Publications
Kalieva Aian
225 | 0
Sustainable Public Procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic
Abstract: The article discusses "sustainable" public procurement (Sustainable Public Procurement), which, along with economic efficiency, takes into account the positive impact on the environment and solves social problems. How public procurement can contribute to the sustainable development of the country and an overview of the current state of the Kyrgyz Republic on the introduction of sustainable public procurement. Keywords: public procurement; sustainable development; sustainable public procurement. Due to the deterioration of the environment and a number of environmental problems causing global warming and increasing social and economic tensions in countries, in particular in recent years due to the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, the issue of ensuring sustainable development, identified at the UN World Conference in 1992 (UN Convention on Environment and Development, 1992), has become acute for the world community. According to the UN, the global economy shrank by 4.3% in 2020. The crisis caused by the virus has been called the strongest in the last 90 years. The emerging situation with the COVID-19 pandemic showed all the inequalities between people and countries and made it clear once again that the world needs sustainable development. Sustainable development involves ensuring economic stability, environmental protection and achieving social justice (UN Conference on Sustainable Development, 2012). Environmentally safe production, rational consumption, reduction of social imbalance in society, economic support for developing industries and countries allow countries to move towards sustainable development. One of the effective mechanisms for implementing the sustainable development strategy for States is public procurement. Acting as the largest buyer in the market and having the political will and authority, the state can influence producers and consumers through public procurement and promote sustainable production and consumption. A number of countries at different levels of economic and social development apply sustainable procurement in practice, stimulating the production of environmentally friendly products, the secondary use of resources, supporting small businesses, addressing issues of social equality of national and ethnic minorities, creating new jobs and stimulating fair trade. Thus, public procurement really contributes to sustainable development. Sustainable development and sustainable public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic. Sustainable development is a process that meets the needs of the present without undermining the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Our Common Future, 1987). Sustainable development "includes components such as social justice, environmental protection and economic development" (Weybrecht, 2010). Social justice includes issues such as human rights, peace, security, justice, gender equality, cultural diversity, etc. Environmental protection implies protection in the field of water supply, energy, agriculture, biodiversity maintenance, protection of animals, fish, forests, etc. Economic development refers to "understanding the potential of economic growth and includes issues of poverty reduction, responsible consumption, corporate responsibility, energy efficiency, rational waste management, education issues, etc." ((Weitbrecht, 2010). Public procurement can be one of the effective mechanisms for the transition to sustainable development. There are several reasons for this. First of all, a huge share of budget funds is spent on public procurement. According to the European Commission, public procurement expenditures in European countries account for 13.67% of GDP (Public Procurement Indicators, 2014). According to the International Institute for Sustainable Development, in OECD countries, expenditures on public procurement of goods and services range from 45% to 65% of the national budget, which is 12-17% of GDP (Procurement&Public-PrivatePartnerships). According to data taken from the official portal of public procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic(http://cds.zakupki.gov.kg/statistic/procedures ) in 2020, the total cost of completed tenders amounted to 36.7 billion soms, which is equal to 21% of the total amount of state budget expenditures for 2020. (https://budget.okmot.kg/ru ). However, the share of successfully completed lots was only 54%, which indicates the inefficient work of purchasing organizations to assimilate the state budget. Compared with the indicators of the OECD countries, expenditures on public procurement of goods and services in the Kyrgyz Republic are lower, but despite this, the state is still the largest customer of goods and services in the country. The demand for ecological products from the state gives a signal to the market and promotes the spread of the "useful habit" of purchasing environmentally friendly goods, fair trade goods by private consumers. This, in turn, stimulates the production of environmentally friendly products and the development of socially responsible business (Preuss, 2009). As a result, all this contributes to solving economic, environmental and social problems. What does it look like in practice? The state, being the largest customer on the market, makes a decree to budget organizations to purchase only energy-saving lamps, this will increase the demand for energy-saving light bulbs on the market. In order to support small and medium-sized businesses, when concluding contracts, the state could first of all give preference to suppliers who are residents of the Kyrgyz Republic. Often, in practice, situations arise when factories themselves or exclusive distributors of goods and equipment that are located on the territory of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan or China participate in certain large contests on the EGZ portal. Of course, in such cases, all profits from the transaction and taxes go to the treasury of another state. As for the above-mentioned countries, public procurement in these countries takes place on official portals that are available only to residents of the country. On the part of the state , the following benefits are provided by the state to maintain domestic products: when purchasing goods that are produced in the Kyrgyz Republic by internal suppliers, the purchasing organization is obliged to provide benefits in the amount of 20 percent on the offered price when evaluating competitive bids, if there are necessary certificates for the supplied goods confirming the safety and quality of products. If the subject of procurement is work that can be performed by internal contractors of the Kyrgyz Republic and foreign contractors, the procuring entity is obliged to provide benefits in the amount of 20 percent to internal contractors, provided that the internal contractor uses at least 70 percent of local labor resources and at least 30 percent of local raw materials and materials. (According to article 4, paragraph 3, 4 of the Law "On Public Procurement" dated April 3, 2015 No. 72). On the environmental side of sustainable development, the Kyrgyz Republic needs decisive reforms. The revealed environmental damage at the Kumtor gold mine, as well as the primacy of the city of Bishkek in the rankings of the world's cities with the dirtiest air, make it clear that the environmental component must also be taken into account in setting priorities for the state. To date, the introduction of sustainable public procurement is only being introduced in the Kyrgyz Republic. Kyrgyzstan is one of the countries for the implementation of the UNDA SPP Project, which is led by the European Office of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and implemented jointly with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP), aimed at strengthening the capacity of individual countries in the EECCA region in the field of sustainable public procurement and increasing the ability of businesses to respond to public auctions with sustainability criteria. The project is being implemented in the period from 2018 to 2021. In the document NSR-2040, for focused and active movement towards such a picture of the country's future, the priority directions of the Kyrgyz Republic until 2023 are defined: Stimulating technological modernization Modernization and implementation of energy-efficient technologies. Increasing the participation of renewable energy sources. Expansion of the area of green spaces. Conservation of tailings dumps and ensuring safety Rational management of water resources. Development of waste disposal and recycling infrastructure. According to the program for the development of the "green" economy in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2019-2023, which is currently at the stage of approval in the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, the goals for sustainable public procurement are also outlined. The goal is to increase the share of sustainable public procurement to 30% by 2023, and to 50% by 2040. To achieve it, the following tasks will be solved: 3.1. Improve legislation in the field of public procurement. Improvement of legislation in the field of public procurement, including provisions on technical specifications and relevant certificates for goods supplied, works performed and services rendered, confirming environmental criteria, product safety and quality, including requirements for social aspects. The Government's activities will be aimed at promoting the implementation of sustainable procurement and trade policies within the framework of multilateral and regional cooperation with the EAEU and the WTO. Regulations and instructions on evaluation criteria will be developed for purchasing organizations to determine sustainable/ "green" goods and services. 