relate to reducing external costs due to climate change, air pollution, noise, vibration and accidents (Jedliński, 2014). Transport is one of the main sources of air pollution in the city. Therefore, green logistics should be supported by the urban logistics strategy " effective management of urban cargo transportation and other traffic flows, in order to achieve an optimal compromise between ensuring optimal logistics networks performance, reliable customer service and reducing environmental impacts, air pollutants, energy consumption and traffic congestion” (Amaral and Aghezzaf, 2015). The increase in the urban population and economic development lead to more air pollution in cities, which means a danger to health and a deterioration in the quality of life. For this reason, the city authorities should adjust the city's economic, residential and transport processes in such a way as to prevent air pollution. This approach is consistent with the concept of green logistics, which is aimed at reducing emissions, reducing waste and low energy consumption. In this paper, transport and especially freight transport is recognized as the main polluter. The problems of sustainable development and the use of green technologies are considered in the study [3]: A special volume (SV) accepts and considers a wide range of green initiatives aimed at achieving the goals of sustainable development. This PROJECT includes fundamental research on alternative fuels, smart and environmentally friendly materials to reduce waste and environmental impact; tools for designing technological systems to develop sustainable consumption and production for communities; a system for sustainable waste management; circular economy and stimulating strategies, for example, through public policy and reasonable partnership. Thus, an integrated approach is needed for the intended environmental goals. Ways to reduce the carbon emissions of passenger transport: the impact on the climate budget of India are investigated in [4]: an assessment of transport emissions with electric vehicles, electric networks (EG) and T&D losses was carried out. It is concluded that electric vehicles are unsuitable without increasing the efficiency of EG and T&D losses. Eleven different scenarios with estimated uncertainties for passenger traffic in the Mumbai metropolitan regions are formulated. The study also shows that the introduction of electric vehicles into the city without simultaneously improving EG will lead to an increase in net CO2 emissions. However, this work does not consider other emissions other than CO 2. The next study devoted to the problems of the impact of transport on the urban environment is [5]: the opening and gradual expansion of the regional express railway (RER) in the period from 1970 to 2000 in the Paris metropolitan region. The causal influence of urban railway transport on the location of firms, employment and population growth is considered. Thus, the relationship between transport, residential and business infrastructure is obvious. The study [6] is devoted to the same problem, in which a strong negative relationship between emissions and land use rules was found. By limiting new developments, the cleanest areas of the country seem to be pushing new developments to places with higher emissions. Cities usually have significantly less emissions than suburbs, and the gap between the city and the suburbs is especially large in older areas such as New York. Here, emissions from driving, public transport, heating homes and using electricity at home are considered. The experience of China [7] on the introduction of restrictions on driving transport in Beijing on individual behavior during trips is interesting. The restrictions prohibit drivers from using their cars one weekday a week on the basis of a license plate. This experience of organizational measures also contributes to reducing the number of cars in operation, which means it can reduce the amount of emissions into the atmosphere. Assessment of the impact of air pollution from transport in urban areas - an overview of the actual data was performed in [8]: a comprehensive review of studies on measurements of concentrations of pollutants in the microenvironment of urban transport, published in the period from January 2016 to July 2020 in the Medline, Scopus and Embase databases, was conducted. The average values and ranges of impacts for each mode of transport were calculated, as well as the impact ratios between modes of transport and factors within the same study. The results obtained indicate that higher concentrations of air pollutants are often observed in road transport compared to cycling and walking. Therefore, taking into account the broader and long-term benefits for public health and the environment, it is concluded that every effort should be made to prioritize active travel and public transport and allow more people to use these modes of transport. This confirms the role of public transport in the implementation of tasks to reduce emissions. The problems of air pollution and the concerns caused by it among urban residents are studied in [9]: residents begin to adapt their behavior when traveling and take into account the quality of local air when choosing a house. A spatial and integrated model of choosing the location of residential buildings and transport for a city with air pollution due to traffic is proposed. Intra-urban spatial models of population density, choice of mode of transport and the resulting impact on the population are analyzed for urban conditions with different levels of health hazards and information about air pollution available to residents. This work highlights the need to link information about people's problems related to air pollution and integrated land use and transport measures. In this context, the health benefits are the result of a decrease in population density near urban centers. Thus, many studies have been devoted to the problems of air pollution and decarbonization. Various approaches to reducing the level of pollution are proposed, one of which is the use of electric transport, both public passenger and personal. In the Kyrgyz Republic, in order to stimulate the use of next-generation transport-electric vehicles by citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic has developed an Action Plan to stimulate the use of wheeled vehicles with electric motors and the creation of charging infrastructure [10]: Within the framework of the EAEU, it was decided to reset the rates of import customs duties of the Unified Customs Tariff of the EAEU until 31.12.2021. A proposal has been made to the EAEU to extend until 2025 the deadline for resolving the issue of applying a reduced unified rate of customs duties and taxes in respect of electric vehicles imported by individuals for personal use, since after the expiration of this decision, the rates of import customs duties will be paid according to the Unified Customs Tariff of the EAEU in the amount of 15% of the customs value. The Center for Standardization and Metrology under the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic is working on the standardization of electric charging devices and the introduction of international standards IEC 61851 and IEC 62196 into the national system of standards, and is also working on the classification of electric charging stations by type. Together with the Bishkek City Administration, the issue of the proposed location of the electric charging infrastructure within the city of Bishkek is being considered. The analysis of the current state of urban passenger transport was carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 2013 [11]: it was concluded that a competent policy for the development of the city and the development of public transport is currently being carried out. "Public Transport Development Plan". In such conditions, public transport should play a key role in servicing the movements of citizens. Today, 70% of all public transport operations are carried out by private carriers on minibuses. Municipal transport is uncompetitive due to a less developed route network, high traffic intervals, outdated infrastructure and poor quality of rolling stock operation. The disadvantage is also the lack of a legal framework for the management of the transport complex, which is why management processes are carried out manually, and any planning is impossible. At the moment, private carriers, which carry out 70% of transportation, are actually ignored by the public authorities. Therefore, to normalize the work of public transport and improve the quality of its services, first of all, a reform of the management system is required with the establishment of fair relations with private carriers, and not the development of infrastructure or attempts to oust private carriers from the market through the development of municipal transport. It is important to note that in a city like Bishkek, the construction of expensive rail transport is not required: a tram, a high-speed tram or a metro. According to the experience of Russian cities with a similar population (Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod), it can be assumed that the construction of even one metro line can take 20-30 years and will require huge investments in infrastructure, and as a result will not improve the conditions of movement. According to our estimate, one north–south metro line in Bishkek will be able to serve only 6-8% of all movements. As world experience shows, the lack of rail infrastructure can be a competitive advantage, since it simplifies the development of bus systems. In the draft concept for the development of Bishkek [12]: it is proposed to redirect the vector of the city's development from the horizontal (expansion of administrative borders, integrated development of undeveloped territories) to the vertical (intensification of the use of already built-up territory and stimulating the development of the city within the existing administrative borders). The parameters of land use in our project are linked to the development of public transport, which allows us to plan and optimize the load on the transport infrastructure. As you move away from the city center and the main lines of passenger transport, the density and number of floors of the building decreases (Fig. 1). The second section of this study is devoted to the problems of transport: the Bishkek street and road network has insufficient density, which is why the type of urban mobility based on the predominant use of personal vehicles cannot be stable and comfortable. In cities with similar parameters of the road network, international practice recommends imposing serious restrictions on the ownership and use of motor vehicles in order to shift the transport demand to other types of transport (Fig.2). In such conditions, public transport should play a key role in servicing the movements of citizens. Today, 70% of all public transport operations are carried out by private carriers on minibuses. Fig. 1 Conceptual scheme of the city development/ source: research of the author's team Fig. 2. The existing street and road network of Bishkek / Source: Research of the author's team At the same time, the existing route networks of municipal public transport - bus and trolleybus lines are proposed in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 Operating route networks of municipal transport in Bishkek According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the development of the route network and transport infrastructure as a whole is lagging behind the pace of development of the city. