Publications
Shadrina Elena V., Romodina Irina V.
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Sustainable public procurement: international experience
Abstract Sustainable public procurement (SPP) is a process of purchasing goods, services, works and utilities for public needs in a way that ensures benefits not only to the orga- nization, but also to society and the economy, whilst minimizes damage to the environ- ment. SPP can be part of the overall mechanism of sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how SPP can contribute to sustainable development, what is the legal framework for it, what factors promote and inhibit SPP, how SPP can be im- plemented in practice. By analyzing regulatory legal acts, the international SPP experi- ence, a large body of international academic research and reports of international organi- zations involved in the promotion of SPP, we advance two key features that make public procurement an effective mechanism of sustainable development: (1) the scale of public procurement and (2) the power and authority of procurement bodies. We distinguish between several different schemes of legal support of SPP. The main drivers of SPP are leadership, clarity of strategies and plans that articulate SPP goals, the legislative support of the SPP process, and the information support of procurement specialists. Our review of international experience in SPP is expected to contribute to a more vigorous imple- mentation of SPP by procurement authorities. Keywords: public procurement; sustainable development; sustainable public pro- curement. Citation: Shadrina, E.V. & Romodina, I.V. (2017). Gosudarstvennye zakupki dlya ustoychivogo razvitiya: Mezhdunarodnyi opyt [Sustainable Public Procurement: Inter- national Experience]. Public Administration Issues, no 1, pp. 149–172 (in Russian). Shadrina Elena V. PhD in Economics, Associate professor at the Management Department, Lead Research Associate, Centre for Public Private Interaction, HSE. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics. 38 Studencheskaya Str., Perm 614070, Russian Federation. E-mail: evshadrina@hse.ru Romodina Irina V. Junior Research Associate at the Centre for Public Private Interaction, HSE. Address: National Research University Higher School of Economics. 38 Studencheskaya Str., Perm 614070, Russian Federation. E-mail: iromodina@hse.ru
Elvira Uyarra, Jacob Edlera, Javier Garcia-Estevez, Luca Georgiua, Gillian Yow
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Barriers to Innovation Through Public Procurement: A Supplier's Perspective.
We would like to acquaint you with an interesting article by the authors of which are Elvira Uyarra, Jacob Edlera, Javier Garcia-Estevez, Luca Georgiua, Gillian Yow. The authors represent Manchester Institute for Innovative Research, Manchester Business School, University of Manchester and United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Colombia. The article identifies factors in public procurement that affect the ability of suppliers to innovate. - The most important are tender specifications, skills, user-supplier interaction and risk management. - There are differences in the perception of obstacles between R&D and non-R&D participants. - Small firms and non-profit organizations are particularly disadvantaged in terms of procurement. Abstract article: Public procurement is increasingly seen as having an important factor in stimulating innovation. Despite this, numerous obstacles prevent the public sector from acting as an intelligent and informed purchasing client. This paper seeks to understand how barriers related to processes, competencies, procedures and relationships in public procurement affect the ability of suppliers to innovate and benefit from innovation. To find the answers, we conducted a dedicated survey of UK public sector suppliers using the probit model to examine the impact of structural, market and innovation determinants on supplier perceptions of these barriers. The main obstacles reported by suppliers relate to the lack of interaction with procuring entities, the use of overspecified tenders, low procurement competence and poor risk management in the procurement process. Such obstacles are most strongly perceived by R&D intensive organizations. Our results also show that certain organizations, especially small firms and non-profit organizations, face greater challenges in implementing innovations arising from the procurement process, such as contract size, lack of helpful feedback, and communication of opportunities.
Kydykov Azizbek A., Myrzalieva Madina A.
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The use of ecological transport as a way to promote green logistics in Kyrgyzstan
Keywords: logistics, green economy, environmental requirements, electric transport, electric vehicle, environment, air emissions, transport infrastructure. Abstract The proposed study analyzes the relevance and problems of environmental pollution in the Kyrgyz Republic. The air quality in the Chui Valley and especially in the capital, Bishkek, has significantly deteriorated, which negatively affects the health of residents. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The use of green logistics approaches made it possible to identify the main source of pollution. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. A set of measures to reduce emissions into the atmosphere is proposed, including changing people's consciousness and responsibility to reduce emissions, promoting electric transport. Urban passenger transport is of great socio-economic importance. That is how it can greatly influence the mindset of the population and the promotion of electric transport, since passengers use transport daily and all its improvements immediately become the subject of evaluation. An assessment of the minimum costs for the implementation of the proposed measures was carried out. A plan for the development of electric transport and transport infrastructure is proposed, including the stage of a pilot project and technical tests, as well as economic assessments and proposals. Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify approaches and methods of green logistics for the study of environmental problems of Bishkek and the Kyrgyz Republic in general and to propose measures to improve air quality, in particular the use of electric transport and urban electric passenger transport in particular. Studies have shown that the sustainable development of communities and the urban environment requires the use of green technologies and the desire to create a low-carbon society [1]: To achieve the goal, the united efforts of the government, the private sector and research intuition are of paramount importance for transforming scientific results into the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Special Volume (SV) accepts and reviews a wide range of green initiatives aimed at achieving the SDGs. This PROJECT includes fundamental research on alternative fuels, smart and environmentally friendly materials to reduce waste and environmental impact; technology system design tools to develop sustainable consumption and production for communities; a sustainable waste management system; a circular economy and incentive strategies, for example, through public policy and smart partnerships. In [2], the use of the principles of green logistics for clean air is investigated: The dynamic development of cities requires the effective solution of environmental problems that often arise as a result of the implementation of logistics processes of supply, production and distribution. Currently, the main goal of activities carried out with the help of logistics is to minimize the negative consequences of people's economic and residential activities, including external effects (for example, congestion, environmental pollution), while increasing logistical benefits, such as reducing costs and improving customer service (Ambrosino and Siomachen, 2014). Pure logistics process-this becomes the main element of logistics activity (Kadlubek, 2015). A systematic approach in logistics allows you to organize such activities that exclude the collision of environmental and economic goals. Green logistics emphasizes air protection. Relevant research and "green" supply chains are mainly aimed at achieving economic, environmental and social results (Subramanian and Gunasekaran, 2015). Thus, the concept of green logistics favors solutions leading to the implementation of all sustainable development goals, not just environmental ones. Green logistics covers activities focused on: environmental logistics management, low-carbon warehousing and packaging, low-carbon transportation, fleet management, alternative energy and logistics innovation (Zhang, Thompson, Bao and Jiang, 2014). Other goals of green logistics relate to reducing external costs due to climate change, air pollution, noise, vibration and accidents (Jedliński, 2014). Transport is one of the main sources of air pollution in the city. Therefore, green logistics should be supported by