3.2. Promote the development of environmental certification. The development of environmental certification will be implemented through the introduction of international standards for sustainable procurement. Organizations will be assisted in the development and implementation of successful practices and policies for the implementation of sustainable purchases. It is also planned to introduce criteria that will allow the evaluation of goods and services produced according to established international labor standards (ILO, Fair Trade, etc.). Mechanisms will be developed to stimulate sustainable public procurement for suppliers, including providing access to preferential sources of financing. 3.3. To increase the potential of suppliers and purchasing organizations for the transition to sustainable public procurement. Increasing the capacity of purchasing state organizations and suppliers will be carried out through the development and implementation of training programs for both universities and training centers. Specialized courses for university teachers on sustainable/"green" public procurement will also be held on an ongoing basis. Conclusion In world practice, sustainable public procurement as a mechanism for implementing sustainable development policy is becoming increasingly widespread. For the successful implementation of the principles of sustainable public procurement in the Kyrgyz Republic, it is necessary first of all to improve legislation in the field of public procurement, in which it is necessary to stimulate the work of domestic producers and suppliers of residents of the Kyrgyz Republic, as well as pay more attention to the environmental component of the country. List of used literature Shadrina E.V., Romodina I.V. Article: PUBLIC PROCUREMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE URL:https://vgmu.hse.ru/data/2017/04/05/1168492363/%D0%A8%D0%B0%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0,%20%D0%A0%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0%201-2017.pdf The future we want. UN Conference on Sustainable Development RIO+20. 2012. URL: https://rio20.un.org/sites/rio20.un.org/fi les/a-conf.216-l-1_russian.pdf.pdf (дата обращения: 07.07.2016). Convention on Environment and Development. The agenda for the XXI century. 1992, Rio de Janeiro. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/agenda21 (дата обращения: 02.05.2016) Official portal of public procurement URL: http://zakupki.gov.kg/ Overview of the current state of the Kyrgyz Republic on the implementation of sustainable public procurement (UGP) https://www.greengrowthknowledge.org/sites/default/files/uploads/RUS%20Full%20assessment%20of%20institution%20and%20legal%20framework%20Kyrgyzstan.pdf The Law "On Public Procurement of the Kyrgyz Republic (http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/111125) Open budget website (https://budget.okmot.kg/ru)
Borisova Vera
253 | 0
4
Public procurement ecosystem
Borisova Vera Viktorovna - Professor of the Department of Logistics and Trade Policy, St. Petersburg State University of Economics. The results of her work are reflected in monographs, textbooks on commerce, logistics, marketing, including textbooks: "Supply Logistics", "Commercial Logistics", "Economic Logistics", "Logistics in the system of aggregate knowledge" published in collaboration with Professor Afanasenko I.D. in the publishing house of Peter and the publishing house of St. Petersburg State University of Economics; is a member of dissertation councils of a number of universities in the country, vice-president of the South-Russian Association of Logistics. Abstract. The publication discusses the application of digital technologies in the Russian contract system and the prospects for creating an ecosystem of public procurement; the practical experience of using digital technologies in the public procurement system is generalized. An ecosystem approach to improving the efficiency of public procurement has been highlighted. It is shown that the creation of an ecosystem of state procurement in Russia is associated with the restructuring of several its structural elements, the introduction of artificial intelligence algorithms, blokchain technologies, smart-contracts, dialogue interfaces, which is associated with social, economic and structural risks To read the article in detail, you can download the PDF file
Shadrina Elena V., Romodina Irina V.
255 | 0
5
Sustainable public procurement: international experience
Abstract Sustainable public procurement (SPP) is a process of purchasing goods, services, works and utilities for public needs in a way that ensures benefits not only to the orga- nization, but also to society and the economy, whilst minimizes damage to the environ- ment. SPP can be part of the overall mechanism of sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how SPP can contribute to sustainable development, what is the legal framework for it, what factors promote and inhibit SPP, how SPP can be im- plemented in practice. By analyzing regulatory legal acts, the international SPP experi- ence, a large body of international academic research and reports of international organi- zations involved in the promotion of SPP, we advance two key features that make public procurement an effective mechanism of sustainable development: (1) the scale of public procurement and (2) the power and authority of procurement bodies. We distinguish between several different schemes of legal support of SPP. The main drivers of SPP are leadership, clarity of strategies and plans that articulate SPP goals, the legislative support of the SPP process, and the information support of procurement specialists. Our review of international experience in SPP is expected to contribute to a more vigorous imple- mentation of SPP by procurement authorities. Keywords: public procurement; sustainable development; sustainable public pro- curement. Citation: Shadrina, E.V. & Romodina, I.V. (2017). Gosudarstvennye zakupki dlya ustoychivogo razvitiya: Mezhdunarodnyi opyt [Sustainable Public Procurement: Inter- national Experience]. Public Administration Issues, no 1, pp. 149–172 (in Russian). Shadrina Elena V. PhD in Economics, Associate professor at the Management Department, Lead Research Associate, Centre for Public Private Interaction, HSE. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics. 38 Studencheskaya Str., Perm 614070, Russian Federation. E-mail: evshadrina@hse.ru Romodina Irina V. Junior Research Associate at the Centre for Public Private Interaction, HSE. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics. 38 Studencheskaya Str., Perm 614070, Russian Federation. E-mail: iromodina@hse.ru
Elvira Uyarra, Jacob Edlera, Javier Garcia-Estevez, Luca Georgiua, Gillian Yow
235 | 0
1
Barriers to Innovation Through Public Procurement: A Supplier's Perspective.
We would like to acquaint you with an interesting article by the authors of which are Elvira Uyarra, Jacob Edlera, Javier Garcia-Estevez, Luca Georgiua, Gillian Yow. The authors represent Manchester Institute for Innovative Research, Manchester Business School, University of Manchester and United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Colombia. The article identifies factors in public procurement that affect the ability of suppliers to innovate. - The most important are tender specifications, skills, user-supplier interaction and risk management. - There are differences in the perception of obstacles between R&D and non-R&D participants. - Small firms and non-profit organizations are particularly disadvantaged in terms of procurement. Abstract article: Public procurement is increasingly seen as having an important factor in stimulating innovation. Despite this, numerous obstacles prevent the public sector from acting as an intelligent and informed purchasing client. This paper seeks to understand how barriers related to processes, competencies, procedures and relationships in public procurement affect the ability of suppliers to innovate and benefit from innovation. To find the answers, we conducted a dedicated survey of UK public sector suppliers using the probit model to examine the impact of structural, market and innovation determinants on supplier perceptions of these barriers. The main obstacles reported by suppliers relate to the lack of interaction with procuring entities, the use of overspecified tenders, low procurement competence and poor risk management in the procurement process. Such obstacles are most strongly perceived by R&D intensive organizations. Our results also show that certain organizations, especially small firms and non-profit organizations, face greater challenges in implementing innovations arising from the procurement process, such as contract size, lack of helpful feedback, and communication of opportunities.
Kydykov Azizbek A., Myrzalieva Madina A.