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is making efforts to improve the situation in the field of passenger transport in Bishkek, including reducing harmful emissions. In August 2020, a memorandum of understanding was signed between the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic on the urban transport electrification project [13]. The use of electric buses in Kyrgyzstan is a new and unfamiliar business. The paper [14] presents the result of the analysis of the efficiency and applicability of various options of electric passenger transport in the city. Technologies of electric buses-electric buses: electric buses with power in motion (In-Motion-Feeding), electric buses with charging in motion (In-Motion-Charging), electric buses with charging on the route (Opportunity Charging), electric buses with charging at the depot/station (Overnight Charging). "Disadvantages" of trolleybuses-IMF electric buses: 1. Power supply system: traction substations, feeding feeders, contact network-costs 2. Visual pollution (?)- aesthetics 3. Complex intersections of the contact network-costs, aesthetics 4. Fixed route network (?) –passenger confidence 5. Low maneuverability (?) –2-3 lanes 6. Reliability of the power supply and current collection system! - prevention and improvement A comparison of different types of electric buses on the energy efficiency of transportation was made (Table 1) Passenger capacity / energy efficiency of transportation Table 1 Passenger capacity, people Energy per passenger, W*h/(pass*km) Mass of the drive, kg IMF 100 25 - IMC 95 26 312,5 OC 81 30 1250 ONC на тягу 26 96 5000 56 45 3000 From a technical point of view, all these options are very similar – a bus-type body and chassis, a traction electric motor, control devices and electric energy supply. The differences in the cost of various electric bus designs are mainly determined by the capacity, size and weight of the batteries. Which concept of an electric bus is most suitable for your city? To do this, it is proposed to take into account the specific conditions and resources of the city. A comparison of electric bus variants was made in the study [15]: Our analysis shows that a diesel bus running on conventional diesel remains the most economical technology until 2025, while the regulatory framework remains unchanged. But this contributes very little to the achievement of the central goals of the German government. "Mobility and Fuel Strategy" (MFS), for example, reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions or introducing new technologies. On the contrary, electric buses could make a significant contribution to achieving these goals. With the progress in the energy transition ("Energiewende") and the further development of the battery, the technology of electric buses will become more profitable, especially from an environmental point of view. For electric buses, IMC is considered as the most economical technology for high-capacity lines (frequent maintenance, high-capacity vehicles) or lines with high energy demand. On the other hand, it is necessary to take into account all emissions into the atmosphere: exhaust gas emissions and emissions into the upper atmosphere during the production of energy carriers. Exhaust pipe emissions of conventional buses are calculated using the "Manual Database of Emission Factors for Road Transport" (HBEFA, version 3.2). The emissions of the electric bus use phase are determined by the production of electricity. The structure of electricity production is based on the work of AG Energiebilanzen , the Bundesverband Erneuerbare Energien (German Federation of Renewable Energy Sources)and the Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Energy Systems). Future electricity mixes are based on the 2011 Leitstudio. The calculated emission factors for electricity generation include emissions from power plants and primary energy supplies. An analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from the production of buses themselves was also carried out. Greenhouse gas emissions: All alternative concepts have increased emissions at the production stage compared to the diesel bus. They are strongly influenced by the size of the batteries in the corresponding electric bus concept. But also fuel cell hybrid buses have significantly higher emissions due to the production of vehicles. The higher fuel cell emissions are mainly due to the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) used in the hydrogen tank and the platinum used in the fuel cell. More efficient production processes for the production of carbon fiber, the use of electricity with a higher proportion of renewable energy sources and a higher proportion of recycled platinum can reduce these environmental consequences in the future. Thus, IMC is considered as an integral part of the strategy of electrification of urban public transport. The choice was made in favor of the IMC strategy at the current stage of technology and technology development. The choice of IMC technology electric buses was also made for San Francisco [16]: the city is expanding its fleet of zero-emission transit buses: after purchasing 93 Xcelsior XT60 articulated electric buses, the San Francisco Municipal Transit Agency (SFMTA) placed an order for 185 New Flyer XT40 buses equipped with the In Motion Charging (IMC) system, technology from Kiepe Electric. With the In Motion Charging function, trolleybuses cover sections of the route without overhead lines in battery-powered mode, and the batteries are then charged when the vehicle is again under the overhead lines. They are designed to improve the ride of passengers and reduce the impact on the environment. These new buses will serve passengers on the most mountainous and busiest routes of the city. 2. Materials and Methods * The assumptions made and their justification * Statistical and mathematical procedures used for data analysis and generalization. The methods used should be described, as a rule, in chronological order, with the necessary accuracy and details. Standard methods should only be mentioned or can be described with reference to the literature. If the method is new, it should be described in detail. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are accounted for by cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which there are less than 100 electric cars. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are accounted for by cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which there are less than 100 electric cars. As a solution, the mayor's office sees an increase in the fleet of public municipal transport to 60%-70%, this is an additional 400-600 units. large class buses (45-60 seats), which will optimize the quality and streamline the traffic flows of the capital's streets. The city administration is taking measures to improve the environment – buses with gas engines were purchased, which reduces harmful exhaust emissions. Efforts are also being made to expand the trolleybus fleet. However, the use of electric buses is a new and unfamiliar business for them, it is necessary to conduct special research and widely promote the use of electric transport first on passenger transport, then everywhere. An assumption was made about the effectiveness of the introduction of IMC electric buses in Bishkek with the aim of expanding the transport network and reducing air pollution and promoting green logistics in the Kyrgyz Republic. The following studies were also carried out: a survey of the structure of the rolling stock of public transport, including a study of the situation with trips on various types of transport, and a rational structure was recommended; the analysis of the trolleybus network is carried out in order to cover the outskirts of the city with trolleybus communication through the use of trolleybuses with increased autonomous travel. The study used econometric methods based on open source data, as well as data from our own research, data from expert analysis and a survey of the population. 3 Results 1. In the Kyrgyz Republic, in addition to small hydroelectric power plants, 18 electric power plants with a total installed capacity of 3,678 MW are operated, including 16 hydroelectric power plants and 2 thermal power plants. The share of HPP electricity generation is 88.5% of the total production [17]. With such a structure of electricity production, emissions into the upper atmosphere during the production of energy carriers are minimal, therefore, exhaust gas emissions from cars are the main air pollutant and the object of the impact of green logistics. 