the urban logistics strategy " effective management of urban cargo transportation and other traffic flows, in order to achieve an optimal compromise between ensuring optimal logistics networks performance, reliable customer service and reducing environmental impacts, air pollutants, energy consumption and traffic congestion” (Amaral and Aghezzaf, 2015). The increase in the urban population and economic development lead to more air pollution in cities, which means a danger to health and a deterioration in the quality of life. For this reason, the city authorities should adjust the city's economic, residential and transport processes in such a way as to prevent air pollution. This approach is consistent with the concept of green logistics, which is aimed at reducing emissions, reducing waste and low energy consumption. In this paper, transport and especially freight transport is recognized as the main polluter. The problems of sustainable development and the use of green technologies are considered in the study [3]: A special volume (SV) accepts and considers a wide range of green initiatives aimed at achieving the goals of sustainable development. This PROJECT includes fundamental research on alternative fuels, smart and environmentally friendly materials to reduce waste and environmental impact; tools for designing technological systems to develop sustainable consumption and production for communities; a system for sustainable waste management; circular economy and stimulating strategies, for example, through public policy and reasonable partnership. Thus, an integrated approach is needed for the intended environmental goals. Ways to reduce the carbon emissions of passenger transport: the impact on the climate budget of India are investigated in [4]: an assessment of transport emissions with electric vehicles, electric networks (EG) and T&D losses was carried out. It is concluded that electric vehicles are unsuitable without increasing the efficiency of EG and T&D losses. Eleven different scenarios with estimated uncertainties for passenger traffic in the Mumbai metropolitan regions are formulated. The study also shows that the introduction of electric vehicles into the city without simultaneously improving EG will lead to an increase in net CO2 emissions. However, this work does not consider other emissions other than CO 2. The next study devoted to the problems of the impact of transport on the urban environment is [5]: the opening and gradual expansion of the regional express railway (RER) in the period from 1970 to 2000 in the Paris metropolitan region. The causal influence of urban railway transport on the location of firms, employment and population growth is considered. Thus, the relationship between transport, residential and business infrastructure is obvious. The study [6] is devoted to the same problem, in which a strong negative relationship between emissions and land use rules was found. By limiting new developments, the cleanest areas of the country seem to be pushing new developments to places with higher emissions. Cities usually have significantly less emissions than suburbs, and the gap between the city and the suburbs is especially large in older areas such as New York. Here, emissions from driving, public transport, heating homes and using electricity at home are considered. The experience of China [7] on the introduction of restrictions on driving transport in Beijing on individual behavior during trips is interesting. The restrictions prohibit drivers from using their cars one weekday a week on the basis of a license plate. This experience of organizational measures also contributes to reducing the number of cars in operation, which means it can reduce the amount of emissions into the atmosphere. Assessment of the impact of air pollution from transport in urban areas - an overview of the actual data was performed in [8]: a comprehensive review of studies on measurements of concentrations of pollutants in the microenvironment of urban transport, published in the period from January 2016 to July 2020 in the Medline, Scopus and Embase databases, was conducted. The average values and ranges of impacts for each mode of transport were calculated, as well as the impact ratios between modes of transport and factors within the same study. The results obtained indicate that higher concentrations of air pollutants are often observed in road transport compared to cycling and walking. Therefore, taking into account the broader and long-term benefits for public health and the environment, it is concluded that every effort should be made to prioritize active travel and public transport and allow more people to use these modes of transport. This confirms the role of public transport in the implementation of tasks to reduce emissions. The problems of air pollution and the concerns caused by it among urban residents are studied in [9]: residents begin to adapt their behavior when traveling and take into account the quality of local air when choosing a house. A spatial and integrated model of choosing the location of residential buildings and transport for a city with air pollution due to traffic is proposed. Intra-urban spatial models of population density, choice of mode of transport and the resulting impact on the population are analyzed for urban conditions with different levels of health hazards and information about air pollution available to residents. This work highlights the need to link information about people's problems related to air pollution and integrated land use and transport measures. In this context, the health benefits are the result of a decrease in population density near urban centers. Thus, many studies have been devoted to the problems of air pollution and decarbonization. Various approaches to reducing the level of pollution are proposed, one of which is the use of electric transport, both public passenger and personal. In the Kyrgyz Republic, in order to stimulate the use of next-generation transport-electric vehicles by citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic has developed an Action Plan to stimulate the use of wheeled vehicles with electric motors and the creation of charging infrastructure [10]: Within the framework of the EAEU, it was decided to reset the rates of import customs duties of the Unified Customs Tariff of the EAEU until 31.12.2021. A proposal has been made to the EAEU to extend until 2025 the deadline for resolving the issue of applying a reduced unified rate of customs duties and taxes in respect of electric vehicles imported by individuals for personal use, since after the expiration of this decision, the rates of import customs duties will be paid according to the Unified Customs Tariff of the EAEU in the amount of 15% of the customs value. The Center for Standardization and Metrology under the Ministry of Economy of the Kyrgyz Republic is working on the standardization of electric charging devices and the introduction of international standards IEC 61851 and IEC 62196 into the national system of standards, and is also working on the classification of electric charging stations by type. Together with the Bishkek City Administration, the issue of the proposed location of the electric charging infrastructure within the city of Bishkek is being considered. The analysis of the current state of urban passenger transport was carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in 2013 [11]: it was concluded that a competent policy for the development of the city and the development of public transport is currently being carried out. "Public Transport Development Plan". In such conditions, public transport should play a key role in servicing the movements of citizens. Today, 70% of all public transport operations are carried out by private carriers on minibuses. Municipal transport is uncompetitive due to a less developed route network, high traffic intervals, outdated infrastructure and poor quality of rolling stock operation. The disadvantage is also the lack of a legal framework for the management of the transport complex, which is why management processes are carried out manually, and any planning is impossible. At the moment, private carriers, which carry out 70% of transportation, are actually ignored by the public authorities. Therefore, to normalize the work of public transport and improve the quality of its services, first of all, a reform of the management system is required with the establishment of fair relations with private carriers, and not the development of infrastructure or attempts to oust private carriers from the market through the development of municipal transport. It is important to note that in a city like Bishkek, the construction of expensive rail transport is not required: a tram, a high-speed tram or a metro. According to the experience of Russian cities with a similar population (Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod), it can be assumed that the construction of even one metro line can take 20-30 years and will require huge investments in infrastructure, and