819 | 0
The use of ecological transport as a way to promote green logistics in Kyrgyzstan
Keywords: logistics, green economy, environmental requirements, electric transport, electric vehicle, environment, air emissions, transport infrastructure. Abstract The proposed study analyzes the relevance and problems of environmental pollution in the Kyrgyz Republic. The air quality in the Chui Valley and especially in the capital, Bishkek, has significantly deteriorated, which negatively affects the health of residents. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The use of green logistics approaches made it possible to identify the main source of pollution. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. A set of measures to reduce emissions into the atmosphere is proposed, including changing people's consciousness and responsibility to reduce emissions, promoting electric transport. Urban passenger transport is of great socio-economic importance. That is how it can greatly influence the mindset of the population and the promotion of electric transport, since passengers use transport daily and all its improvements immediately become the subject of evaluation. An assessment of the minimum costs for the implementation of the proposed measures was carried out. A plan for the development of electric transport and transport infrastructure is proposed, including the stage of a pilot project and technical tests, as well as economic assessments and proposals. Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify approaches and methods of green logistics for the study of environmental problems of Bishkek and the Kyrgyz Republic in general and to propose measures to improve air quality, in particular the use of electric transport and urban electric passenger transport in particular. Studies have shown that the sustainable development of communities and the urban environment requires the use of green technologies and the desire to create a low-carbon society [1]: To achieve the goal, the united efforts of the government, the private sector and research intuition are of paramount importance for transforming scientific results into the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Special Volume (SV) accepts and reviews a wide range of green initiatives aimed at achieving the SDGs. This PROJECT includes fundamental research on alternative fuels, smart and environmentally friendly materials to reduce waste and environmental impact; technology system design tools to develop sustainable consumption and production for communities; a sustainable waste management system; a circular economy and incentive strategies, for example, through public policy and smart partnerships. In [2], the use of the principles of green logistics for clean air is investigated: The dynamic development of cities requires the effective solution of environmental problems that often arise as a result of the implementation of logistics processes of supply, production and distribution. Currently, the main goal of activities carried out with the help of logistics is to minimize the negative consequences of people's economic and residential activities, including external effects (for example, congestion, environmental pollution), while increasing logistical benefits, such as reducing costs and improving customer service (Ambrosino and Siomachen, 2014). Pure logistics process-this becomes the main element of logistics activity (Kadlubek, 2015). A systematic approach in logistics allows you to organize such activities that exclude the collision of environmental and economic goals. Green logistics emphasizes air protection. Relevant research and "green" supply chains are mainly aimed at achieving economic, environmental and social results (Subramanian and Gunasekaran, 2015). Thus, the concept of green logistics favors solutions leading to the implementation of all sustainable development goals, not just environmental ones. Green logistics covers activities focused on: environmental logistics management, low-carbon warehousing and packaging, low-carbon transportation, fleet management, alternative energy and logistics innovation (Zhang, Thompson, Bao and Jiang, 2014). Other goals of green logistics relate to reducing external costs due to climate change, air pollution, noise, vibration and accidents (Jedliński, 2014). Transport is one of the main sources of air pollution in the city. Therefore, green logistics should be supported by the urban logistics strategy " effective management of urban cargo transportation and other traffic flows, in order to achieve an optimal compromise between ensuring optimal logistics networks performance, reliable customer service and reducing environmental impacts, air pollutants, energy consumption and traffic congestion” (Amaral and Aghezzaf, 2015). The increase in the urban population and economic development lead to more air pollution in cities, which means a danger to health and a deterioration in the quality of life. For this reason, the city authorities should adjust the city's economic, residential and transport processes in such a way as to prevent air pollution. This approach is consistent with the concept of green logistics, which is aimed at reducing emissions, reducing waste and low energy consumption. In this paper, transport and especially freight transport is recognized as the main polluter. The problems of sustainable development and the use of green technologies are considered in the study [3]: A special volume (SV) accepts and considers a wide range of green initiatives aimed at achieving the goals of sustainable development. This PROJECT includes fundamental research on alternative fuels, smart and environmentally friendly materials to reduce waste and environmental impact; tools for designing technological systems to develop sustainable consumption and production for communities; a system for sustainable waste management; circular economy and stimulating strategies, for example, through public policy and reasonable partnership. Thus, an integrated approach is needed for the intended environmental goals. Ways to reduce the carbon emissions of passenger transport: the impact on the climate budget of India are investigated in [4]: an assessment of transport emissions with electric vehicles, electric networks (EG) and T&D losses was carried out. It is concluded that electric vehicles are unsuitable without increasing the efficiency of EG and T&D losses. Eleven different scenarios with estimated uncertainties for passenger traffic in the Mumbai metropolitan regions are formulated. The study also shows that the introduction of electric vehicles into the city without simultaneously improving EG will lead to an increase in net CO2 emissions. However, this work does not consider other emissions other than CO 2. The next study devoted to the problems of the impact of transport on the urban environment is [5]: the opening and gradual expansion of the regional express railway (RER) in the period from 1970 to 2000 in the Paris metropolitan region. The causal influence of urban railway transport on the location of firms, employment and population growth is considered. Thus, the relationship between transport, residential and business infrastructure is obvious. The study [6] is devoted to the same problem, in which a strong negative relationship between emissions and land use rules was found. By limiting new developments, the cleanest areas of the country seem to be pushing new developments to places with higher emissions. Cities usually have significantly less emissions than suburbs, and the gap between the city and the suburbs is especially large in older areas such as New York. Here, emissions from driving, public transport, heating homes and using electricity at home are considered. The experience of China [7] on the introduction of restrictions on driving transport in Beijing on individual behavior during trips is interesting. The restrictions prohibit drivers from using their cars one weekday a week on the basis of a license plate. This experience of organizational measures also contributes to reducing the number of cars in operation, which means it can reduce the amount of emissions into the atmosphere. Assessment of the impact of air pollution from transport in urban areas - an overview of the actual data was performed in [8]: a comprehensive review of studies on measurements of concentrations of pollutants in the microenvironment of urban transport, published in the period from January 2016 to July 2020 in the Medline, Scopus and Embase databases, was conducted. The average values and ranges of impacts for each mode of transport were calculated, as well as the impact ratios between modes of transport and factors within the same study. The results obtained indicate that higher concentrations of air pollutants are often observed in road transport compared to cycling and walking. Therefore, taking into account the broader and long-term benefits for public health and the environment, it is concluded that every effort should be made to prioritize active travel and public transport and allow more people to use these modes of transport. This confirms the role of public transport in the implementation of tasks to reduce emissions. The problems of air pollution and the concerns caused by it among urban residents are studied in [9]: residents begin to adapt their behavior when traveling and take into account the quality of local air when choosing a house. A spatial and integrated model of choosing the location of residential buildings and transport for a city with air pollution due to traffic is proposed. Intra-urban spatial models of population density, choice of mode of transport and the resulting impact on the population are analyzed for urban conditions with different levels of health hazards and information about air pollution available to residents. This work highlights the need to link information about people's problems related to air pollution and integrated land use and transport measures. In this context, the health benefits are the result of a decrease in population density near urban centers. Thus, many studies have been devoted to the problems of air pollution and decarbonization. Various approaches to reducing the level of pollution are proposed, one of which is the use of electric transport, both public passenger and personal. In the Kyrgyz Republic, in order to stimulate the use of next-generation transport-electric vehicles by citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic has developed an Action Plan to stimulate the use of wheeled vehicles with electric motors and the