2. To select the recommended type of passenger electric transport, a classification of technical variants with averaged characteristics is compiled in Table 2. Classification of types of electric transport Table 2 Trolleybus (with minimal autonomous running)\ Electric bus with power in motion Electric bus with charging in motion (trolleybus with increased autonomous travel) Electric bus with charging at stops Electric bus with charging at the depot Name of the technology IMF (In-Motion-Feeding) IMC (In-Motion charging) OC (Opportunity charging) ONC (Overnight charging) Energy storage method - Charging when driving on a section equipped with a contact network Ultra-fast charging on the route during part of the stops Night slow charging Autonomous power reserve before 2 км 5 — 70 км 20 — 70 км more 150 км Easy to charge Absent Absent 5-25 minutes (at the bus stop) 4-10 hours (at the depot) The known disadvantages of the trolleybus are the binding to the contact network and the cost of the network itself. The contact network, together with cable lines and traction substations, is an expensive infrastructure object that requires significant investments in construction and maintenance. The construction of contact networks is quite high. Therefore, it is proposed to use the IMC option for Bishkek. In countries where the lines of the classic trolleybus have been preserved, the option of a "partial" trolleybus is justified, i.e. trolleybuses with autonomous running from batteries are a very profitable solution. 3. For Bishkek, on the basis of the city development scheme (Fig.1), the route network of municipal transport of the trolleybus carrier (Fig. 3b), the study of mobility and population of peripheral zones, the possibilities of extending trolleybus routes from final stops to residential areas using IMC were calculated (Table 3). The possibility of extending existing routes Table 3 # Name of the destination Route numbers Residential areas that fall within the area of additional coverage Lengthening of the route, km 1 Microdistrict "Jal" 5,14,1 Archa-Beshik, Chon-Aryk 5-6 2 Residential area "Ak-Orgo" 7,8,9,16 Selection, Ak-Ordo 6-7 3 Microdistrict "Asanbay" 10,11,17,13,15 Kok-Zhar, Beshkungey village 5-6 4 Residential district "Alamedin-1" 9,15,2 Novopokrovka village 8 5 Dordoy Market (Leather Factory) 4,17 Kelechek, Dordoi 5 The lengthening of routes is insignificant and is easily overcome by trolleybuses on autonomous travel, which pull over part of the passenger traffic in residential areas. Thanks to the introduction of the new product, trolleybus routes can be extended by 30-40 km, and the trolleybus route network can be expanded due to the possibility of movement from one trolleybus line to another. Buses, the route route of which partially coincides with the trolleybus, it will be advisable to replace them with trolleybuses. This improves the quality of passenger service and the role of public passenger electric transport. As can be seen from the table, the lengthening of routes can be 5-7 km, up to a maximum of 10 km from the existing final stop. The cost of building 1 km of a standard trolleybus network can reach 400 thousand US dollars, so the use of trolleybuses with a large autonomous course is a good alternative to the construction of new contact networks. Since the average cost of a trolleybus with an increased autonomous course for the CIS market is $ 182500 and is quite significant for Kyrgyzstan, as an alternative, you can use the option of converting existing trolleybuses of modern design into a trolleybus with an increased autonomous course. Such experience has been accumulated in the regions of the Russian Federation. At the heart of the alteration is the installation of lithium-ion batteries, a controller and an automatic lifting device for connecting to the contacts. The cost of reworking is about 22 thousand US dollars. Rework kit: a new electronic drive and 42 lithium-ion batteries, weighing about 1000 kg. An autonomous course of 15-20 km is provided, depending on the load. The Bishkek trolleybus fleet has 37 units of the 2018 Optima Trolleybus 5275.03 (RF) and 33 trolleybuses of the VMZ-5298.01-50 Avangard brand of Belarusian production (2013) as potential objects for re-equipment. 4 Discussion It is in this section that the authors explain the meaning and significance of the results obtained. This section brings everything together, shows the importance and value of the work and, therefore, is the most innovative and difficult part of the article to write. There are significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions in Bishkek, but no active measures are being taken to solve these problems. First of all, of course, because of the lack of funding for the projects announced by the government. However, promoting the ideas of a green economy is no less important task. The efforts of both the Government and local communities and civil society are necessary. Urban passenger transport is of great socio-economic importance. It can greatly influence the mindset of the population and the promotion of electric transport, since passengers use transport daily and all its improvements immediately become the subject of evaluation and promotion. The next stage of research may be the idea of converting minibuses, which provide 70% of urban passenger traffic, into an electric car, which would also help reduce air pollution. The main obstacle is of course the cost of rework, which can reach 20-30 thousand US dollars. However, the components of the systems can be produced in Belarus and Russia, and the batteries can be purchased in China, which can reduce costs. It is possible to localize the production of individual components in Kyrgyzstan to reduce costs. Further implementation of the principles of the green economy can be the development of other types of renewable energy sources – wind energy and solar. There are potential opportunities for installing wind turbines in many places of the republic, and according to the number of sunny days per year (247), Kyrgyzstan also has great prospects for the development of solar energy. Conclusions In the Kyrgyz Republic, there is a need and there are prerequisites for the introduction of the principles of a green economy; The main driver of the ideas of ecological consciousness and decarbonization should be the project of introducing public passenger electric transport; It is necessary to develop other types of renewable energy sources in the republic. References [1] How circular economy and green technology can address Sustainable Development Goals? Edited by Jeng Shiun Lim, Yee Van Fan, Chunjie Li Last update 1 May 2021 https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/journal-of-cleaner-production/collection/10RMVSP1ZQQ?page-size=100&page=1 [2] Agata Mesjasz-Lech, Urban air pollution challenge for green logistics, 2nd International Conference "Green Cities - Green Logistics for Greener Cities", 2-3 March 2016, Szczecin, Poland, Transportation Research Procedia 16 ( 2016 ) 355 – 365 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310779353_Urban_Air_Pollution_Challenge_for_Green_Logistics [3] Jeng Shiun Lim, Yi Wan Fan , Chunji Lee How can the closed-loop economy and green technologies contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals?, Journal of Cleaner Production. 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Корольков, «Электробус – технические особенности вариантов исполнения». Троллейбусный комитет МСОТ. МОСГОРТРАНС (8 сентября 2017). https://docplayer.ru/57047153-Elektrobus-tehnicheskie-osobennosti-variantov-ispolneniya.html [15] Fabian Bergk Kirsten Biemann Udo Lambrecht Ralph Pütz Hubert Landinger. Potential of In-Motion Charging Buses for the Electrification of Urban Bus Lines (англ.) // Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. — 2016. http://www.scienpress.com/Upload/GEO/Vol%206_4_21.pdf [16] IMC® electric buses on trend in the USA: Kiepe Electric to supply 185 systems for San Francisco https://www.automotiveworld.com/news-releases/imc-electric-buses-trend-usa-kiepe-electric-supply-185-systems-san-francisco/ [17] Электроэнергетика Кыргызстана https://www.energycharter.org/fileadmin/DocumentsMedia/Events/20070426-Bishkek_Kyrgyzstan_Nazarov-ru.pdf
Azizbek Kydykov, Akylbek Umetaliyev
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Prospects of public electric transport development in Bishkek
Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I. Razzakov Kyrgyz Republic, 720044, Bishkek, Aitmatova ave., 66 The proposed work analyzes the logistics system of passenger transport in Bishkek. On the basis of a review of the studies carried out and the proposed options for the development of the transport and logistics system, the conclusion about the need for priority development of the existing electric transport is substantiated. The analysis of modern world experience in the development of ground electric passenger transport is carried out. For the transport system of Bishkek, the choice of the development option with the use of a trolleybus with increased autonomous running has been substantiated. Key words: logistics system, transport infrastructure, air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, autonomous running, costs. Many countries are adopting programs to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, including from road transport. Concrete plans are being adopted to reduce the number of vehicles with internal combustion engines on the road. Instead, it is planned to increase the number of electric vehicles. Bishkek with a population of about 1 million has significant air pollution problems from automobile emissions. Cars are the most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are from cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which less than 100 are electric vehicles. The system of passenger transport in the city has its own characteristics [1]. Minibuses are the dominant transport in Bishkek. The minibus network consists of 120 route lines, including about 3000 units. minibuses and is serviced by 40 private operators. The route network covers 70% of the city's territory. According to the Department of Urban Transport under the Mayor's Office of Bishkek (hereinafter