as a result will not improve the conditions of movement. According to our estimate, one north–south metro line in Bishkek will be able to serve only 6-8% of all movements. As world experience shows, the lack of rail infrastructure can be a competitive advantage, since it simplifies the development of bus systems. In the draft concept for the development of Bishkek [12]: it is proposed to redirect the vector of the city's development from the horizontal (expansion of administrative borders, integrated development of undeveloped territories) to the vertical (intensification of the use of already built-up territory and stimulating the development of the city within the existing administrative borders). The parameters of land use in our project are linked to the development of public transport, which allows us to plan and optimize the load on the transport infrastructure. As you move away from the city center and the main lines of passenger transport, the density and number of floors of the building decreases (Fig. 1). The second section of this study is devoted to the problems of transport: the Bishkek street and road network has insufficient density, which is why the type of urban mobility based on the predominant use of personal vehicles cannot be stable and comfortable. In cities with similar parameters of the road network, international practice recommends imposing serious restrictions on the ownership and use of motor vehicles in order to shift the transport demand to other types of transport (Fig.2). In such conditions, public transport should play a key role in servicing the movements of citizens. Today, 70% of all public transport operations are carried out by private carriers on minibuses. Fig. 1 Conceptual scheme of the city development/ source: research of the author's team Fig. 2. The existing street and road network of Bishkek / Source: Research of the author's team At the same time, the existing route networks of municipal public transport - bus and trolleybus lines are proposed in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 Operating route networks of municipal transport in Bishkek According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the development of the route network and transport infrastructure as a whole is lagging behind the pace of development of the city. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is making efforts to improve the situation in the field of passenger transport in Bishkek, including reducing harmful emissions. In August 2020, a memorandum of understanding was signed between the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic on the urban transport electrification project [13]. The use of electric buses in Kyrgyzstan is a new and unfamiliar business. The paper [14] presents the result of the analysis of the efficiency and applicability of various options of electric passenger transport in the city. Technologies of electric buses-electric buses: electric buses with power in motion (In-Motion-Feeding), electric buses with charging in motion (In-Motion-Charging), electric buses with charging on the route (Opportunity Charging), electric buses with charging at the depot/station (Overnight Charging). "Disadvantages" of trolleybuses-IMF electric buses: 1. Power supply system: traction substations, feeding feeders, contact network-costs 2. Visual pollution (?)- aesthetics 3. Complex intersections of the contact network-costs, aesthetics 4. Fixed route network (?) –passenger confidence 5. Low maneuverability (?) –2-3 lanes 6. Reliability of the power supply and current collection system! - prevention and improvement A comparison of different types of electric buses on the energy efficiency of transportation was made (Table 1) Passenger capacity / energy efficiency of transportation Table 1 Passenger capacity, people Energy per passenger, W*h/(pass*km) Mass of the drive, kg IMF 100 25 - IMC 95 26 312,5 OC 81 30 1250 ONC на тягу 26 96 5000 56 45 3000 From a technical point of view, all these options are very similar – a bus-type body and chassis, a traction electric motor, control devices and electric energy supply. The differences in the cost of various electric bus designs are mainly determined by the capacity, size and weight of the batteries. Which concept of an electric bus is most suitable for your city? To do this, it is proposed to take into account the specific conditions and resources of the city. A comparison of electric bus variants was made in the study [15]: Our analysis shows that a diesel bus running on conventional diesel remains the most economical technology until 2025, while the regulatory framework remains unchanged. But this contributes very little to the achievement of the central goals of the German government. "Mobility and Fuel Strategy" (MFS), for example, reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions or introducing new technologies. On the contrary, electric buses could make a significant contribution to achieving these goals. With the progress in the energy transition ("Energiewende") and the further development of the battery, the technology of electric buses will become more profitable, especially from an environmental point of view. For electric buses, IMC is considered as the most economical technology for high-capacity lines (frequent maintenance, high-capacity vehicles) or lines with high energy demand. On the other hand, it is necessary to take into account all emissions into the atmosphere: exhaust gas emissions and emissions into the upper atmosphere during the production of energy carriers. Exhaust pipe emissions of conventional buses are calculated using the "Manual Database of Emission Factors for Road Transport" (HBEFA, version 3.2). The emissions of the electric bus use phase are determined by the production of electricity. The structure of electricity production is based on the work of AG Energiebilanzen , the Bundesverband Erneuerbare Energien (German Federation of Renewable Energy Sources)and the Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Energy Systems). Future electricity mixes are based on the 2011 Leitstudio. The calculated emission factors for electricity generation include emissions from power plants and primary energy supplies. An analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from the production of buses themselves was also carried out. Greenhouse gas emissions: All alternative concepts have increased emissions at the production stage compared to the diesel bus. They are strongly influenced by the size of the batteries in the corresponding electric bus concept. But also fuel cell hybrid buses have significantly higher emissions due to the production of vehicles. The higher fuel cell emissions are mainly due to the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) used in the hydrogen tank and the platinum used in the fuel cell. More efficient production processes for the production of carbon fiber, the use of electricity with a higher proportion of renewable energy sources and a higher proportion of recycled platinum can reduce these environmental consequences in the future. Thus, IMC is considered as an integral part of the strategy of electrification of urban public transport. The choice was made in favor of the IMC strategy at the current stage of technology and technology development. The choice of IMC technology electric buses was also made for San Francisco [16]: the city is expanding its fleet of zero-emission transit buses: after purchasing 93 Xcelsior XT60 articulated electric buses, the San Francisco Municipal Transit Agency (SFMTA) placed an order for 185 New Flyer XT40 buses equipped with the In Motion Charging (IMC) system, technology from Kiepe Electric. With the In Motion Charging function, trolleybuses cover sections of the route without overhead lines in battery-powered mode, and the batteries are then charged when the vehicle is again under the overhead lines. They are designed to improve the ride of passengers and reduce the impact on the environment. These new buses will serve passengers on the most mountainous and busiest routes of the city. 2. Materials and Methods * The assumptions made and their justification * Statistical and mathematical procedures used for data analysis and generalization. The methods used should be described, as a rule, in chronological order, with the necessary accuracy and details. Standard methods should only be mentioned or can be described with reference to the literature. If the method is new, it should be described in detail. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are accounted for by cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which there are less than 100 electric cars. Bishkek, with a population of more than 1 million, has significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions. The most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek is cars. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are accounted for by cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which there are less than 100 electric cars. As a solution, the mayor's office sees an increase in the fleet of public municipal transport to 60%-70%, this is an additional 400-600 units. large class buses (45-60 seats), which will optimize the quality and streamline the traffic flows of the capital's streets. The city administration is taking measures to improve the environment – buses with gas engines were purchased, which reduces harmful exhaust emissions. Efforts are also being made to expand the trolleybus fleet. However, the use of electric buses is a new and unfamiliar business for them, it is necessary to conduct special research and widely promote the use of electric transport first on passenger transport, then everywhere. An assumption was made about the effectiveness of the introduction of IMC electric buses in Bishkek with the aim of expanding the transport network and reducing air pollution and promoting green logistics in the Kyrgyz Republic. The following studies were also carried out: a survey of the structure of the rolling stock of public transport, including a study of the situation with trips on various types of transport, and a rational structure was recommended; the analysis of the trolleybus network is carried out in order to cover the outskirts of the city with trolleybus communication through the use of trolleybuses with increased autonomous travel. The study used econometric methods based on open source data, as well as data from our own research, data from expert analysis and a survey of the population. 3 Results 1. In the Kyrgyz Republic, in addition to small hydroelectric power plants, 18 electric power plants with a total installed capacity of 3,678 MW are operated, including 16 hydroelectric power plants and 2 thermal power plants. The share of HPP electricity generation is 88.5% of the total production [17]. With such a structure of electricity production, emissions into the upper atmosphere during the production of energy carriers are minimal, therefore, exhaust gas emissions from cars are the main air pollutant and the object of the impact of green logistics. 2. To select the recommended type of passenger electric transport, a classification of technical variants with averaged characteristics is compiled in Table 2. Classification of types of electric transport Table 2 Trolleybus (with minimal autonomous running)\ Electric bus with power in motion Electric bus with charging in motion (trolleybus with increased autonomous travel) Electric bus with charging at stops Electric bus with charging at the depot Name of the technology IMF (In-Motion-Feeding) IMC (In-Motion charging) OC (Opportunity charging) ONC (Overnight charging) Energy storage method - Charging when driving on a section equipped with a contact network Ultra-fast charging on the route during part of the stops Night slow charging Autonomous power reserve before 2 км 5 — 70 км 20 — 70 км more 150 км Easy to charge Absent Absent 5-25 minutes (at the bus stop) 4-10 hours (at the depot) The known disadvantages of the trolleybus are the binding to the contact network and the cost of the network itself. The contact network, together with cable lines and traction substations, is an expensive infrastructure object that requires significant investments in construction and maintenance. The construction of contact networks is quite high. Therefore, it is proposed to use the IMC option for Bishkek. In countries where the lines of the classic trolleybus have been preserved, the option of a "partial" trolleybus is justified, i.e. trolleybuses with autonomous running from batteries are a very profitable solution. 3. For Bishkek, on the basis of the city development scheme (Fig.1), the route network of municipal transport of the trolleybus carrier (Fig. 3b), the study of mobility and population of peripheral zones, the possibilities of extending trolleybus routes from final stops to residential areas using IMC were calculated (Table 3). The possibility of extending existing routes Table 3 # Name of the destination Route numbers Residential areas that fall within the area of additional coverage Lengthening of the route, km 1 Microdistrict "Jal" 5,14,1 Archa-Beshik, Chon-Aryk 5-6 2 Residential area "Ak-Orgo" 7,8,9,16 Selection, Ak-Ordo 6-7 3 Microdistrict "Asanbay" 10,11,17,13,15 Kok-Zhar, Beshkungey village 5-6 4 Residential district "Alamedin-1" 9,15,2 Novopokrovka village 8 5 Dordoy Market (Leather Factory) 4,17 Kelechek, Dordoi 5 The lengthening of routes is insignificant and is easily overcome by trolleybuses on autonomous travel, which pull over part of the passenger traffic in residential areas. Thanks to the introduction of the new product, trolleybus routes can be extended by 30-40 km, and the trolleybus route network can be expanded due to the possibility of movement from one trolleybus line to another. Buses, the route route of which partially coincides with the trolleybus, it will be advisable to replace them with trolleybuses. This improves the quality of passenger service and the role of public passenger electric transport. As can be seen from the table, the lengthening of routes can be 5-7 km, up to a maximum of 10 km from the existing final stop. The cost of building 1 km of a standard trolleybus network can reach 400 thousand US dollars, so the use of trolleybuses with a large autonomous course is a good alternative to the construction of new contact networks. Since the average cost of a trolleybus with an increased autonomous course for the CIS market is $ 182500 and is quite significant for Kyrgyzstan, as an alternative, you can use the option of converting existing trolleybuses of modern design into a trolleybus with an increased autonomous course. Such experience has been accumulated in the regions of the Russian Federation. At the heart of the alteration is the installation of lithium-ion batteries, a controller and an automatic lifting device for connecting to the contacts. The cost of reworking is about 22 thousand US dollars. Rework kit: a new electronic drive and 42 lithium-ion batteries, weighing about 1000 kg. An autonomous course of 15-20 km is provided, depending on the load. The Bishkek trolleybus fleet has 37 units of the 2018 Optima Trolleybus 5275.03 (RF) and 33 trolleybuses of the VMZ-5298.01-50 Avangard brand of Belarusian production (2013) as potential objects for re-equipment. 4 Discussion It is in this section that the authors explain the meaning and significance of the results obtained. This section brings everything together, shows the importance and value of the work and, therefore, is the most innovative and difficult part of the article to write. There are significant problems with air pollution from automobile emissions in Bishkek, but no active measures are being taken to solve these problems. First of all, of course, because of the lack of funding for the projects announced by the government. However, promoting the ideas of a green economy is no less important task. The efforts of both the Government and local communities and civil society are necessary. Urban passenger transport is of great socio-economic importance. It can greatly influence the mindset of the population and the promotion of electric transport, since passengers use transport daily and all its improvements immediately become the subject of evaluation and promotion. The next stage of research may be the idea of converting minibuses, which provide 70% of urban passenger traffic, into an electric car, which would also help reduce air pollution. The main obstacle is of course the cost of rework, which can reach 20-30 thousand US dollars. However, the components of the systems can be produced in Belarus and Russia, and the batteries can be purchased in China, which can reduce costs. It is possible to localize the production of individual components in Kyrgyzstan to reduce costs. Further implementation of the principles of the green economy can be the development of other types of renewable energy sources – wind energy and solar. There are potential opportunities for installing wind turbines in many places of the republic, and according to the number of sunny days per year (247), Kyrgyzstan also has great prospects for the development of solar energy. Conclusions In the Kyrgyz Republic, there is a need and there are prerequisites for the introduction of the principles of a green economy; The main driver of the ideas of ecological consciousness and decarbonization should be the project of introducing public passenger electric transport; It is necessary to develop other types of renewable energy sources in the republic. 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ConnorsA, Two-stage residential location and transport mode choice model with exposure to traffic-induced air pollution, Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 93, May 2021, 103044 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0966692321000971 [10] Продвижение принципов Зеленой экономики в КР: стимулирование использования экологического транспорта на электрической тяге http://mineconom.gov.kg/ru/post/6597 [11] Исследование по совершенствованию городского пассажирского транспорта в г. Бишкек, Кыргызская Республика. Заключительный отчет. Краткий обзор. — Японское агентство международного сотрудничества (JICA). 