creation of charging infrastructure [10]: Within the framework of the EAEU, it was decided to reset the rates of import customs duties of the Unified Customs Tariff of the EAEU until 31.12.2021. A proposal has been made to the EAEU to extend until 2025 the deadline for resolving the issue of applying a reduced unified rate of customs duties and taxes in respect of electric vehicles imported by individuals for personal use, since after the expiration of this decision, the rates of import customs duties will be paid according to the Unified Customs Tariff of the EAEU in the amount of 15% of the customs value. The Center for Standardization and Metrology under the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic is working on the standardization of electric charging devices and the introduction of international standards IEC 61851 and IEC 62196 into the national system of standards, and is also working on the classification of electric charging stations by type. Together with the Bishkek City Administration, the issue of the proposed location of the electric charging infrastructure within the city of Bishkek is being considered. The analysis of the current state of urban passenger transport was carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 2013 [11]: it was concluded that a competent policy for the development of the city and the development of public transport is currently being carried out. "Public Transport Development Plan". In such conditions, public transport should play a key role in servicing the movements of citizens. Today, 70% of all public transport operations are carried out by private carriers on minibuses. Municipal transport is uncompetitive due to a less developed route network, high traffic intervals, outdated infrastructure and poor quality of rolling stock operation. The disadvantage is also the lack of a legal framework for the management of the transport complex, which is why management processes are carried out manually, and any planning is impossible. At the moment, private carriers, which carry out 70% of transportation, are actually ignored by the public authorities. Therefore, to normalize the work of public transport and improve the quality of its services, first of all, a reform of the management system is required with the establishment of fair relations with private carriers, and not the development of infrastructure or attempts to oust private carriers from the market through the development of municipal transport. It is important to note that in a city like Bishkek, the construction of expensive rail transport is not required: a tram, a high-speed tram or a metro. According to the experience of Russian cities with a similar population (Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod), it can be assumed that the construction of even one metro line can take 20-30 years and will require huge investments in infrastructure, and as a result will not improve the conditions of movement. According to our estimate, one north–south metro line in Bishkek will be able to serve only 6-8% of all movements. As world experience shows, the lack of rail infrastructure can be a competitive advantage, since it simplifies the development of bus systems. In the draft concept for the development of Bishkek [12]: it is proposed to redirect the vector of the city's development from the horizontal (expansion of administrative borders, integrated development of undeveloped territories) to the vertical (intensification of the use of already built-up territory and stimulating the development of the city within the existing administrative borders). The parameters of land use in our project are linked to the development of public transport, which allows us to plan and optimize the load on the transport infrastructure. As you move away from the city center and the main lines of passenger transport, the density and number of floors of the building decreases (Fig. 1). The second section of this study is devoted to the problems of transport: the Bishkek street and road network has insufficient density, which is why the type of urban mobility based on the predominant use of personal vehicles cannot be stable and comfortable. In cities with similar parameters of the road network, international practice recommends imposing serious restrictions on the ownership and use of motor vehicles in order to shift the transport demand to other types of transport (Fig.2). In such conditions, public transport should play a key role in servicing the movements of citizens. Today, 70% of all public transport operations are carried out by private carriers on minibuses. Fig. 1 Conceptual scheme of the city development/ source: research of the author's team Fig. 2. The existing street and road network of Bishkek / Source: Research of the author's team At the same time, the existing route networks of municipal public transport - bus and trolleybus lines are proposed in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 Operating route networks of municipal transport in Bishkek According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the development of the route network and transport infrastructure as a whole is lagging behind the pace of development of the city. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is making efforts to improve the situation in the field of passenger transport in Bishkek, including reducing harmful emissions. In August 2020, a memorandum of understanding was signed between the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic on the urban transport electrification project [13]. The use of electric buses in Kyrgyzstan is a new and unfamiliar business. The paper [14] presents the result of the analysis of the efficiency and applicability of various options of electric passenger transport in the city. Technologies of electric buses-electric buses: electric buses with power in motion (In-Motion-Feeding), electric buses with charging in motion (In-Motion-Charging), electric buses with charging on the route (Opportunity Charging), electric buses with charging at the depot/station (Overnight Charging). "Disadvantages" of trolleybuses-IMF electric buses: 1. Power supply system: traction substations, feeding feeders, contact network-costs 2. Visual pollution (?)- aesthetics 3. Complex intersections of the contact network-costs, aesthetics 4. Fixed route network (?) –passenger confidence 5. Low maneuverability (?) –2-3 lanes 6. Reliability of the power supply and current collection system! - prevention and improvement A comparison of different types of electric buses on the energy efficiency of transportation was made (Table 1) Passenger capacity / energy efficiency of transportation Table 1 Passenger capacity, people Energy per passenger, W*h/(pass*km) Mass of the drive, kg IMF 100 25 - IMC 95 26 312,5 OC 81 30 1250 ONC на тягу 26 96 5000 56 45 3000 From a technical point of view, all these options are very similar – a bus-type body and chassis, a traction electric motor, control devices and electric energy supply. The differences in the cost of various electric bus designs are mainly determined by the capacity, size and weight of the batteries. Which concept of an electric bus is most suitable for your city? To do this, it is proposed to take into account the specific conditions and resources of the city. A comparison of electric bus variants was made in the study [15]: Our analysis shows that a diesel bus running on conventional diesel remains the most economical technology until 2025, while the regulatory framework remains unchanged. But this contributes very little to the achievement of the central goals of the German government. "Mobility and Fuel Strategy" (MFS), for example, reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions or introducing new technologies. On the contrary, electric buses could make a significant contribution to achieving these goals. With the progress in the energy transition ("Energiewende") and the further development of the battery, the technology of electric buses will become more profitable, especially from an environmental point of view. For electric buses, IMC is considered as the most economical technology for high-capacity lines (frequent maintenance, high-capacity vehicles) or lines with high energy demand. On the other hand, it is necessary to take into account all emissions into the atmosphere: exhaust gas emissions and emissions into the upper atmosphere during the production of energy carriers. Exhaust pipe emissions of conventional buses are calculated using the "Manual Database of Emission Factors for Road Transport" (HBEFA, version 3.2). The emissions of the electric bus use phase are determined by the production of electricity. The structure of electricity production is based on the work of AG Energiebilanzen , the Bundesverband Erneuerbare Energien (German Federation of Renewable Energy Sources)and the Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Energy Systems). Future electricity mixes are based on the 2011 Leitstudio. The calculated emission factors for electricity generation include emissions from power plants and primary energy supplies. An analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from the production of buses themselves was also carried out. Greenhouse gas emissions: All alternative concepts have increased emissions at the production stage compared to the diesel bus. They are strongly influenced by the size of the batteries in the corresponding electric bus concept. But also fuel cell hybrid buses have significantly higher emissions due to the production of vehicles. The higher fuel cell emissions are mainly due to the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) used in the hydrogen tank and the platinum used in the fuel cell. More efficient production processes for the production of carbon fiber, the use of electricity with a higher proportion of renewable energy sources and a higher proportion of recycled platinum can reduce these environmental consequences in the future. Thus, IMC is considered as an integral part of the strategy of electrification of urban public transport. The choice was made in favor of the IMC strategy at the current stage of technology and technology development. The choice of IMC technology electric buses was also made for San Francisco [16]: the city is expanding its fleet of zero-emission transit buses: after purchasing 93 Xcelsior XT60 articulated electric buses, the San Francisco Municipal Transit Agency (SFMTA) placed an order for 185 New Flyer XT40 buses equipped with the In Motion Charging (IMC) system, technology from Kiepe Electric. With the In Motion Charging function, trolleybuses cover sections of the route without overhead lines in battery-powered mode, and the batteries are then charged when the vehicle is again under the overhead lines. They are designed to improve the ride of passengers and reduce the impact on the environment. These new buses will serve passengers on the most mountainous and busiest routes of the city. 2. Materials and Methods * The assumptions made and their justification * Statistical and mathematical procedures used for data analysis and generalization. The methods used should be described, as a rule, in chronological order, with the necessary accuracy and details. Standard methods should only be mentioned or can be described with reference to the literature. If the method is new, it should be described in detail. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are accounted for by cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which there are less than 100 electric cars. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are accounted for by cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which there are less than 100 electric cars. As a solution, the mayor's office sees an increase in the fleet of public municipal transport to 60%-70%, this is an additional 400-600 units. large class buses (45-60 seats), which will optimize the quality and streamline the traffic flows of the capital's streets. The city administration is taking measures to improve the environment – buses with gas engines were purchased, which reduces harmful exhaust emissions. Efforts are also being made to expand the trolleybus fleet. However, the use of electric buses is a new and unfamiliar business for them, it is necessary to conduct special research and widely promote the use of electric transport first on passenger transport, then everywhere. An assumption was made about the effectiveness of the introduction of IMC electric buses in Bishkek with the aim of expanding the transport network and reducing air pollution and promoting green logistics in the Kyrgyz Republic. The following studies were also carried out: a survey of the structure of the rolling stock of public transport, including a study of the situation with trips on various types of transport, and a rational structure was recommended; the analysis of the trolleybus network is carried out in order to cover the outskirts of the city with trolleybus communication through the use of trolleybuses with increased autonomous travel. The study used econometric methods based on open source data, as well as data from our own research, data from expert analysis and a survey of the population. 3 Results 1. In the Kyrgyz Republic, in addition to small hydroelectric power plants, 18 electric power plants with a total installed capacity of 3,678 MW are operated, including 16 hydroelectric power plants and 2 thermal power plants. The share of HPP electricity generation is 88.5% of the total production [17]. With such a structure of electricity production, emissions into the upper atmosphere during the production of energy carriers are minimal, therefore, exhaust gas emissions from cars are the main air pollutant and the object of the impact of green logistics. 2. To select the recommended type of passenger electric transport, a classification of technical variants with averaged characteristics is compiled in Table 2. Classification of types of electric transport Table 2 Trolleybus (with minimal autonomous running)\ Electric bus with power in motion Electric bus with charging in motion (trolleybus with increased autonomous travel) Electric bus with charging at stops Electric bus with charging at the depot Name of the technology IMF (In-Motion-Feeding) IMC (In-Motion charging) OC (Opportunity charging) ONC (Overnight charging) Energy storage method - Charging when driving on a section equipped with a contact network Ultra-fast charging on the route during part of the stops Night slow charging Autonomous power reserve before 2 км 5 — 70 км 20 — 70 км more 150 км Easy to charge Absent Absent 5-25 minutes (at the bus stop) 4-10 hours (at the depot) The known disadvantages of the trolleybus are the binding to the contact network and the cost of the network itself. The contact network, together with cable lines and traction substations, is an expensive infrastructure object that requires significant investments in construction and maintenance. The construction of contact networks is quite high. Therefore, it is proposed to use the IMC option for Bishkek. In countries where the lines of the classic trolleybus have been preserved, the option of a "partial" trolleybus is justified, i.e. trolleybuses with autonomous running from batteries are a very profitable solution. 3. For Bishkek, on the basis of the city development scheme (Fig.1), the route network of municipal transport of the trolleybus carrier (Fig. 3b), the study of mobility and population of peripheral zones, the possibilities of extending trolleybus routes from final stops to residential areas using IMC were calculated (Table 3). The possibility of extending existing routes Table 3 # Name of the destination Route numbers Residential areas that fall within the area of additional coverage Lengthening of the route, km 1 Microdistrict "Jal" 5,14,1 Archa-Beshik, Chon-Aryk 5-6 2 Residential area "Ak-Orgo" 7,8,9,16 Selection, Ak-Ordo 6-7 3 Microdistrict "Asanbay" 10,11,17,13,15 Kok-Zhar, Beshkungey village 5-6 4 Residential district "Alamedin-1" 9,15,2 Novopokrovka village 8 5 Dordoy Market (Leather Factory) 4,17 Kelechek, Dordoi 5 The lengthening of routes is insignificant and is easily overcome by trolleybuses on autonomous travel, which pull over part of the passenger traffic in residential areas. Thanks to the introduction of the new product, trolleybus routes can be extended by 30-40 km, and the trolleybus route network can be expanded due to the possibility of movement from one trolleybus line to another. Buses, the route route of which partially coincides with the trolleybus, it will be advisable to replace them with trolleybuses. This improves the quality of passenger service and the role of public passenger electric transport. As can be seen from the table, the lengthening of routes can be 5-7 km, up to a maximum of 10 km from the existing final stop. The cost of building 1 km of a standard trolleybus network can reach 400 thousand US dollars, so the use of trolleybuses with a large autonomous course is a good alternative to the construction of new contact networks. Since the average cost of a trolleybus with an increased autonomous course for the CIS market is $ 182500 and is quite significant for Kyrgyzstan, as an alternative, you can use the option of converting existing trolleybuses of modern design into a trolleybus with an increased autonomous course. Such experience has been accumulated in the regions of the Russian Federation. At the heart of the alteration is the installation of lithium-ion batteries, a controller and an automatic lifting device for connecting to the contacts. The cost of reworking is about 22 thousand US dollars. Rework kit: a new electronic drive and 42 lithium-ion batteries, weighing about 1000 kg. An autonomous course of 15-20 km is provided, depending on the load. The Bishkek trolleybus fleet has 37 units of the 2018 Optima Trolleybus 5275.03 (RF) and 33 trolleybuses of the VMZ-5298.01-50 Avangard brand of Belarusian production (2013) as potential objects for re-equipment. 4 Discussion It is in this section that the authors explain the meaning and significance of the results obtained. This section brings everything together, shows the importance and value of the work and, therefore, is the most innovative and difficult part of the article to write. There are significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions in Bishkek, but no active measures are being taken to solve these problems. First of all, of course, because of the lack of funding for the projects announced by the government. However, promoting the ideas of a green economy is no less important task. The efforts of both the Government and local communities and civil society are necessary. Urban passenger transport is of great socio-economic importance. It can greatly influence the mindset of the population and the promotion of electric transport, since passengers use transport daily and all its improvements immediately become the subject of evaluation and promotion. The next stage of research may be the idea of converting minibuses, which provide 70% of urban passenger traffic, into an electric car, which would also help reduce air pollution. The main obstacle is of course the cost of rework, which can reach 20-30 thousand US dollars. However, the components of the systems can be produced in Belarus and Russia, and the batteries can be purchased in China, which can reduce costs. It is possible to localize the production of individual components in Kyrgyzstan to reduce costs. Further implementation of the principles of the green economy can be the development of other types of renewable energy sources – wind energy and solar. There are potential opportunities for installing wind turbines in many places of the republic, and according to the number of sunny days per year (247), Kyrgyzstan also has great prospects for the development of solar energy. Conclusions In the Kyrgyz Republic, there is a need and there are prerequisites for the introduction of the principles of a green economy; The main driver of the ideas of ecological consciousness and decarbonization should be the project of introducing public passenger electric transport; It is necessary to develop other types of renewable energy sources in the republic. References [1] How circular economy and green technology can address Sustainable Development Goals? Edited by Jeng Shiun Lim, Yee Van Fan, Chunjie Li Last update 1 May 2021 https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/journal-of-cleaner-production/collection/10RMVSP1ZQQ?page-size=100&page=1 [2] Agata Mesjasz-Lech, Urban air pollution challenge for green logistics, 2nd International Conference "Green Cities - Green Logistics for Greener Cities", 2-3 March 2016, Szczecin, Poland, Transportation Research Procedia 16 ( 2016 ) 355 – 365 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310779353_Urban_Air_Pollution_Challenge_for_Green_Logistics [3] Jeng Shiun Lim, Yi Wan Fan , Chunji Lee How can the closed-loop economy and green technologies contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals?, Journal of Cleaner Production. May 1, 2021 