UGT), 30% -40% of the total number of route lines leave the route outside the city. The quantitative indicators of the work of the bus and trolleybus carrier are inferior to minibuses in all key parameters. According to the UGT of the Mayor's Office of Bishkek, in 2018 the number of route lines of municipal enterprises was: 10 by the bus and 10 by the trolleybus, about 110 trolleybuses out of the existing 156 and 110-120 buses go on the line every day. As a solution, UGT sees an increase in the park of public municipal transport up to 60% -70%, this is an additional 400-600 units. large class buses (100 passenger seats), which will optimize the quality and streamline traffic flows in the capital's streets. The city administration is taking measures to improve the environment - buses with gas engines have been purchased, which reduces harmful emissions. Efforts are also being made to expand the trolleybus fleet. However, for the correct organization of the logistics system of passenger transport, the structure of the rolling stock must correspond to the size of the urban population [2]. Bishkek belongs to the 2nd group of cities (table 1) and therefore, with the recommended average capacity (90-100 passengers - seats), it should have a rational structure of the passenger fleet. It is recommended that in the cities of the 1st-4th population groups, the bulk of traffic is carried out by rolling stock with an average capacity of 65-90 passengers. places. At the same time, the proportion of low-capacity rolling stock should not exceed 20% and decrease with the growth of the city's population. At the same time, it is necessary to increase the share of large-capacity rolling stock. Table 1 Recommended average passenger transport capacity depending on the population of cities City group Population, thousand people Average capacity of a unit of rolling stock, pas. - places 1 Over 1000 120—130 2 from 500 to 1000 90—100 3 from 250 to 500 75—80 4 from 100 to 250 65—70 5 from 50 to 100 45—50 The developed concept for the development of public transport [3] also recommends the need to achieve the desired ratios of transport shares: 70% of passenger traffic should be served by large-capacity rolling stock. While now - 70% of all public transport is carried out by private carriers in minibuses. All this is aimed at ensuring the convenience and comfort of the public transport system and reducing traffic. In addition, the introduction of low-emission transport is recommended. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is also taking measures to improve the situation in the field of passenger transport in Bishkek, including reducing harmful emissions. In August 2020, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic on the project for the electrification of urban transport [4]. This project provides for the purchase of modern energy efficient battery electric buses, charging infrastructure (substations, electrical installation and construction works), equipment for bus service. In addition, it is planned to modernize the infrastructure of bus depots, build all-weather parking spaces for new electronic buses. The project also includes the creation of a pilot "green" traffic corridor for electric buses. However, the use of electric buses in Kyrgyzstan is new and unfamiliar. Therefore, the result of the analysis of the efficiency and applicability of various options for electric transport in Bishkek is proposed. The classification of modern electric transport options is shown in Table 2 [5]. The disadvantages of the trolleybus are the connection to the overhead network and the cost of the network itself. The overhead network, together with cable lines and traction substations, is an expensive infrastructure facility that requires significant investments in construction and maintenance. There is also an intermediate solution. In countries where the lines of the classic trolleybus have been preserved, the option of a "partial" trolleybus is being considered, i.e. trolleybuses with autonomous running from accumulators. Table 2 Classification of types of electric transport # Trolleybus (with minimum autonomous running) \ Electric bus with power in motion Electric bus with recharging in motion (trolleybus with increased autonomous running) Electric bus with charging at stops Electric bus with charging at the depot Technology name IMF (In-Motion-Feeding) IMC (In-Motion charging) OC (Opportunity charging) ONC (Overnight charging) Energy storage method No Charging when driving on an area equipped with a contact network Ultra-fast charging on the route during some of the stops Nightly slow charging Autonomous power reserve to 2 km 5 — 70 km 20 — 70 km to 150 km Easy to charge Absent Absent 5 — 25 minutes (on the bus stop) 4 — 10 часов (on the parking) The most interesting of them: 1. Classic electric bus - ONC. With static charging at night in the depot, it combines all the advantages of a bus and a trolleybus. In addition, electricity is generally cheaper at night than during the day, which is also an advantage. However, its big drawback is the weight and price of the batteries. Therefore, the mileage of classic electric buses is limited - for most modern models it does not exceed 200 kilometers, which is not enough to work on routes throughout the day. This problem can be solved by electric buses with ultra-fast charging on the route during part of stops (OC), or with dynamic charging of batteries in motion. Dynamic charging takes significantly less time, although it requires a dedicated charging infrastructure. IN The existing contact network of a classic trolleybus or even a tram can serve as such an infrastructure in cities. 2. A trolleybus with significant autonomous running - IMC. It is an economically and environmentally viable option for cities with existing trolleybus infrastructure. For electric buses, IMC is considered the most economical technology for high-capacity lines (frequent maintenance, high-capacity vehicles) or lines with high energy demand. An analysis of passenger capacity and energy efficiency of transportation by various modes of transport is shown in Table 3. Table 3 Passenger capacity / energy efficiency of transportation Passenger capacity, people Energy per passenger W * h / (pass * km) Drive weight, kg IMF 100 25 - IMC 95 26 312,5 OC 81 30 1250 ONC to pull 26 96 5000 56 45 3000 The cost structure of individual electric bus systems is shown on picture 1. Pic. 1. Rolling stock cost structure From a technical point of view, all these options are very similar - the body and chassis of the bus type, the traction motor, the control devices and the supply of electrical energy. Differences in the cost of various designs of electric buses are determined mainly by the capacity, size and weight of batteries. On average, a lithium-ion battery with a mass of about 1000 kg provides an autonomous mileage of up to 25 km. This represents about 5% of the total mass of the IMC electric bus. Measures for the development of electric transport in Bishkek. The construction of contact networks is quite high (the cost of 1 km of the line is more than 400 thousand dollars), and the purchase of autonomous trolleybuses is a very profitable solution. For the city of Bishkek, a project is proposed (Table 4) for lengthening trolleybus routes from the terminal stops to the veins of the massifs using the IMC. Table 4 Extension of existing routes # Destination name Route numbers Residential areas falling into the additional coverage area Length of route, km 1 "Djal" district 5,14,1 Archa-Beshik, Chon-Aryk 5-6 2 "Ak-Keme" residensy 7,8,9,16 Selection, Ak-Ordo 6-7 3 "Asanbay" district 10,11,17,13,15 Kok-Jar, Beshkungei 5-6 4 "Alamedin-1" district 9,15,2 Nonopokrovka, 8 5 "Dordoi" market (Leather factory) 4,17 Kelechek, Dordoi 5 The lengthening of routes is insignificant and is easily overcome by autonomous trolleybuses, which pull part of the passenger traffic in the residential areas onto themselves. This improves the quality of passenger service and the role of public electric passenger transport. Bibliographic references 1. https://soros.kg/srs/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/A4.pdf 2. Passenger road transport Textbook for universities. Ed. V.A. Gudkova \ Gudkov V.A., Mirotin L.B., Velmozhin A.V., Shiryaev S.A., 2006 448 pp. 3. http://meria.kg/index.php?lang=kg 4. https://kaktus.media/doc/418681_v_bishkeke_poiaviatsia_elektrobysy_podpisan_pervichnyy_dogovor_s_abr.html 5. S. Korolkov, "Electric bus - technical features of design options." UITP trolleybus committee. MOSGORTRANS (September 8, 2017). © A.A. Kydykov, A.S. Umetaliyev, 2021
Research
Beck Victoria
Research
442 | 0
Improvement of modern logistics in the field of tourism
