Prospects for the development of trade and logistics centers in the Kyrgyz Republic
3-rd grade master – students,Kyrgyz State Technical University named after I.Razzakov,Department of Logistics,Scientific supervisor – Umetaliev Akylbek Saparbekovichdoctor of economics, professor
Abstract: the article discusses the prospects for the development of trade and logistics centers in the Kyrgyz Republic.
Keywords: TLC, agriculture, storage, logistics, warehousing.
The infrastructure of the food market ensures the formation of material, financial and information links between market entities and is a set of objects and institutional structures. The market infrastructure unites the spheres of production, circulation and consumption into a single chain, accelerates the turnover of material, financial and information flows in the economy, contributing to an increase in the efficiency of social development.Market infrastructure includes such substructures as systems of trade and intermediary activities; warehouse facilities; information support; packaging industry; transport service; financial, credit and organizational support; economic and legal regulation of market participants, etc. In connection with the development of market relations, tangible changes are taking place in the trade and intermediary infrastructure.
First of all, the nature and purpose of intermediary and sales structures is changing, network trade structures, wholesale and retail associations, trade and logistics centers (TLC) come to the fore. Currently, trade, purchasing, as well as sales of produced agricultural products in the Kyrgyz Republic are spontaneous, mainly grown agricultural products are sold in large, medium and small open-type markets. In these markets, sanitary, veterinary standards and requirements are not observed, there are no laboratories for express analyzes. In the meat and vegetable pavilions, where there is an intensive sale of food products, there is unsanitary conditions, especially in the summer season. One of the directions for solving the problem related to the sale of products and protecting the interests of manufacturers and buyers is the creation of a TLC network across the republic. In addition, the need for the development of a modern TLC network is associated with the provision of the country's population with high-quality food products and the further marketing of domestic agricultural products for export.
The Trade and Logistics Center is a special center for the provision of transport, logistics and processing and transit services for local and international manufacturers, carried out on a commercial basis by various operators. The developed TLC system shortens the supply chain, optimizes the flow of goods, and increases the maneuverability of supplies. TLC allows to significantly reduce the time interval between the purchase of raw materials and semi-finished products and the delivery of the finished product to the consumer with the lowest financial costs, contributes to a sharp reduction in inventories, accelerates the process of obtaining information, increases the level of service.
The maximum effect for the optimal organization of commodity flows can be achieved only with the correct integration of LCs into logistics networks.
At the moment, there are 12 logistics centers on the territory of the regions, including in the Chui region - 6 of which 3 logistics centers are temporarily not working, Issyk-Kul region - 1, Batken region-1, Osh region - 2, Talas region -1 and Jalal-Abad region - 4.
For the further development of the TLC on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic, it is planned to build 23 more logistics centers.Speaking about the prospects for the development of these TLCs, it should be noted that agriculture in Kyrgyzstan is one of the leading sectors of the economy. Over 65% of the population of Kyrgyzstan lives in rural areas, respectively, engaged in agriculture. In the total volume of the country's gross domestic product, the share of agriculture is a significant part - about 24%.
The creation and development of trade and logistics centers is one of the main and promising areas in agriculture, because this will help develop the country's export potential and cross-border trade.
By using trade and logistics centers for storing vegetables and fruits, using environmentally friendly and modern agricultural technologies, Kyrgyz rural producers can make optimal use of agricultural resources and form highly productive and environmentally sustainable agricultural systems.
The problem of the TLC's work is not in full force is not analyzing and forecasting the market and not taking into account priorities, i.e. farmers use the sown area inappropriately and suffer losses. Nobody develops recommendations for them on the cultivation of one or another of the types of crops. Also, due to the poor-quality operation of logistics centers, there is a problem with the sale of collected products. Most farmers sell their products to small wholesalers at low prices, who in turn sell themselves. Often, not every wholesale intermediary has the ability to export their goods. In this regard, he also bears losses.
To solve these problems, more and more trade and logistics centers are being opened in Kyrgyzstan. However, opening a logistics center is half the battle; it is also necessary to use the available resources correctly and interact with wholesale suppliers and farmers for the centers to operate efficiently.
According to the concept of development of the TLC in the Kyrgyz Republic, the centers are aimed at reducing the costs of agricultural producers associated with the storage, distribution and transportation of grown fruits and vegetables. With proper storage, optimal distribution and centralized procedures for customs clearance of exports, the price of products can actually decrease by an average of 30-50%. If we take into account that in the pricing chain from the producer to the final consumer, the losses of perishable fruits and vegetables and processed products reach 40%, then the construction and development of local or regional, as well as international TLCs will reduce these losses to 10-15% of all grown products.
The development of a TLC and a trade and transport system for the distribution of raw materials, products and foodstuffs will make it possible to comprehensively solve the following main tasks: - an increase in the income of the rural population and an improvement in the quality of life of agricultural producers; - increasing the level of employment of the rural population, preserving and creating new high-tech jobs:
- increasing the volume of supplies of agricultural products and meeting the population's demand for food in the winter and spring periods;
- export growth and effective use of transit potential, favorable geopolitical location of the country and advantages in the form of highways, railways and air corridors;
- providing the EAEU requirements for agricultural products of the Kyrgyz Republic and improving the veterinary, phytosanitary and sanitary situation.
In conclusion, it can also be noted that the full implementation of the goals for the construction and development of the TLC in the Kyrgyz Republic and the optimal integration of the LC into a single logistics network will lead to the following:
- The TLC will act as an information and service hub for the relevant participants; - consolidates small individual deliveries in large batches of standardized products with a single packaging for large-scale buyers; - supporting international trade and facilitating the movement of goods along international corridors through the modernization of logistics capabilities, interconnection of networks and multimodal (mixed) transport;
- export growth, increasing the efficiency of the agro-industrial complex and ensuring food security of the state;
- farmers will have the opportunity of guaranteed sales of their products in accordance with contractual obligations with the Center.
Thus, the creation of a TLC system for agricultural products improves the market infrastructure, encourages the development of the agricultural sector and an increase in the export potential of Kyrgyzstan.