https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/journal-of-cleaner-production/special-issue/10RMVSP1ZQQ [4] Deepjyoti Das, Pradip P.Kalbar, Nagendra R.Velaga Pathways to decarbonize passenger transportation: Implications to India’s climate budget, Journal of Cleaner Production Volume 295, 1 мая 2021 г. , 126321 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959652621005412 [5] Thierry Mayera, CorentinTrevien The impact of urban public transportation evidence from the Paris region, Journal of Urban Economics Volume 102, November 2017, Pages 1-21, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0094119017300608 [6] Edward L Glaeser, Matthew E.Kahn, The greenness of cities: Carbon dioxide emissions and urban development. Journal of Urban Economics Volume 67, Issue 3, May 2010, Pages 404-418 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0094119009001028 [7] Yizhen Gu, Elizabeth Deakin, Ying Long, The effects of driving restrictions on travel behavior evidence from Beijing, Journal of Urban Economics, Volume 102, November 2017, Pages 106-122 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0094119017300244 [8] Christina Mitsakou,James P.Adamson,Artemis Doutsia Huw Bruntb Sarah, J.Jonesb Alison M. Gowersa Karen S. Exleya, Assessing the exposure to air pollution during transport in urban areas – Evidence review, Journal of Transport & Health Volume 21, June 2021, 101064 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2214140521000943 [9] Mirjam Schindler, Judith Y.T. Wang, Richard D. ConnorsA, Two-stage residential location and transport mode choice model with exposure to traffic-induced air pollution, Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 93, May 2021, 103044 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0966692321000971 [10] Продвижение принципов Зеленой экономики в КР: стимулирование использования экологического транспорта на электрической тяге http://mineconom.gov.kg/ru/post/6597 [11] Исследование по совершенствованию городского пассажирского транспорта в г. Бишкек, Кыргызская Республика. Заключительный отчет. Краткий обзор. — Японское агентство международного сотрудничества (JICA). 2013 г. https://openjicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12127627_01.pdf [12] О. Таловская, А. Рыжков, Н. Хорт Бишкек: Проект — концепция модели развития до 2040 года https://urban.hse.ru/bishkek2040 [13] В Бишкеке появятся электробусы? https://kaktus.media/doc/418681_v_bishkeke_poiaviatsia_elektrobysy_podpisan_pervichnyy_dogovor_s_abr.html [14] С. Корольков, «Электробус – технические особенности вариантов исполнения». Троллейбусный комитет МСОТ. МОСГОРТРАНС (8 сентября 2017). https://docplayer.ru/57047153-Elektrobus-tehnicheskie-osobennosti-variantov-ispolneniya.html [15] Fabian Bergk Kirsten Biemann Udo Lambrecht Ralph Pütz Hubert Landinger. Potential of In-Motion Charging Buses for the Electrification of Urban Bus Lines (англ.) // Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. — 2016. http://www.scienpress.com/Upload/GEO/Vol%206_4_21.pdf [16] IMC® electric buses on trend in the USA: Kiepe Electric to supply 185 systems for San Francisco https://www.automotiveworld.com/news-releases/imc-electric-buses-trend-usa-kiepe-electric-supply-185-systems-san-francisco/ [17] Электроэнергетика Кыргызстана https://www.energycharter.org/fileadmin/DocumentsMedia/Events/20070426-Bishkek_Kyrgyzstan_Nazarov-ru.pdf
Azizbek Kydykov, Akylbek Umetaliyev
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Prospects of public electric transport development in Bishkek
Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I. Razzakov Kyrgyz Republic, 720044, Bishkek, Aitmatova ave., 66 The proposed work analyzes the logistics system of passenger transport in Bishkek. On the basis of a review of the studies carried out and the proposed options for the development of the transport and logistics system, the conclusion about the need for priority development of the existing electric transport is substantiated. The analysis of modern world experience in the development of ground electric passenger transport is carried out. For the transport system of Bishkek, the choice of the development option with the use of a trolleybus with increased autonomous running has been substantiated. Key words: logistics system, transport infrastructure, air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, autonomous running, costs. Many countries are adopting programs to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, including from road transport. Concrete plans are being adopted to reduce the number of vehicles with internal combustion engines on the road. Instead, it is planned to increase the number of electric vehicles. Bishkek with a population of about 1 million has significant air pollution problems from automobile emissions. Cars are the most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are from cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which less than 100 are electric vehicles. The system of passenger transport in the city has its own characteristics [1]. Minibuses are the dominant transport in Bishkek. The minibus network consists of 120 route lines, including about 3000 units. minibuses and is serviced by 40 private operators. The route network covers 70% of the city's territory. According to the Department of Urban Transport under the Mayor's Office of Bishkek (hereinafter UGT), 30% -40% of the total number of route lines leave the route outside the city. The quantitative indicators of the work of the bus and trolleybus carrier are inferior to minibuses in all key parameters. According to the UGT of the Mayor's Office of Bishkek, in 2018 the number of route lines of municipal enterprises was: 10 by the bus and 10 by the trolleybus, about 110 trolleybuses out of the existing 156 and 110-120 buses go on the line every day. As a solution, UGT sees an increase in the park of public municipal transport up to 60% -70%, this is an additional 400-600 units. large class buses (100 passenger seats), which will optimize the quality and streamline traffic flows in the capital's streets. The city administration is taking measures to improve the environment - buses with gas engines have been purchased, which reduces harmful emissions. Efforts are also being made to expand the trolleybus fleet. However, for the correct organization of the logistics system of passenger transport, the structure of the rolling stock must correspond to the size of the urban population [2]. Bishkek belongs to the 2nd group of cities (table 1) and therefore, with the recommended average capacity (90-100 passengers - seats), it should have a rational structure of the passenger fleet. It is recommended that in the cities of the 1st-4th population groups, the bulk of traffic is carried out by rolling stock with an average capacity of 65-90 passengers. places. At the same time, the proportion of low-capacity rolling stock should not exceed 20% and decrease with the growth of the city's population. At the same time, it is necessary to increase the share of large-capacity rolling stock. Table 1 Recommended average passenger transport capacity depending on the population of cities City group Population, thousand people Average capacity of a unit of rolling stock, pas. - places 1 Over 1000 120—130 2 from 500 to 1000 90—100 3 from 250 to 500 75—80 4 from 100 to 250 65—70 5 from 50 to 100 45—50 The developed concept for the development of public transport [3] also recommends the need to achieve the desired ratios of transport shares: 70% of passenger traffic should be served by large-capacity rolling stock. While now - 70% of all public transport is carried out by private carriers in minibuses. All this is aimed at ensuring the convenience and comfort of the public transport system and reducing traffic. In addition, the introduction of low-emission transport is recommended. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is also taking measures to improve the situation in the field of passenger transport in Bishkek, including reducing harmful emissions. In August 2020, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic on the project for the electrification of urban transport [4]. This project provides for the purchase of modern energy efficient battery electric buses, charging infrastructure (substations, electrical installation and construction works), equipment for bus service. In addition, it is planned to modernize the infrastructure of bus depots, build all-weather parking spaces for new electronic buses. The project also includes the creation of a pilot "green" traffic corridor for electric buses. However, the use of electric buses in Kyrgyzstan is new and unfamiliar. Therefore, the result of the analysis of the efficiency and applicability of various options for electric transport in Bishkek is proposed. The classification of modern electric transport options is shown in Table 2 [5]. The disadvantages of the trolleybus are the connection to the overhead network and the cost of the network itself. The overhead network, together with cable lines and traction substations, is an expensive infrastructure facility that requires significant investments in construction and maintenance. There is also an intermediate solution. In countries where the lines of the classic trolleybus have been preserved, the option of a "partial" trolleybus is being considered, i.e. trolleybuses with autonomous running from accumulators. Table 2 Classification of types of electric transport # Trolleybus (with minimum autonomous running) \ Electric bus with power in motion Electric bus with recharging in motion (trolleybus with increased autonomous running) Electric bus with charging at stops Electric bus with charging at the depot Technology name IMF (In-Motion-Feeding) IMC (In-Motion charging) OC (Opportunity charging) ONC (Overnight charging) Energy storage method No Charging when driving on an area equipped with a contact network Ultra-fast charging on the route during some of the stops Nightly slow charging Autonomous power reserve to 2 km 5 — 70 km 20 — 70 km to 150 km Easy to charge Absent Absent 5 — 25 minutes (on the bus stop) 4 — 10 часов (on the parking) The most interesting of them: 1. Classic electric bus - ONC. With static charging at night in the depot, it combines all the advantages of a bus and a trolleybus. In addition, electricity is generally cheaper at night than during the day, which is also an advantage. However, its big drawback is the weight and price of the batteries. Therefore, the mileage of classic electric buses is limited - for most modern models it does not exceed 200 kilometers, which is not enough to work on routes throughout the day. This problem can be solved by electric buses with ultra-fast charging on the route during part of stops (OC), or with dynamic charging of batteries in motion. Dynamic charging takes significantly less time, although it requires a dedicated charging infrastructure. IN The existing contact network of a classic trolleybus or even a tram can serve as such an infrastructure in cities. 