Abstract: this article discusses the improvement of modern logistics in the field of tourism. Keywords: logistics, tourism, transport, route. Currently, the development of logistics processes and technologies has covered various areas of production, economic, social and economic activities, as well as the use of logistics in the field of tourism product circulation. It should be noted that tourism should be approached as a separate large and independent economic complex of the national economy, since this sphere unites different industries, covering a certain wide space that includes enterprises and firms of various industries. Tourists, in turn, fall into the role of buyers, where everyone strives to satisfy all their needs during their holidays by virtue of their capabilities. Paying for services, goods and various tourist works, the demand for travel by tourists is formed and, therefore, the industry itself is financed in this way. In the context of growing globalization, the world tourism industry is of priority interest and great prospects for the Kyrgyz Republic. Using the unique potential of nature and cultural heritage of Kyrgyzstan, it is necessary to integrate harmoniously into the tourism industry of the world economy and achieve intensive development of tourism in the republic, ensuring steady growth of employment and income of the population, stimulating the development of tourism-related industries and increasing the inflow of foreign investment into the economy. The steady growth of the influence of tourism both on the world economy as a whole and on the economy of individual countries and regions is one of the most significant, permanent and long-term trends that accompanies the formation and development of the world economy. It is becoming obvious that tourism is becoming a large independent branch of the national economy, whose activities are aimed at meeting the specific needs of the population. The diversity of these needs is met not only by tourism enterprises, but also by enterprises of other industries, which determines the importance of tourism as one of the factors of multiplicative impact on the development of the economy. Tourism is one of the factors of global integration processes, and the tourism business is now becoming a significant sector of the economy. The Kyrgyz Republic has the necessary initial prerequisites for the development of a viable tourism industry. Today, when widespread interest in untouched places and adventure tourism is growing in the world, Kyrgyzstan can take a worthy place in the world tourism market. The Kyrgyz Republic is located in the center of Eurasia, at the junction of promising aviation, transport and economic arteries between Europe and Asia, North and South. The main task in this area is to make the republic accessible to foreign tourists by establishing direct international air links, for which it is necessary to carry out a number of measures, including: to create conditions for the functioning of competitive airlines in the air transportation market, to improve flight safety and the quality of passenger service. In tourism, logistics is understood as: the organization of the movement of tourist flows on the basis of competent management of material and information flows; rational organization of the development of a new product and its distribution. The task of logistics is to minimize the costs of bringing the product to the consumer. At the same time, much attention should be paid to advertising logistics. It is necessary to clearly identify the areas of advertising activity, priority advertising methods, marketing research based on statistical data. All systems should work to reduce costs and ensure the quality of tourist products. For the best functioning of logistics in the company, a system of specific questions is used in each situation, i.e. certain tasks are set. In addition to the above, logistics links the tasks of quality and safety with legal responsibility. When performing any task set by the firm, there is a constant process of linking this task with the legal basis. The logistics system (LS) of a travel company is an adaptive system in which the elements are the divisions of the enterprise that perform the functions of optimizing the movement of service flows and the flow of tourists. One of the main ways of intensive development of domestic and inbound tourism is to improve the quality of service in the practical activities of all organizations of the tourism industry. The Kyrgyz Republic is located in the center of Eurasia, at the junction of promising aviation, transport and economic arteries between Europe and Asia, North and South. The main task in this area is to make the republic accessible to foreign tourists by establishing direct international air links, for which it is necessary to carry out a number of measures, including: to create conditions for the functioning of competitive airlines in the air transportation market, to improve flight safety and the quality of passenger service. To ensure a high quality of tourist service, it is necessary to equip these highways accordingly, improve the quality of the roadway, increase the safety of highways, equip the routes with signs and information boards in foreign languages, etc. The construction of essential road service facilities (roadside hotels, paid parking lots, catering facilities and other recreation and entertainment facilities) is of great importance. To date, the expansion of the tourism sector directly depends on the use of logistics technologies that minimize transport costs, deliver passengers and cargo on time and safely, and minimize damage en route. It should be noted that tourism should be approached as a separate large and independent economic complex of the national economy, since this sphere unites different industries, covering a certain wide space that includes enterprises and firms of various industries. Tourists, in turn, fall into the role of buyers, where everyone strives to satisfy all their needs during their holidays by virtue of their capabilities. Paying for services, goods and various tourist works, the demand for travel by tourists is formed and, therefore, the industry itself is financed in this way. As for tourism within the country, one of the urgent problems is the provision of the transport component. This problem applies to air traffic, rail, as well as automobile traffic and road construction. Due to the low level of organization of air flows within the country, which in comparison with international transportation is one of the main factors that limits the development of tourism in the regions of the country. Solving these problems will attach great importance to the development of tourism within the country. List of used literature: https://moluch.ru/conf/econ/archive/134/ Yankovenko V.A. "Logistics in tourism".Konchenkova A.I. "Science today: theoretical and practical aspects".
Cholponkul kyzy Akmaral
Research
397 | 0
The criterion of competence of public procurement specialists
Annotation: this article discusses the criterion of competence and qualification requirements for a specialist in the field of public procurement. Keywords: public procurement, procurement of goods, works, services, specialist, state and municipal needs, qualification, professional competence, training, training. Introduction. Public procurement is an important area of economic activity where significant amounts of consolidated budget funds are spent . This type of activity requires a procurement specialist to have versatile knowledge and competencies in various fields of activity - macro and microeconomics , marketing , law ( including the provisions of legislation on the supply of goods , the performance of works , the provision of services that are the subject of a tender or other type of procurement procedure and the basics of labor legislation ). A public procurement specialist should have the skills and be able to draw up annual procurement plans, prepare procurement assignments or competitive lists, depending on the type of procurement procedure, negotiate, organize and conduct pre-contractual and claim work, tenders, and conclude contracts. Participation in public procurement involves the ability to work freely on the official website and electronic trading platforms . Qualification characteristics of the position of the employee " Public Procurement Specialist in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan was developed in accordance with the requirements for conducting public procurement procedures for goods ( works , services ) on a competitive basis , established by Decree of the President of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan dated April 3 , 2015 No. 72 " On Public procurement " The criteria for the competence of a specialist in the subject area of the standard include the necessary professional training, a sufficient level of knowledge and practical skills. In turn, the necessary professional training includes the availability of higher education, experience in scientific and practical activities, the mandatory availability of a document on retraining or advanced training in the field of public procurement. Verification of compliance with the criterion of necessary professional training is carried out on the basis of the documents submitted by the applicant. By testing, interviewing and preparing draft documents in accordance with the task, the level of knowledge and practical skills of the applicant is checked. Based on the verification of compliance with the standard of competence of specialists in the field of procurement, applicants are awarded quality certificates in one of two subject areas: procurement for state and municipal needs;procurement by certain types of legal entities. The main objective of the professional activity of a specialist in the field of public procurement should be to increase the efficiency of the use of budget funds in procurement, the quality of goods, works and services provided for public needs, professional level, competitiveness and motivation of personnel. In accordance with the requirements of the professional standard, training of specialists should be carried out at all levels of professional training, namely in the system of secondary vocational and higher education, in order to meet the need for positions and jobs of different skill levels. A specialist in the field of public procurement must possess: knowledge of the regulatory and legal regulation of procurement activities;skills in planning, organizing, implementing and controlling purchases, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of procurement activities;experience in performing professional functions: preparation of procurement documentation, monitoring, examination of goods, documents, etc. The demand of the market for the training of specialists in the field of public procurement creates the need to train qualified teaching staff with the necessary level of qualification and competence. Conclusion Based on the above, it can be argued that the field of public procurement needs qualified personnel. Specialists in this field are obliged to maintain and improve the level of their qualifications and professional education by studying at advanced training courses or professional retraining. This may be an incentive to develop and offer an appropriate educational product – an educational program. The educational training program of a specialist in the field of public procurement must meet the established requirements of the educational and professional standard.