2013 г. https://openjicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12127627_01.pdf [12] О. Таловская, А. Рыжков, Н. Хорт Бишкек: Проект — концепция модели развития до 2040 года https://urban.hse.ru/bishkek2040 [13] В Бишкеке появятся электробусы? https://kaktus.media/doc/418681_v_bishkeke_poiaviatsia_elektrobysy_podpisan_pervichnyy_dogovor_s_abr.html [14] С. Корольков, «Электробус – технические особенности вариантов исполнения». Троллейбусный комитет МСОТ. МОСГОРТРАНС (8 сентября 2017). https://docplayer.ru/57047153-Elektrobus-tehnicheskie-osobennosti-variantov-ispolneniya.html [15] Fabian Bergk Kirsten Biemann Udo Lambrecht Ralph Pütz Hubert Landinger. Potential of In-Motion Charging Buses for the Electrification of Urban Bus Lines (англ.) // Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. — 2016. http://www.scienpress.com/Upload/GEO/Vol%206_4_21.pdf [16] IMC® electric buses on trend in the USA: Kiepe Electric to supply 185 systems for San Francisco https://www.automotiveworld.com/news-releases/imc-electric-buses-trend-usa-kiepe-electric-supply-185-systems-san-francisco/ [17] Электроэнергетика Кыргызстана https://www.energycharter.org/fileadmin/DocumentsMedia/Events/20070426-Bishkek_Kyrgyzstan_Nazarov-ru.pdf
Azizbek Kydykov, Akylbek Umetaliyev
338 | 0
Prospects of public electric transport development in Bishkek
Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I. Razzakov Kyrgyz Republic, 720044, Bishkek, Aitmatova ave., 66 The proposed work analyzes the logistics system of passenger transport in Bishkek. On the basis of a review of the studies carried out and the proposed options for the development of the transport and logistics system, the conclusion about the need for priority development of the existing electric transport is substantiated. The analysis of modern world experience in the development of ground electric passenger transport is carried out. For the transport system of Bishkek, the choice of the development option with the use of a trolleybus with increased autonomous running has been substantiated. Key words: logistics system, transport infrastructure, air pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, autonomous running, costs. Many countries are adopting programs to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, including from road transport. Concrete plans are being adopted to reduce the number of vehicles with internal combustion engines on the road. Instead, it is planned to increase the number of electric vehicles. Bishkek with a population of about 1 million has significant air pollution problems from automobile emissions. Cars are the most intense source of air pollution in Bishkek. The annual total volume of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Bishkek is 240 thousand tons, of which 180 thousand tons of pollutants are from cars. The number of cars registered in the city exceeds 500 thousand, of which less than 100 are electric vehicles. The system of passenger transport in the city has its own characteristics [1]. Minibuses are the dominant transport in Bishkek. The minibus network consists of 120 route lines, including about 3000 units. minibuses and is serviced by 40 private operators. The route network covers 70% of the city's territory. According to the Department of Urban Transport under the Mayor's Office of Bishkek (hereinafter UGT), 30% -40% of the total number of route lines leave the route outside the city. The quantitative indicators of the work of the bus and trolleybus carrier are inferior to minibuses in all key parameters. According to the UGT of the Mayor's Office of Bishkek, in 2018 the number of route lines of municipal enterprises was: 10 by the bus and 10 by the trolleybus, about 110 trolleybuses out of the existing 156 and 110-120 buses go on the line every day. As a solution, UGT sees an increase in the park of public municipal transport up to 60% -70%, this is an additional 400-600 units. large class buses (100 passenger seats), which will optimize the quality and streamline traffic flows in the capital's streets. The city administration is taking measures to improve the environment - buses with gas engines have been purchased, which reduces harmful emissions. Efforts are also being made to expand the trolleybus fleet. However, for the correct organization of the logistics system of passenger transport, the structure of the rolling stock must correspond to the size of the urban population [2]. Bishkek belongs to the 2nd group of cities (table 1) and therefore, with the recommended average capacity (90-100 passengers - seats), it should have a rational structure of the passenger fleet. It is recommended that in the cities of the 1st-4th population groups, the bulk of traffic is carried out by rolling stock with an average capacity of 65-90 passengers. places. At the same time, the proportion of low-capacity rolling stock should not exceed 20% and decrease with the growth of the city's population. At the same time, it is necessary to increase the share of large-capacity rolling stock. Table 1 Recommended average passenger transport capacity depending on the population of cities City group Population, thousand people Average capacity of a unit of rolling stock, pas. - places 1 Over 1000 120—130 2 from 500 to 1000 90—100 3 from 250 to 500 75—80 4 from 100 to 250 65—70 5 from 50 to 100 45—50 The developed concept for the development of public transport [3] also recommends the need to achieve the desired ratios of transport shares: 70% of passenger traffic should be served by large-capacity rolling stock. While now - 70% of all public transport is carried out by private carriers in minibuses. All this is aimed at ensuring the convenience and comfort of the public transport system and reducing traffic. In addition, the introduction of low-emission transport is recommended. The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is also taking measures to improve the situation in the field of passenger transport in Bishkek, including reducing harmful emissions. In August 2020, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic on the project for the electrification of urban transport [4]. This project provides for the purchase of modern energy efficient battery electric buses, charging infrastructure (substations, electrical installation and construction works), equipment for bus service. In addition, it is planned to modernize the infrastructure of bus depots, build all-weather parking spaces for new electronic buses. The project also includes the creation of a pilot "green" traffic corridor for electric buses. However, the use of electric buses in Kyrgyzstan is new and unfamiliar. Therefore, the result of the analysis of the efficiency and applicability of various options for electric transport in Bishkek is proposed. The classification of modern electric transport options is shown in Table 2 [5]. The disadvantages of the trolleybus are the connection to the overhead network and the cost of the network itself. The overhead network, together with cable lines and traction substations, is an expensive infrastructure facility that requires significant investments in construction and maintenance. There is also an intermediate solution. In countries where the lines of the classic trolleybus have been preserved, the option of a "partial" trolleybus is being considered, i.e. trolleybuses with autonomous running from accumulators. Table 2 Classification of types of electric transport # Trolleybus (with minimum autonomous running) \ Electric bus with power in motion Electric bus with recharging in motion (trolleybus with increased autonomous running) Electric bus with charging at stops Electric bus with charging at the depot Technology name IMF (In-Motion-Feeding) IMC (In-Motion charging) OC (Opportunity charging) ONC (Overnight charging) Energy storage method No Charging when driving on an area equipped with a contact network Ultra-fast charging on the route during some of the stops Nightly slow charging Autonomous power reserve to 2 km 5 — 70 km 20 — 70 km to 150 km Easy to charge Absent Absent 5 — 25 minutes (on the bus stop) 4 — 10 часов (on the parking) The most interesting of them: 1. Classic electric bus - ONC. With static charging at night in the depot, it combines all the advantages of a bus and a trolleybus. In addition, electricity is generally cheaper at night than during the day, which is also an advantage. However, its big drawback is the weight and price of the batteries. Therefore, the mileage of classic electric buses is limited - for most modern models it does not exceed 200 kilometers, which is not enough to work on routes throughout the day. This problem can be solved by electric buses with ultra-fast charging on the route during part of stops (OC), or with dynamic charging of batteries in motion. Dynamic charging takes significantly less time, although it requires a dedicated charging infrastructure. IN The existing contact network of a classic trolleybus or even a tram can serve as such an infrastructure in cities. 