2. A trolleybus with significant autonomous running - IMC. It is an economically and environmentally viable option for cities with existing trolleybus infrastructure. For electric buses, IMC is considered the most economical technology for high-capacity lines (frequent maintenance, high-capacity vehicles) or lines with high energy demand. An analysis of passenger capacity and energy efficiency of transportation by various modes of transport is shown in Table 3. Table 3 Passenger capacity / energy efficiency of transportation Passenger capacity, people Energy per passenger W * h / (pass * km) Drive weight, kg IMF 100 25 - IMC 95 26 312,5 OC 81 30 1250 ONC to pull 26 96 5000 56 45 3000 The cost structure of individual electric bus systems is shown on picture 1. Pic. 1. Rolling stock cost structure From a technical point of view, all these options are very similar - the body and chassis of the bus type, the traction motor, the control devices and the supply of electrical energy. Differences in the cost of various designs of electric buses are determined mainly by the capacity, size and weight of batteries. On average, a lithium-ion battery with a mass of about 1000 kg provides an autonomous mileage of up to 25 km. This represents about 5% of the total mass of the IMC electric bus. Measures for the development of electric transport in Bishkek. The construction of contact networks is quite high (the cost of 1 km of the line is more than 400 thousand dollars), and the purchase of autonomous trolleybuses is a very profitable solution. For the city of Bishkek, a project is proposed (Table 4) for lengthening trolleybus routes from the terminal stops to the veins of the massifs using the IMC. Table 4 Extension of existing routes # Destination name Route numbers Residential areas falling into the additional coverage area Length of route, km 1 "Djal" district 5,14,1 Archa-Beshik, Chon-Aryk 5-6 2 "Ak-Keme" residensy 7,8,9,16 Selection, Ak-Ordo 6-7 3 "Asanbay" district 10,11,17,13,15 Kok-Jar, Beshkungei 5-6 4 "Alamedin-1" district 9,15,2 Nonopokrovka, 8 5 "Dordoi" market (Leather factory) 4,17 Kelechek, Dordoi 5 The lengthening of routes is insignificant and is easily overcome by autonomous trolleybuses, which pull part of the passenger traffic in the residential areas onto themselves. This improves the quality of passenger service and the role of public electric passenger transport. Bibliographic references 1. https://soros.kg/srs/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/A4.pdf 2. Passenger road transport Textbook for universities. Ed. V.A. Gudkova \ Gudkov V.A., Mirotin L.B., Velmozhin A.V., Shiryaev S.A., 2006 448 pp. 3. http://meria.kg/index.php?lang=kg 4. https://kaktus.media/doc/418681_v_bishkeke_poiaviatsia_elektrobysy_podpisan_pervichnyy_dogovor_s_abr.html 5. S. Korolkov, "Electric bus - technical features of design options." UITP trolleybus committee. MOSGORTRANS (September 8, 2017). © A.A. Kydykov, A.S. Umetaliyev, 2021
Research
Bolotbekova Aimira
Research
321 | 0
Features of the work of the Official Public Procurement Portal Of the Kyrgyz Republic
4th grade master - student, Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I. Razzakov, Department of Logistics, Annotation. The article discusses the features and recommendations for improving the operation of the electronic public procurement portal of the Kyrgyz Republic. Keywords: public procurement, electronic public procurement portal, suppliers, purchasing organization. Public procurement is the acquisition by the purchasing organization of goods, works, services and consulting services by methods established by the Law on Public Procurement, financed in whole or in part at the expense of public funds. [1] The official public procurement portal of the Kyrgyz Republic dates back to 2011, when all public procurement began to be transferred to a single e-procurement portal. And since 2015, the publication of all public procurement procedures conducted by procurement organizations, from the publication of the announcement to the publication of the results of the tender, including pre-trial appeal procedures, has become mandatory. This helped to make public procurement more transparent, although the system had a number of drawbacks.. [2] Advantages of working with the Official Public Procurement Portal: • Equal and fair conditions and the development of competition is one of the most important aspects of the development process. the main objectives and principles, as well as the rules imposed in the framework of the public procurement system. The EGZ web portal allows registered suppliers located both in Bishkek and in the regions of the Kyrgyz Republic to see and participate. Worth noting. That foreign organizations can also participate in the competitions. One of the measures for the development of competition is the existence of special provisions according to which the use of restrictive and competition-reducing technical specifications and criteria is prohibited. • Transparency and openness - Information about tenders and concluded contracts is publicly available for both registered and guest users. The following information is available to guest users on the electronic public procurement website: 1) Public procurement plans - Budgetary institutions - Extra-budgetary institutions 2) Ads - Total Ads - Canceled Ads 3) Contracts - All contracts - Central Procurement contracts- Contracts based onDirect conclusion agreements that do not require the publication of an ad 4) Auctions 5) Purchase reports 6) Analytical data • The possibility of implementing the entire cycle of procedures for both the purchasing organization and suppliers (contractors). • The appeal mechanism – in the event of disputes between the parties to the public procurement procedures, as well as if there are grounds for violation of the law, the participants have the right to submit a complaint through the web-portal of public procurement in the Independent interagency Committee for the review of complaints (the protests) and inclusion in the Database unreliable (bad faith) and suppliers (contractors) at any stage of the procurement proceedings. • Efficiency - The electronic public procurement system improves эффективность procurement efficiency for both parties: both for bidders and purchasing organizations. • The use of the two-package method - is a subspecies of the one-stage method of conducting a tender, when at the first stage, compliance with the qualifications and technical requirements of the purchasing organization is evaluated, and at the second stage, the cost estimate, which should be the lowest. Disadvantages of workingы with the Official Public Procurement Portal: • Incompleteinformation about suppliersregistered as individual entrepreneurs is incomplete in the register of the Ministry of Justice of the Kyrgyz Republic. • Lack of post-tender verification: in the legislation If there is no provision for post-tender verification, therefore the Contract between the supplier and the purchasing organization is not published on the Official Public Procurement Portal, respectively, there is no information on payments and on the performance of the contract. • Incomplete database of unreliable suppliers - owners and management of organizations that are on the list of unreliable suppliers can re-registera new organization with the information of the previous organization for further participation in public procurement. In other words, such participants are actually not completely excluded from the system, which reduces the significance of this database. • The site is not fully developed (writing, slow loading of necessary data). • It takes a lot of time to fill out a tender application , especially for such tenders, in which the purchasing organization announces a tender for the purchase of food, or services for performing a large amount of work, etc., divides goods or services into separate lots • Documents of state significance and special state forms: When conducting a tender for the purchase of documents of state significance and special state forms in accordance with the Government DecreeР No. 162 of April 15, 2019, the purchasing organization selects only among the public joint-stock companies "Uchkun", «Goznak» LLC, a state enterprise "Printing House" under the Administration of the President and Government of the Kyrgyz Republic in accordance with the approved procedure. Recommendations for improving the work Official Public Procurement Portal: • The ability to view the performance of the agreement, which accordingly requires the publication of the full text of the agreement and further actions under the agreement.( certificates of acceptance and transfer of work/services, information about payments and so onto alee.) • Improvement of the legislative and regulatory framework in the field of public procurement, raising public awareness and improving the quality of public services. Thanks to the publicity, openness and legality of public procurement. • Professional development of employees of procurement organizations in the field of public procurement and raising awareness of suppliers (contractors). • It is necessary to provide for supplier organizations (contractors) to apply for exclusion from the Database of unreliable suppliers, if they have evidence that they have taken all possible measures to solvethe problems that led to the ban on participation in tenders. [3] Despite the existence and improvement of laws, as well as the adoption of necessary measures in the field of public procurement, it is still necessary to develop some provisions to support the developing system of public procurement, as well as to improve the effectiveness of procurement procedures. At the same time, it is also necessary to maintain and improve the web portal of electronic public procurement. List of used literature: http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/111125 https://kloop.kg/blog/2021/09/28/konfidentsialnost-i-tendery-na-chastnyh-torgovyh-ploshhadkah-kak-goszakupki-kyrgyzstana-uhodyat-v-ten/ https://www.transparency.kg/files/pdf/Public%20Procurement%20Report%20-%20TI%20Kyrgyzstan.pdf
Mamatisaev Arsen
Essay
302 | 0
Why did I choose the profession of logistics?