Azhibaev Elaman Erkinovich
231 | 0
Warehouse management, handling and storage
Annotation. This article will focus on managing the logistics process in a warehouse. The logistics process in the warehouse is complex and involves high labor and cost. It requires full coordination of the functions of supplying stocks, handling cargo and fulfilling orders. The efficiency and reliability of the functioning of the enterprise, acting as an integrated element of the system, depends on the accurate work of the warehouse. A special place should be given to solving the main problems of the unit in order to optimize costs. Analysis of the efficiency of the warehousing should be carried out with the help of estimated indicators, paying attention to the storage potential. Keywords: management, warehouse, costs, enterprises, cargo flow, warehouse systems, logistics systems. The organization of the warehouse economy and its improvement is a complex task that contains a large number of variables represented by different participants in the processes that occur during the activities of the warehouse economy, the efficiency of which depends on the efficiency and well-being of the entire warehouse economy. Therefore, first of all, it is necessary to optimize the activities of participants in the warehouse process to achieve their goals, as well as their use of the warehouse infrastructure. The right approach to the warehouse, not only as a room, will reduce production costs: transport, financial, human, temporary, which can definitely increase profitability. Having a reliable warehouse management system is essential for the success of manufacturers. There are four tools that will help optimize the warehouse management system: Warehouse layoutAutomatic re-order pointsSupply Chain ManagementBarcode scanning All these things build on each other to create an environment in which producers can thrive. Warehouse layout. One of the biggest delays in the production process is often the amount of time it takes to collect all the raw materials and supplies scattered throughout the warehouse. Everything in the specification must be at hand and ready to work in order to start production of a certain product. Therefore, if it is possible to reduce the number of man-hours spent on collecting orders, you can really increase your efficiency. Tools for optimizing production warehouse management: Change the layout of the warehouse so that goods that are often used together are located next to each other in the same aisle and on the same shelf. Keep in mind that not every combination will be obvious (for example, nails and wooden boards). Some of them can be quite anachronistic (for example, French fries and ice cream). A computerized warehouse management system will help to uncover these combinations. Place frequently used items closer to the work area and the receiving compartment. This saves time both on acceptance and on production. Map out your picking path on a barcode scanner or other mobile device so that you can go through your warehouse once, and so that you don't have to go back and perform the same rounds over and over again. Automatic re-order points. A well—planned warehouse layout is a great idea, but it won't do much good if that warehouse doesn't have the necessary number of parts to facilitate production. Having too few items in stock will lead to shortages and delays, and having too many will lead to unreasonably high storage costs and a cramped and cluttered warehouse. Automatic re-order points are useful tools to maintain stock balance in each warehouse. When the quantity of a certain item in the inventory reaches a low level, the warehouse management system notifies that it is time to re-order this item. If there is a really good system, it can even suggest the right quantity for a repeat order based on historical sales trends, lead times and other data. Supply chain management. Just as the efficiency of the warehouse layout depends on the availability of the necessary inventory, automatic re-order points assume the presence of a supply chain management system. It is important for manufacturers to maintain good relations with their suppliers or consumers. Getting favorable payment terms can have a big impact on cash flow. In addition, they should monitor the performance of their suppliers over time to see if the supplier receives orders accurately and on time. A good way to keep track of all this is to use a warehouse management system that allows you to track the movement of products, integrate with your accounting solution, and set default suppliers for all your parts and products. Barcode scanning I briefly mentioned barcode scanners in the section "Warehouse Layout", and now let's delve into why these tools are so important in production. A small barcode scanner does two big things: Increase efficiencyReduce the number of errors Scanning barcodes to select materials, re-order goods and receive goods to the warehouse significantly speeds up these processes than trying to print them manually or write them on a piece of paper. Warehouse workers can do much more in the same time if they are not bound by outdated methods. In addition, they avoid a lot of potentially costly data entry errors. Even the best typist makes typos on the keyboard from time to time. Specifying just one wrong digit in the identification number or quantity of the product can have disastrous consequences. Barcode scanners minimize these typos by automatically filling in the correct information when scanning the barcode. There is very little input, and the information is instantly updated in the warehouse management system, so every worker and manager can stay on the same page. A warehouse management system is a means by which manufacturers track their inventory. It should contain four key elements to maximize the use of the manufacturer's resources: Warehouse layoutAutomatic re-order pointsSupply Chain ManagementBarcode scanning Conclusion: Planning and maintaining a warehouse management system using excellent layout, automatic re-order points, supply chains and barcode scanners is a great boon for production. These tools allow you to move faster, save money and ensure the accuracy of inventory data at every stage of production. List of literature Grigoriev, M.N. Inventory management in logistics / M.N.Grigoriev, A.P. Dolgov, S.A. Uvarov. - St. Petersburg: Publishing house "Business Press", 2006. Kanke A.A. Logistics: textbook / A.A. Kanke, I.P. Koshevaya I. P. - 2nd ed. ispr. and add. - M.: ID Forum: INFRA-M, 2007. Logistics. Textbook / Edited by B. A. Anikin, 3rd ed., reprint. and additional - M.: INFRA-M, 2008. Grigan A.M. Educational and methodological complex of the discipline "Logistics".- Rostov-on-Don: UPL SFU, 2010. Fikhman, Yu.N. Quality management system at an industrial enterprise (according to ISO 9001:2000 standard): manual on system development / Yu.N. Fikhman. - M.: LLC "NTK "Track", 2005. Levanov A.S., 2016 Dmitry Ivanov, Supply Chain Management 2016 https://buhta.ru/sistema-upravleniya-skladom-wms https://www.ekam.ru/blogs/pos/metody-upravleniya-zapasami-na-sklade https://lsconsulting.ru/avtomatizaciya-sklada Azhibaev Elaman Erkinovich, student, I.Razzakov Kyrgyz State Technical University, 66 Ch.Aitmatov Ave., Bishkek, 720044, Kyrgyz Republic. Mukhtarbekova Rasita Mukhtarbekovna, teacher, I.Razzakov Kyrgyz State Technical University, 720044, 66 Ch.Aitmatov Ave., Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic.