2. A trolleybus with significant autonomous running - IMC. It is an economically and environmentally viable option for cities with existing trolleybus infrastructure. For electric buses, IMC is considered the most economical technology for high-capacity lines (frequent maintenance, high-capacity vehicles) or lines with high energy demand. An analysis of passenger capacity and energy efficiency of transportation by various modes of transport is shown in Table 3. Table 3 Passenger capacity / energy efficiency of transportation Passenger capacity, people Energy per passenger W * h / (pass * km) Drive weight, kg IMF 100 25 - IMC 95 26 312,5 OC 81 30 1250 ONC to pull 26 96 5000 56 45 3000 The cost structure of individual electric bus systems is shown on picture 1. Pic. 1. Rolling stock cost structure From a technical point of view, all these options are very similar - the body and chassis of the bus type, the traction motor, the control devices and the supply of electrical energy. Differences in the cost of various designs of electric buses are determined mainly by the capacity, size and weight of batteries. On average, a lithium-ion battery with a mass of about 1000 kg provides an autonomous mileage of up to 25 km. This represents about 5% of the total mass of the IMC electric bus. Measures for the development of electric transport in Bishkek. The construction of contact networks is quite high (the cost of 1 km of the line is more than 400 thousand dollars), and the purchase of autonomous trolleybuses is a very profitable solution. For the city of Bishkek, a project is proposed (Table 4) for lengthening trolleybus routes from the terminal stops to the veins of the massifs using the IMC. Table 4 Extension of existing routes # Destination name Route numbers Residential areas falling into the additional coverage area Length of route, km 1 "Djal" district 5,14,1 Archa-Beshik, Chon-Aryk 5-6 2 "Ak-Keme" residensy 7,8,9,16 Selection, Ak-Ordo 6-7 3 "Asanbay" district 10,11,17,13,15 Kok-Jar, Beshkungei 5-6 4 "Alamedin-1" district 9,15,2 Nonopokrovka, 8 5 "Dordoi" market (Leather factory) 4,17 Kelechek, Dordoi 5 The lengthening of routes is insignificant and is easily overcome by autonomous trolleybuses, which pull part of the passenger traffic in the residential areas onto themselves. This improves the quality of passenger service and the role of public electric passenger transport. Bibliographic references 1. https://soros.kg/srs/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/A4.pdf 2. Passenger road transport Textbook for universities. Ed. V.A. Gudkova \ Gudkov V.A., Mirotin L.B., Velmozhin A.V., Shiryaev S.A., 2006 448 pp. 3. http://meria.kg/index.php?lang=kg 4. https://kaktus.media/doc/418681_v_bishkeke_poiaviatsia_elektrobysy_podpisan_pervichnyy_dogovor_s_abr.html 5. S. Korolkov, "Electric bus - technical features of design options." UITP trolleybus committee. MOSGORTRANS (September 8, 2017). © A.A. Kydykov, A.S. Umetaliyev, 2021
Dzheldogutova Nadira Kairatovna
376 | 0
Virtual logistics centers as an efficient method of using resources
2nd year graduate student, Kazakh-German University, Almaty, Kazakhstan Specialty "Resource-saving production logistics", Scientific adviser - Kegenbekov Zhandos Kadyrkhanovich Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies of the Kazakh-German University Annotation. This article examines virtual logistics centers as the most efficient way to use resources. It also examines the impact of information technology on virtual logistics centers and presents the result to date. Key words: virtual logistic centers, information flow, information technology, cloud computing. Nowadays, the systematization and simplification of many processes through information technology is becoming more and more popular. Corporations and large organizations prefer virtual logistics, which is developing rapidly and provides an opportunity to save many resources such as time, speed of tasks, etc. A virtual logistics center gives you the opportunity to work remotely and complete tasks and teams, and this provides a chance to have employees around the world, which in logistics can play into the hands of an employer. Using the example of Uber, Amazon, Alibaba, they base all their business models by storing them in cloud platforms, all calculations are carried out on cloud computing, IT networks, etc. [1, p. 26] ICT has a fairly wide range of opportunities to increase competitiveness, as it establishes close partnerships between customers, suppliers and business partners through the modernization of management processes. The information flow itself runs parallel to material goods in the production system. Integration of the information flow makes the virtual logistics system augmented, productive and overcomes all barriers in flow processes [3, p. fifteen]. It is possible to highlight some of the difficulties faced by the integration of information flow into a virtual logistics system: - system integration; - stepwise implementation of the system functionality; - access to all databases of the organization; -methods of data visualization to support the perception of data in the analysis. When creating the virtual logistics centers themselves, the following obstacles must has considered: - Competitors in the field of related services may not take such a risk - bundling and providing complex services; - skeptical attitude to the joint effect, which involves the development of logistics activities in partnership; - the impossibility of connecting logistic information systems [7, p. 87]. Figure 1. Hierarchical organization of resources in an integrated system The rationale for creating a virtual logistics center is efficiently manage the vital capacity that is available. Available capacities are those resources that, in terms of their functional and technical characteristics, parameters, readiness for operation, has integrated into a virtual logistics system. Integrated logistics services require the use of resources such as buildings, machinery, equipment, labor. The individual or group use of the available capacities already depends on the client's requirements and the way of satisfaction. Mobile resources include cars, human resources, and financial capital. These resources has made available without any restrictions in accordance with the planned logistics services. Stable resources include roads, warehouses, transfer points, stations, ports, airports, etc. When designing a multi-purpose logistics center concept, a hierarchical architecture has used, as in Figure 1. The following sorting of resources is used: Stable resources; Organizational resources; Mobile resources. The connection between geo-locations and the characteristics of logistics services through stable resources with division into various decentralized locations will lead to an increase in traffic volumes. Moreover, the decentralization of the virtual logistics center will have a positive effect on reducing the capacity of transport routes by optimizing transport chains. In conclusion, we can conclude that many companies, guided by many positive aspects, create virtual logistics centers in partnership with their competitors, get a solution to many problems that arise with simple logistics centers. The correct distribution of resources takes place with the correct operation of decentralized centers. However, taking into account all the factors, do not forget that remoteness and virtuality introduce their own adjustments. For example, the main resource of every company is its human resource. Bibliographic list 1. Minakova I. et al. Innovations in inventory management of industrial enterprises // Innovative economy: prospects for development and improvement. - 2017. - No. 8 (26). 2. Kizim AA, Isaulova SS Virtual transport and logistics system. Logistic centers as points of virtual economic analysis // Finance and Credit. - 2004. - No. 1 (139). 3. Kizim AA, Kozenko VV Virtual logistics: problems and prospects // Economics of sustainable development. - 2013. - No. fourteen. 4. Khalyn VG Virtualization of information and logistics infrastructure of regional logistics distribution centers (for example, SKLP LLC) // Bulletin of the Rostov State University of Economics (RINH). - 2014. - No. 3 (47). 5. Krivdenko AN, Cherpakova EV APPLICATION OF VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGIES IN TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS SYSTEMS // Innovations in science and practice. - 2019 .-- S. 214-218. 6. Matveeva DA VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION IN LOGISTICS // Actual problems of aviation and cosmonautics. - 2018. - T. 3. - No. 4 (14). 7. Putkina LV Development of an innovative strategy for the activity of a commercial enterprise in the virtual market // Modern problems of science and education. - 2013. - No. 2. - S. 365-365. 8. Davydov SV Virtual logistics centers in regional transport and logistics systems // Transport Bulletin. - 2003. - No. 6. - S. 34-38.