Why did I choose this profession? Because logistics is a very interesting science. I would like to note that it is science that deals with the organization of joint work of several managers of different departments of one or several companies. Logistics is a big business. It involves many thousands of companies of absolutely different profiles – both transportation, and information, and many others. The basic principle of logistics is a systematic approach, this is how it is possible to establish a stable and clear functioning of any divisions of the company, as well as to fulfill all customer requirements. The term "Logistics" appeared originally in the quartermaster service of the armed forces. In the Byzantine Empire, there were "logisticians" at the court of the emperor, whose duties included the distribution of food. Now you understand the importance of this profession. That's what inspired me to connect my future with logistics.
Karymshakov Bekzhan
Essay
317 | 0
Why did I choose Logistics?
As a child, I wanted to become a businessman like a parent. And I think that many wanted to follow in the footsteps of their parents. After all, for whom else if not for the parents. But having matured, you have your own desires, dreams, you want to learn something new. Roughly speaking, a dream job. And I can confidently say that I have found a dream job for myself, and this is logistics. Of course it's no secret that, first of all, logistics attracted me with a large income. It is also a very promising job that is gaining popularity in our country. Now many people order clothes, gadgets, and various things from different countries. It is easier for someone to order something for themselves than to go somewhere to the bazaar or shopping center. And this work also requires discipline and responsibility, as well as being attentive to every little detail so that the cargo arrives at the exact address. To many, this work may seem difficult or dangerous, but as for me, there are difficulties and risks everywhere, so everyone chooses for himself where it will be more pleasant for him to work. The work is interesting, you get to know many people and draw up various contracts with different companies, both private and public, in order to do the job efficiently and quickly. Perhaps you will be able to see other countries for work. Unfortunately, so far I cannot boast of the fact that at least I work in this area, not to mention the position. But everything is ahead, I am young and ambitious, I hope in the near future I can confidently say that I have my own logistics company. It requires no small effort, but I think I can handle it. In my opinion, logistics is the area where I can open up and learn a lot of new things. And that's why for me this is a dream job, that's why I chose logistics.
Sultanova Sezim
Essay
236 | 0
How did I choose the profession of a logistics?
My future profession is a logistician. Why did I choose this profession? I believe that this profession is primarily in demand and very interesting. In my opinion, this profession is becoming one of the professions of the century and is in great demand. The very word "logistics" means "calculation". The logistician must control all processes such as: purchase, delivery, transportation, packaging and sales. Logistician should have such qualities as purposefulness, organization. But I think that first of all a logistician should be an excellent negotiator and possess such quality as: sociability. I have been trying for a very long time to find exactly my field of activity.After all, this is the most important decision in the life of each of us. You need to choose a profession very carefully and thoughtfully. After all, then you have to work all your life exactly in the profession that you have chosen. I think that you need to choose a profession that you will love in the future, and on which you can then earn a living. Isn't it? Yes, I have been thinking for a very long time, looking for exactly "something of mine". I went through all the professions, but when I got deeper, got acquainted with the logistics profession, I realized that I was very interested in this activity and that I wanted and would move on from this profession. Having studied what responsibilities are included in this profession, which I described at the beginning of my essay, I am one hundred percent sure that I want to learn, study and work in this field further
Ruslanova Azima
Essay
240 | 0
Why did I chose the profession of a logistician?
Hello! My name is Azima, I am 17 years old, I am a student of the Kyrgyz-German Technical Faculty. Like many guys, for a very long time I couldn't decide on the choice of my future craft. A lot of things were interesting, I wanted to try everything. Being a graduate of the 11th grade, I decided to think seriously about my profession. Nowadays it’s very easy to develop yourself in the field that interests you, but not every activity can ensure your future life. And it’s very important to find a job that will not only appeal to you, but also bring you a stable income. This step should be approached with special responsibility. It turns out that I have never heard of the existence of such an area as "Logistics". My mother told me about it, and told me how this activity is very much in demand in the labor market at the moment. Having studied the details of this specialty, I discovered many attractive moments for myself. Exactly: Work consists of negotiations, that is, in communicating with people. It's interesting to work with different people, different contingent. Good and stable earnings. Does not harm the state of health. Logisticians are needed in all companies, which mean that it will be possible to find a job abroad. In the future, being already a specialist, I believe that I will be able to contribute to the development of this broad industry.
Baimatova Shakhnoza
Essay
253 | 0
Why did I choose the profession of a logistician?
Hello! My name is Baimatova Shakhnoza and I am 17 years old. At the moment, I am a 1st year student of Razakov KSTU with a degree in Logistics. And you may have a question: «Why?». Starting from the 8th grade, in my head I went through a bunch of options for the future profession. And who I just did not want to be, I wanted to try myself in completely different areas, ranging from medicine to directing.By the 11th grade, I could not decide and my choice was still rushing away from a variety of professions, in a variety of directions. The time was approaching the middle of the year, closer and closer to the Rebublican Testing. And then, I discovered a new direction: ''Logistics' My dad suggested it to me, and it was a whole new word for me. Initially, I had not heard of such a profession, and I thought: «Logistics? Does this have anything to do with logic?» But when my dad explained to me the essence and importance of logistics, I was very interested in it. When entering this specialty, it was required to pass a subject exam in mathematics. Which really stopped me a little bit, because we're not on very «good terms» with the tech sciences. But, I began to prepare diligently and went to additional courses. And here is the moment of truth. I passed the subject mathematics, which accurately determined my future profession. The choice of profession should be approached very carefully, because your life will depend on what choice you make. After studying all aspects of this profession, I thought: «Is this not my destiny?». To date, logistics is a very popular profession and very highly paid. On the shoulders of the logistician falls the implementation of the task: to transport from point A to point B, while with minimal costs, both financial and time.Key words of this profession: planning, efficiency, direction, organization, cooperation. Work in this profession requires from a person: good analytical skills, the ability to solve many problems without difficulty, leadership qualities. Having fully studied this profession, and all the qualities that it requires. I realized that she was perfect for me, and this is really something that I want to connect my life with. I am sure that I made the right choice in favor of this profession and I am sure that you will also find your purpose and achieve incredible heights in your profession
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