Oleshko Darya Aleksandrovna
Research
253 | 0
Organization of the supply chain of fruit and vegetable products to Kazakhstan
Annotation: Each country has certain competitive or comparative advantages over other countries in the production of a particular product, or such products are unique to their country. The article deals with a topical issue for the Kyrgyz Republic today. Export involves the sale and transfer of resources to a foreign country, in this case the Republic of Kazakhstan, and involves a relationship between a seller (exporter) and a buyer (importer). For companies, export is a way to increase profits and financial performance, and on a national scale - a way to develop the economy. Export is also a key factor in the development of international relations through the negotiation and implementation of trade agreements. Keywords: export, fruits and vegetables, refrigerated vehicles, wholesalers, international trade, competition. Introduction: Transportation of vegetables and fruits requires a delicate and responsible approach to eliminate the risks of damage to the products during loading and unloading and its stay in the truck on the way from the shipper to the destination. The shelf life of vegetables and fruits is limited, as this type of product quickly loses freshness, elasticity and flavor. Also, an important condition is the correct packaging, loading and stacking of cargo, taking into account the density of the fetus. Such cargo can be packaged in wooden, cardboard or plastic boxes, which are stacked on top of each other, taking into account the provision of air access. To preserve the freshness of fruits, the transportation of vegetables and fruits is organized in such a way that optimal conditions for storing goods are created inside the van, taking into account the distance and duration of the cargo's stay in transit. Since various fruits require special storage conditions, it is not recommended to transport mixed loads over long distances. In this case, separate transportation of fruits requiring special conditions is recommended. The rules of transportation of fruits and vegetables require careful attitude from the driver, movers and logisticians so that the fruits do not lose their presentation and retain their taste, color and elasticity. The integrity, maturity and density of fruits are very important in pricing, since damage to the skin contributes to the loss of attractiveness for the buyer. Any entrepreneur will strive to develop his business. There are several ways to achieve growth, one of which is export. Export is a process involving the sale of commercial goods or services to another country. Exports depend on factors such as production costs, domestic markets, competitive and comparative advantages of production, distance, socio-economic conditions, logistics and government regulation. The biggest difficulty for the exporter is to overcome these factors due to the presence of an actual or perceived comparative or competitive advantage over products manufactured in this country or competing supplier countries. It is not enough to have a "better product" and a price, a better product and price are needed for a new market and consumer preferences, or if the needs of buyers differ, the seller should consider these needs not from the seller's position, but from the buyer's position. The decision to export goods should be made after a thorough assessment of the opportunities and problems arising in connection with the development of exports. Exporting, however, can be a very fruitful and profitable process, providing greater profitability than with sales in the domestic market, while increasing risks, if the process is well thought out and properly implemented. Why export is important, you can consider several criteria: 1. To increase the turnover of the company: international trade may entail higher costs, but at the same time makes it possible to achieve a higher level of sales in general and a higher price per unit of goods 2. To maximize capacity utilization and reduce production costs: operating at capacity exceeding domestic demand and approaching full capacity utilization allows exporters to reduce marginal costs per unit of goods by allocating fixed costs to a larger number of products, thereby minimizing idle capacity and increasing production efficiency. 3. To sell surplus products: this may be necessary if the fruit and vegetable year turned out to be very high-quality, the number of stocks of vegetables and fruits in excess of demand in the domestic market. Selling the product outside the local market helps prevent the formation of a surplus by lowering prices in the domestic market. 4. To extend the life cycle of goods: existing goods will have an extended sales period in the presence of new markets. The ripening period of the crop differs depending on the climatic zone, sales of seasonal products in the "off-season" climatic zone can provide extended product sales periods. 5. To improve product quality: As competition increases, wholesalers have no choice but to improve the quality of their products. However, before making any decision, it is necessary to evaluate the market, opportunities and determine a growth strategy. The Ansoff Matrix is a strategic planning tool developed by Igor Ansoff in 1957. The matrix provides a framework to help businesses develop a strategy for future growth. The Ansoff matrix provides four alternatives to growth in new or existing markets with new or existing products. The degree of risk differs depending on the alternative. As part of the market penetration strategy, fruit and vegetable wholesalers seek to increase the market share of existing products in the existing market. This is achieved by finding new customers in the market or increasing sales to existing customers. This growth alternative is associated with the least risk. Market penetration strategy tools: price reduction; more active promotion (advertising) and distribution; absorption of competitors; minor change of goods. Product development strategy. As part of the product development strategy, the company strives to introduce new products to existing markets. Since there are a very large number of wholesalers and farmers in Kyrgyzstan who are engaged in the export of fruit and vegetable products, a lot of competition is created. Thus, each of the sellers tries to make their product high-quality and kind of unique. This is achieved by modifying existing products by changing their positioning, properties or quality in order to make such products more attractive in the existing market. Transportation of vegetables and fruits is not an easy process, as it has its own transportation features. Fresh fruits and vegetables are perishable products, therefore they require strict compliance with a number of rules and conditions regarding temperature, humidity, sanitary and other requirements for the transportation of this type of cargo. At the same time, fresh fruits and vegetables have valuable properties, because the task of the carrier is to ensure the delivery of such products with maximum preservation of high quality and minimal losses. For transportation, vegetables and fruits must be packed in appropriate containers and packaging for each type. Many of the wholesalers comply with all packaging standards, such products are mainly sent for sale to supermarkets and minimarkets, as they have a presentable appearance and appropriate quality. But there are exceptional moments when, in order to save money, wholesalers do not comply with the norms of packaging and transportation, for example, the transportation of potatoes. Based on the experience of working in a logistics company, there have been cases when wholesalers, having their own transport, transport potatoes without any packaging, without observing the temperature regime and sanitary standards. Upon arrival of vehicles filled with potatoes without packaging, large losses arise, since the potatoes that lie at the very bottom are crumpled, cracks form, all this leads to brocade and rotting. 10% of the affected potatoes are disposed of. Also, due to rotting, the flooring in the truck deteriorates, this is a violation of the sanitary norm. The same example can be given when transporting melons. In order to save money, a large amount of goods is loaded, which exceeds the norms of 20 tons, in the lowest layers the products deteriorate and cracks appear under the weight of the upper layers. As mentioned above, when transporting fruit and vegetable products, there are a number of features: vegetables and fruits must be packed in the appropriate container and packaging for each type: 1. onion, garlic, cabbage - in the boxes there are; 2. beets and carrots - in canvas bags and boxes; 3. cucumbers, apples, quinces, pears, pomegranates, grapes, apricots, plums - in boxes and euro-trays made of corrugated cardboard or in wooden pallets, wooden boxes; 4. melon crops - in special containers. Transport used during transportation: Eurotent trucks, most often operated at plus air temperature for fruit and vegetable products at short distances. Thermal vans with a special layer of thermal insulation made of foam. Such cars keep a stable temperature inside the van well during delivery. The refrigerator is indispensable in cases when it is necessary to maintain a stable low temperature or provide heating of the body. Such cars are used in winter to save goods from frost, as well as in summer during the hot period to preserve freshness. Also, the rules for the transportation of fruits and vegetables include recommendations for preventing fruit strikes during delivery. Shaking during the movement of the vehicle on the road is excluded, therefore, the highest requirements for qualifications and driving experience are placed on the forwarding driver. On federal highways, the maximum speed of freight transport with fruit and vegetable products is allowed to be no higher than 90 km/h. If regional roads with increased bumpiness are used, the speed of the car cannot exceed 60 km/h. Also, the driver should be guided by the condition of the road surface and avoid difficult places where there is a high probability of shaking the load and its damage. Phytosanitary certificate Phytosanitary certificates are issued to confirm that lots of plants, plant products or other quarantined materials comply with the established import phytosanitary requirements and the certification protocol of the corresponding standard certificate. Phytosanitary certificates should be issued exclusively for this purpose. Standard certificates have a standard wording and format that should be followed when preparing official phytosanitary certificates. This is necessary to ensure the validity of documents, their easy recognition and provision of important information. Importing countries should require phytosanitary certificates only for regulated goods. These include plants, bulbs and tubers or seeds intended for reproduction, fruits and vegetables, cut flowers and branches, grains and substrates. In addition, phytosanitary certificates can be applied to certain products of plant origin that have been processed, if such products by their nature or nature of processing can potentially spread regulated harmful organisms (for example, wood, cotton). A phytosanitary certificate may also be required for other regulated goods, in cases where phytosanitary measures are technically justified (for