Goloshchapova Anastasia Pavlovna, Zhailoobaev Sardar Umutbekovich
454 | 0
Public procurement monitoring system for civil society
Scientific Supervisor- Dolotbakova A. K. Associate Professor of KSTU named after I. Razzakov Summaryt: This article examines the problem of the lack of a system for monitoring public procurement for civil society in Kyrgyzstan. The characteristic features of the country's civil society are highlighted and described. The paper proposes a solution to the "green flags" monitoring system based on the international method of the Civil Society Procurement Monitoring Tool. Keywords: Civil society, public procurement Sabyrova G.Zh. notes that in the field of public procurement of Kyrgyzstan, about 30 billion soms rotate and annually more than 15% of the gross domestic product is spent on public procurement. Considering the constant deficit of budgetary funds, their efficient and economical use at all times has been and remains a topical issue. Therefore, one of the most important tasks facing the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic is to ensure openness and transparency of public procurement procedures [1]. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, more and more people began to think about the role of public procurement in their lives. They see governments buying personal protective equipment and ventilators and urgently building new hospitals to treat COVID-19 patients, etc. Every week we read about new scandals - huge prices, new firms getting contracts worth millions of dollars, money are lost and the list continues. The underdevelopment of the institution of civil society and the closed nature of state structures are confirmed by the world rating of democracy, which was compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit of the British company Economist Group, in 2020 Kyrgyzstan took 107th place among 167 countries. A year earlier, the country was number 101. According to the World Justice Project's 2015 index of government openness in the countries of the world, Kyrgyzstan ranks 64th out of 102 in it. Based on this, control and monitoring of public procurement by civil society is necessary to overcome the crisis of public confidence in the authorities. The population, observing and regulating the activities of public procurement, will have increased responsibility, and it will itself decide in what conditions it will live. With this tool, civil society will contribute to the country's economic policy. It is certainly impossible to eradicate corruption completely, however, reducing corruption risks is a goal that should be pursued by those who monitor procurement. Although monitors are not auditors and lack procurement skills and knowledge, they play an important role in improving the efficiency of public procurement. Most of these ideas come from civil society or journalists, not government investigations. But, fortunately, in recent years, citizens have been paying more and more attention to monitoring procurement. They want to make sure their money is spent openly, fairly and efficiently. And when information is available, great things happen, as evidenced by the growing number of citizen-led and civil society-led procurement monitoring organizations around the world. But what is procurement monitoring? How can this be done more efficiently through better technology and data access? What motivates citizens to look at contracts? There are so many approaches to “monitoring procurement” and they are all correct because they work for different contexts, goals and methods. Of all the known methodologies in the world, the Civil Society Procurement Monitoring Tool is used mostly. It is a tool widely used internationally and relies on the identification of red flags at every stage of the procurement process. Red flags are signs or indications of possible deficiencies, irregularities or corruption. It should be added that the identification of a red flag does not necessarily indicate the existence of a violation or act of corruption, but rather the potential for such to occur. Sometimes a red flag can be the result of a human or technical error without malicious intent, rather than a signal of corruption. Therefore, it is important for monitors to know not only how to identify red flags, but also the measures they can take to analyze them in-depth, including notifying the authorities responsible for supervision and control in the field of public procurement, investigating anti-competitive practices, conflict of interest, corruption, etc. [2]. To carry out monitoring activities, the public procurement process is divided into 4 main stages: Stage of planning and development of documentation for the award; The stage of initiating the procurement procedure; The stage of evaluating offers and awarding a contract; Stage of execution and monitoring of the contract. At each stage, a member of the civil society working group to guide the red flag instrument can promptly signal tenders that violate public procurement procedures. Risk indicators that can help identify potential irregularities or inefficiencies in contracting processes, such as: short tender periods; low number of bidders; low percentage of contracts concluded on a competitive basis; high percentage of contracts with amendments; large discrepancies between the amount awarded and the final amount of the contract. We can use this tool as an analogue. And given the level of a democratic institution, the level of corruption, culture of thinking, etc. We are able to adapt this public monitoring system in public procurement. The system itself is built on the basis of several fundamental components: A Procurement Monitoring Guide - provides the user with a detailed scheme for monitoring procurement procedures using forensic expertise and “red flags” signaling the possibility of a corruption risk. The Country-specific Monitoring Guides - allows you to relate the Monitoring Guide to the national specifics of public procurement systems. The Monitoring Assistant - An interactive checklist that makes it easy to spot red flags (signals) of corruption risk. Supporting Materials (The Links Pages) - a collection of additional resources to support monitoring procurement. The Learning Community - an additional interactive learning space where active users (CSPM) can leave their comments on improving the tool and share their experience in finding corrupt procurement. The Online Training - training in the practical use of the tool (CSPM) in procurement monitoring. The advantages of using the American model are flexibility and modularity. It reflects not only the systematized logic of building the monitoring and control process itself, but also provides the user with a structured tool for searching for corrupt purchases. Given the risk of reprisals and persecution arising in this process, it would be safer in Kyrgyzstan to apply the “green flag” system, when a civil society representative signals by putting up a green flag where he did not find any violations. Since the degree of corruption of state bodies in our republic is quite high, the direct system of using red flags will constantly lead to the emergence of conflicts and tensions. It is highly likely that outspoken and critical civil society representatives with red flags will be prosecuted and threatened to dissuade them from further participation in the monitoring process. Such acts of intimidation will need to be reported immediately to the relevant national authorities, which is not very pleasant for citizens. Although national authorities may have more opportunities to influence decisions and prevent corrupt practices and ensure that citizens' rights to freedom of expression and public information are respected, there is no guarantee in our country that they will not be drawn into corruption schemes. It is necessary to keep the names of persons or organizations involved in the monitoring process in complete confidentiality. The information they provide will be mentioned in the report in general terms, that is, "According to the views of civil society representatives of the country ...". Government involvement and lists of participants are not shared with the authorities, and the media should be actively involved in the process. Summing up, we can say that the benefits of involving civil society institutions and taking into account the interests of citizens in the management of state and municipal services and work to improve their quality include: For state and municipal bodies providing services: percentage reduction in complaints from the civil sector, disputes (related to non-compliance with legislation in terms of public hearings, consultations, etc.), in this regard, the saved time that was previously spent on their consideration can be spent on solving more important problems and tasks not related to complaints and disputes; percentage reduction of negative reviews about their activities, in general, and, in particular, in the field of service provision; assessment of the quality of services by civil society will affect the responsibility of the authorized state body in the provision of them. For the civil sector: significant improvement in public awareness of public procurement; percentage increase in the degree of satisfaction of civil society representatives with decisions made in the public sector, as well as with the results of services provided; reduction of moral costs. Thus, creating the institution of civil society, we solve the problem of fragmentation and ineffectiveness of monitoring and control of public procurement. There is still no public oversight in Kyrgyzstan. For people who want to understand this process, it is not clear where to turn for help, despite the fact that the procedure is quite difficult for an ordinary person to understand. And public associations and activists are simply unable to keep track of all the processes. Citizens do not trust the very procedure of public procurement and the effectiveness of control over it. In addition, the very ministries and departments responsible for procurement do not learn from their own and others' mistakes, freeing the hands of corruption and unfair competition in this area. List of used literature: 1. Dolotbakova A.K. On strengthening and intensifying scientific research of the public procurement process in the Kyrgyz Republic URL: [https://www.pplo.kg/repository/26/ ]. 2. Guidelines for Monitoring Public Procurement: A Tool for Civil Society URL: [http://viitorul.org/files/achiztii%20publice/Ghid%20Achizitii%20Societate%20Civila%20%202017%20-%20RUS.pdf].
Research
Kashkaraeva Saltanat
Essay
17 | 0
Why did I choose to study Logistics?
Hello! My name is Kashkaraeva Saltanat, I am 17 years old. I am a 1st year student of the Kyrgyz-German Technical Institute at KSTU named after Iskhak Razzakov. Many people sooner or later come to a point when they have to choose their future profession. To be honest, it is not an easy decision since the future of person depends on it. One day I grew up to this point to make my decision as well. Option to study Logistics burst into my life unexpectedly and swept away all the previous options. It struck me as intriguing - a really good choice for my future. Let's start with the fact that logistics as relevant as ever in modern life. Almost everything revolves around the procurement of various goods and their transportation. With the development of e-commerce, the work of a logistician has become necessary and highly in demand. Especially in the last two years, due to the pandemic, when people did not have the opportunity to move around the planet - logisticians helped thousands of people and in addition earned money on this. A logistician is a specialist who organizes and coordinates the delivery of goods from one trading / production site to another or to the end consumer, while making sure that the goods reach the consumer in a timely manner and with minimal costs. Here are the points, that attract me in studding logistics: - the profession demand; - the ability to work remotely and flexible working hours; - the novelty and relevance of the profession - there is always trade, and logistics in this regard is universal and can adapt to any area of activity; - the ability to earn high income, of course. Therefore, I consider logistics to be a winning option, I deliberately chose it and I am determined to become a demanding specialist needed by various enterprises in a few years, and I believe in myself.
Barinova Ekaterina
Essay
70 | 0
Why I chose the profession of a logistician?
The choice of a profession is a very important step for every person, because the choice made largely affects the future fate of a person, his personality, earnings, and even whether he will be happy or not. We begin to choose our future profession as early as childhood. But it turns out that many people by the time of secondary school decide on the choice of their “craft”. But for some, this process becomes very difficult and very protracted. And I, as you probably already understood, was no exception from the last category of people. For a very long time I could not decide on the choice of “my” future field of activity. to this in all seriousness: I went through a huge variety of possible options; with special attention I “savored” various information about them: where you can get the appropriate education, how much it will cost, where and with whom I can work in the future. But nothing “clung to me” And this was already beginning to bother me, because by the time most of my peers had already decided on their future field of activity, I, when asked about the profession, still answered that I had not yet decided. But I continued to search. so, one fine day, I learned about such a profession as “Logist.” Having learned almost everything: from the duties and earnings of logistics specialists to the degree of their demand, I began to look for where I could get an appropriate education, As soon as the information received satisfied me. If you look at it, then logistics is one of the oldest professions, because the mass exchange of goods began a long time ago, and someone definitely had to deal with this and organize these processes. Thus, I can safely say that logisticians have appeared for a very long time, they were simply called differently. But as a separate profession, logistics was formed not so long ago, but nevertheless, specialists in this field remain in great demand to this day. Such people can work as in companies that carry out cargo transportation, and in any manufacturing company, since the manufactured products must be delivered to the consumer. And, despite its "youth", logistics is becoming one of the most relevant, important, and highly paid professions in the labor market. In addition to all this, this profession makes it possible travel, which, of course, can not but rejoice. But everything is not so easy and simple. A logistician is not just a person who is paid a lot of money for just being. "Logistics" is an ancient Greek concept that literally means "calculation, reflection", which means that logistics is a profession of predominantly mental work, which makes it very difficult. Logisticians have a huge responsibility, a lot depends on the success or failure of logisticians And I am fully and fully aware of all the responsibility that will rest on my shoulders in the future. But I made my choice consciously. And I am ready to put all my efforts both in the learning process and in the future career of a logistician.
Kudaibergenova Eleonora
Essay
94 | 0
How and why did I choose logistics as my profession?
My name is Eleonora, I am 18 years old, I am a 1st year student of the Kyrgyz-German Technical Institute. I have been trying to find my own field of activity for a very long time. After all, this is one of the most important decisions in the life of every person; find exactly what he likes. But, to be honest, after finishing 11th grade, I had a very vague idea of what I wanted to do. My preferences changed almost every week. I wanted to become a programmer, then an engineer, then I wanted to connect my life with mathematics and go to a financier. But in the end, having drawn up a clear plan in which I took into account all my abilities: what I do best and having built several mandatory points that should be in my future work, I chose logistics. This is how trite everything turned out, but now I can say with confidence that I got into logistics. Logistics suits me even in character - the same emotional, lively, a little creative and in constant motion. Logistics is a young, constantly evolving science that requires progress. It is very interesting for me to have a connection with almost the whole world. And from the point of view of the relevance of the profession and remuneration of labor, a logistician is a very good option. The profession is quite rare, high salaries, career growth is guaranteed. I think I made the right choice.
Taalaibekova Nurai
228 | 0
Why did I choose the profession of a logistician?
Hello everyone. I am Taalaibekova Nurai, a first-year student of the Kyrgyz-German Technical Institute .Probably every graduate after graduation had questions within himself about his future profession. And I felt so insecure inside myself and couldn’t choose a specialty that I would enjoy all my life.But when choosing a profession, I needed to determine my abilities, capabilities, interests and inclinations that can contribute to success in training and, of course, in work. Despite this , I still had to pay attention to the fact that my profession will be one of the highest paid and in demand – after a versatile job, where I can develop not only in one direction, but also in several, and most importantly, I was connected with natural science and technical disciplines, since I like to study mathematics from school. And somehow , in the vastness of the Internet , I took a fancy to the profession of a logistician , and even before I was interested in studying it . When I got acquainted with this comprehensive and interesting profession , I learned that logistics specialists are in demand in the labor market , in various companies engaged in cargo transportation and there are a lot of prospects for personal growth. After reading many other articles about this wonderful specialty, I decided to dive deeper into this amazing world of logistics, in which I can get all the answers to my questions. I am looking forward to the moment when I can put my knowledge into practice.
Kostrubov Davyd
Essay
105 | 0
Why did I choose Logistics?
Many of us have been thinking about choosing a profession since childhood. We like famous people and we want to be like them. We imagine ourselves as a doctor or a famous journalist, lawyer or a popular artist, sometimes we even dream of being president. Often we want to be like mom or dad. As we get older, our views change: not all the professions we dreamed of suit us. We look at the world more realistically and understand that our future depends on which profession we choose. There are many professions in the world, but somewhere there is only one, yours…They believe that the one who goes to work with pleasure in the morning and returns home with joy in the evening is happy. That's why it's so important to choose the right profession. The decision to choose a profession did not come to me immediately. For a long time, various specialties attracted my attention, but in the end, the desire to acquire the qualification of a logistician outweighed. I learned about the specialty "Logistician" by chance, when I entered the university, I carefully studied the booklets about various areas of training. Each attracted me in its own way. I tried to imagine how I could realize myself in each area. As a result, my choice fell on the specialty "Logistician". At that moment, I did not yet know all the subtleties of this profession, I was attracted by its demand in the labor market and high salary. And then I decided to find more information on the Internet and what I found interested me very much. First of all, it should be noted that the professional activity of a logistician is multifaceted and has a creative character. Among the main requirements for the personality of a logistician, it is necessary to highlight the knowledge of the case, self-confidence and the ability to establish contact with people. These qualities are needed today not only by the logistician, they are highly valued in ordinary everyday life. People with similar qualities enjoy authority in society, and they often achieve significant results in family, career, business, etc.Nevertheless, the most important requirement for a logistician is the implementation of such a task: from point A to point B to organize the delivery of goods with the least financial and time costs.. On the one hand, a logistician is an economist, a manager, a supplier, on the other hand, logisticians must have serious mathematical training in order to calculate the most optimal schemes for the delivery and storage of goods. In addition, the logistician needs to have an idea about the branch of material production that his company serves. Having started training, I began to understand all the subtleties of this kind of activity, and now I consider this profession unique. After all, it reflects such sciences as economics, management, office management and much more. I would like to learn all these skills and sciences, as well as succeed in my career growth.
Jeenkulova Aziza
Essay
108 | 0
How did I choose the profession of a logistics?
Hello! My name is Aziza Jeenkulova, I'm 17 years old. I am a student of the Kyrgyz-German Technical Institute. I could not decide for a very long time what specialty to choose, from one to another from the 9th grade. Since childhood, I dreamed of becoming a beautician, but I realized that medicine is not mine and is not ready to study. Then I wanted to become a marketer, I realized that I did not Unfortunately, I could not fly for family reasons. I gave up, deciding that everything, I did not want to enter. And in the summer my friend offered me to enter KSTU and Ishaka Razakov at the faculty of KSTI and choose the specialty "logist". I thought and decided that I would enter, studied the profession, I really liked it. I have allocated a few points for myself: 1) To study German 2) the profession is highly paid 3) the profession is in demand 4) very good opportunities. Well, this is my story of choosing a profession, in the future, I am sure that I will succeed and I will be a sought-after specialist.
Literature
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