example, empty containers, vehicles and organisms). Documentation In different cases, different documents may be required: it all depends on what kind of cargo the car is carrying. However, at the same time, there is a standard set of documents that must accompany each cargo transportation. an invoice containing detailed information about the unit price, the number of units and the amount, as well as financial and address data; insurance document (depending on Incoterms); certificate of origin: it is necessary to check which competent authority is responsible for issuing such documents Export sanitary/phytosanitary certificates; itinerary; bill of lading. When transporting vegetables and fruits, they must be accompanied by documents such as: phytosanitary certificate; quality certificate. Firms engaged in the supply of products in Kyrgyzstan: INTERFRUIT LLC GLOBAL AGRO LLC PEASANT (FARMER) FARM "ECO FARM" These firms are specialized in exporting not only to Kazakhstan, but also to other foreign countries. Oddly enough, not all transport companies are able to fulfill all of the above requirements. And, entrusting the case to non-professionals or specialists who do not differ in responsibility, there is a great risk of getting additional costs, jeopardizing not only the supply, but also the business reputation, and even worse– the health of buyers. Recently, survey services have become increasingly popular, the capabilities of which are neglected by most customers. This makes it possible to completely eliminate the possibility of losses during the loading of goods, their transportation and unloading at the customer's warehouse. Specially trained people (surveyors) gradually monitor all movements of the goods, as well as their quality and compliance with standards during loading and throughout the entire delivery. Despite its insignificant cost, such services make it possible to eliminate the probability of product damage by 99% and reduce costs. Thus, we can conclude that transportation and survey services are the item of expenditure on which it is not recommended to save. By reducing losses and investing in delivery today, wholesalers increase profits and customer loyalty. List of literature: Albekov A.U., Gribov E.M. Patterns of development of transport and warehouse logistics at the regional level. Rostov n/A: RGEA, 1999. Technical regulations "On the safety of fresh fruits and vegetables" http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/94993 Handbook of fruit and vegetable products experts from Central Asian countries. Incoterms 2020 Nerush, Yu. M. Transport logistics: textbook for academic bachelor's degree. Agreement on the International Transport of Perishable Foodstuffs and on Special Vehicles Intended for These Transportations (ATP)
Bolotbekova Aimira
Research
663 | 0
Features of the work of the Official Public Procurement Portal Of the Kyrgyz Republic
4th grade master - student, Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I. Razzakov, Department of Logistics, Annotation. The article discusses the features and recommendations for improving the operation of the electronic public procurement portal of the Kyrgyz Republic. Keywords: public procurement, electronic public procurement portal, suppliers, purchasing organization. Public procurement is the acquisition by the purchasing organization of goods, works, services and consulting services by methods established by the Law on Public Procurement, financed in whole or in part at the expense of public funds. [1] The official public procurement portal of the Kyrgyz Republic dates back to 2011, when all public procurement began to be transferred to a single e-procurement portal. And since 2015, the publication of all public procurement procedures conducted by procurement organizations, from the publication of the announcement to the publication of the results of the tender, including pre-trial appeal procedures, has become mandatory. This helped to make public procurement more transparent, although the system had a number of drawbacks.. [2] Advantages of working with the Official Public Procurement Portal: • Equal and fair conditions and the development of competition is one of the most important aspects of the development process. the main objectives and principles, as well as the rules imposed in the framework of the public procurement system. The EGZ web portal allows registered suppliers located both in Bishkek and in the regions of the Kyrgyz Republic to see and participate. Worth noting. That foreign organizations can also participate in the competitions. One of the measures for the development of competition is the existence of special provisions according to which the use of restrictive and competition-reducing technical specifications and criteria is prohibited. • Transparency and openness - Information about tenders and concluded contracts is publicly available for both registered and guest users. The following information is available to guest users on the electronic public procurement website: 1) Public procurement plans - Budgetary institutions - Extra-budgetary institutions 2) Ads - Total Ads - Canceled Ads 3) Contracts - All contracts - Central Procurement contracts- Contracts based onDirect conclusion agreements that do not require the publication of an ad 4) Auctions 5) Purchase reports 6) Analytical data • The possibility of implementing the entire cycle of procedures for both the purchasing organization and suppliers (contractors). • The appeal mechanism – in the event of disputes between the parties to the public procurement procedures, as well as if there are grounds for violation of the law, the participants have the right to submit a complaint through the web-portal of public procurement in the Independent interagency Committee for the review of complaints (the protests) and inclusion in the Database unreliable (bad faith) and suppliers (contractors) at any stage of the procurement proceedings. • Efficiency - The electronic public procurement system improves эффективность procurement efficiency for both parties: both for bidders and purchasing organizations. • The use of the two-package method - is a subspecies of the one-stage method of conducting a tender, when at the first stage, compliance with the qualifications and technical requirements of the purchasing organization is evaluated, and at the second stage, the cost estimate, which should be the lowest. Disadvantages of workingы with the Official Public Procurement Portal: • Incompleteinformation about suppliersregistered as individual entrepreneurs is incomplete in the register of the Ministry of Justice of the Kyrgyz Republic. • Lack of post-tender verification: in the legislation If there is no provision for post-tender verification, therefore the Contract between the supplier and the purchasing organization is not published on the Official Public Procurement Portal, respectively, there is no information on payments and on the performance of the contract. • Incomplete database of unreliable suppliers - owners and management of organizations that are on the list of unreliable suppliers can re-registera new organization with the information of the previous organization for further participation in public procurement. In other words, such participants are actually not completely excluded from the system, which reduces the significance of this database. • The site is not fully developed (writing, slow loading of necessary data). • It takes a lot of time to fill out a tender application , especially for such tenders, in which the purchasing organization announces a tender for the purchase of food, or services for performing a large amount of work, etc., divides goods or services into separate lots • Documents of state significance and special state forms: When conducting a tender for the purchase of documents of state significance and special state forms in accordance with the Government DecreeР No. 162 of April 15, 2019, the purchasing organization selects only among the public joint-stock companies "Uchkun", «Goznak» LLC, a state enterprise "Printing House" under the Administration of the President and Government of the Kyrgyz Republic in accordance with the approved procedure. Recommendations for improving the work Official Public Procurement Portal: • The ability to view the performance of the agreement, which accordingly requires the publication of the full text of the agreement and further actions under the agreement.( certificates of acceptance and transfer of work/services, information about payments and so onto alee.) • Improvement of the legislative and regulatory framework in the field of public procurement, raising public awareness and improving the quality of public services. Thanks to the publicity, openness and legality of public procurement. • Professional development of employees of procurement organizations in the field of public procurement and raising awareness of suppliers (contractors). • It is necessary to provide for supplier organizations (contractors) to apply for exclusion from the Database of unreliable suppliers, if they have evidence that they have taken all possible measures to solvethe problems that led to the ban on participation in tenders. [3] Despite the existence and improvement of laws, as well as the adoption of necessary measures in the field of public procurement, it is still necessary to develop some provisions to support the developing system of public procurement, as well as to improve the effectiveness of procurement procedures. At the same time, it is also necessary to maintain and improve the web portal of electronic public procurement. List of used literature: http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/111125 https://kloop.kg/blog/2021/09/28/konfidentsialnost-i-tendery-na-chastnyh-torgovyh-ploshhadkah-kak-goszakupki-kyrgyzstana-uhodyat-v-ten/ https://www.transparency.kg/files/pdf/Public%20Procurement%20Report%20-%20TI%20Kyrgyzstan.pdf
Mamatisaev Arsen
Essay
510 | 0
Why did I choose the profession of logistics?
Why did I choose this profession? Because logistics is a very interesting science. I would like to note that it is science that deals with the organization of joint work of several managers of different departments of one or several companies. Logistics is a big business. It involves many thousands of companies of absolutely different profiles – both transportation, and information, and many others. The basic principle of logistics is a systematic approach, this is how it is possible to establish a stable and clear functioning of any divisions of the company, as well as to fulfill all customer requirements. The term "Logistics" appeared originally in the quartermaster service of the armed forces. In the Byzantine Empire, there were "logisticians" at the court of the emperor, whose duties included the distribution of food. Now you understand the importance of this profession. That's what inspired me to connect my future with logistics.
Literature
Simulation modeling in AnyLogic
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Logistics and Supply Chain Management
1333 | 0 | 126
Operation of the procurement activity in enterprise
1148 | 0 | 38
Management of the public procurement – effective tool for government fiscal politic
1047 | 0 | 32
Scientific and practic journal, Moscow, Russia
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Сonsulting services, selection and use of consultants
1065 | 0 | 6